Published on April 16, 2008
Chapter 13Pricing and Valuing Swaps: Chapter 13 Pricing and Valuing Swaps Pricing a Swap: Calculating the “fair fixed rate.” The idea: Calculate a fixed rate whereby market participants are indifferent between paying (receiving) this fixed rate over time or paying (receiving) a rate that can fluctuate over time. This is accomplished by setting the value of the swap equal to zero at origination. This is achieved when the present value of the two (expected) cash flow streams equal each other. Pricing and Valuing Swaps, II.: Pricing and Valuing Swaps, II. Valuing a Swap: Because a swap is equivalent to an asset and a liability, one can just value each of them to determine the value of the swap at any moment in time. At origination, a swap will have zero value. However, “off-market” swaps will not have a zero value at origination. Pricing a Plain Vanilla Interest Rate Swap, I.: Pricing a Plain Vanilla Interest Rate Swap, I. Define r(0,t) as the spot interest rate for a zero coupon bond maturing at time t. Define r(t1,t2) as the forward interest rate from time t1 until time t2. Assume the zero (spot) term structure is: r(0,1) = 5%, r(0,2) = 6%, r(0,3) = 7.5%. Therefore the forward rates are: fr(1,2) = 7.01%; and fr(2,3) = 10.564%. These forward rates should exist in the FRA and futures markets. Pricing a Plain Vanilla Interest Rate Swap, II.: Pricing a Plain Vanilla Interest Rate Swap, II. Now consider a swap with a tenor of 3 years. The floating rate is the one-year LIBOR. Settlement is yearly. What is the “fair” fixed rate? (I.e., what is the “price” of a swap under these conditions? Let the forward rates be the expected future spot rates. Arbitrarily set NP = $100. Assume (for convenience) that NP is exchanged. Thus, the “expected” floating rate cash flows are: CF1 = (0.05)(100) = 5 CF2 = (0.0701)(100) = 7.01 CF3 = (0.1056)(100) = 10.564 CF3 = 100 Pricing a Plain Vanilla Interest Rate Swap, III.: Pricing a Plain Vanilla Interest Rate Swap, III. Value these expected cash flows at the appropriate discount rates: the spot zero coupon interest rates: An important lesson: The the value of the floating rate side of the swap equals its NP, immediately after a floating payment has been made. Pricing a Plain Vanilla Interest Rate Swap, IV.: Pricing a Plain Vanilla Interest Rate Swap, IV. Because the value of a swap at origination is set to zero, the fixed rate payments must satisfy: Pricing a Plain Vanilla Interest Rate Swap, V.: Pricing a Plain Vanilla Interest Rate Swap, V. Thus, the swap dealer might quote 7.35% to a fixed-rate receiver, and 7.39% to a fixed-rate payer. Equivalently, if the yield on the most recently issued 3-year T-note is 7.05%, the quoted swap spreads would be 30 bp (bid) to 34 bp (asked). If interest rates change, the value of the swap will change. However, the valuation method remains the same. Valuing a Swap after Origination, I.: Valuing a Swap after Origination, I. If prices or rates subsequently change, the value of the swap will change. It will become an asset (+ value) for one party, and a liability (- value) for the other (the party who could default). But, the valuation method (compute the PV of the contracted fixed cash flows and of the expected variable cash flows) remains the same. Also, one can make use of the fact that PV(floating CF) = NP, immediately after a CF has been swapped. Valuing a Swap after Origination, II.: Valuing a Swap after Origination, II. Consider the previous plain vanilla interest rate swap example. Suppose that 3 months after the origination date, the yield curve flattens at 7%. The next floating cash flow is known to be 5. Immediately after this payment is paid, PV(remaining floating payments) = NP = 100. Valuing a Swap after Origination, III.: Valuing a Swap after Origination, III. The swap’s value is $2.88, per $100 of NP. (102.685 – 99.805). That is, one would have to pay $2.88 today to eliminate this swap. Who pays whom? Valuing a Currency Swap after Origination: Valuing a Currency Swap after Origination Consider the currency swap from Chapter 11, with an original tenor of 4 years. NP1 = $10MM, and NP2 = 1,040MM yen. r1 = 5%, and r2 = 1%. Suppose that 3 months after the swap origination, the Japanese interest rate rises to 2%, U.S. interest rates remain unchanged, and the spot exchange rate becomes ¥102/$. The value of the domestic payments remains at $10 million. Valuing a Swap after Origination, IV.: Valuing a Swap after Origination, IV. The value of the yen payments becomes: For the pay-$ / receive ¥ party, the value of the swap is -$143,500. Pricing a Commodity Swap, I.: Pricing a Commodity Swap, I. Here, we will find the fixed price for a fixed-for-floating gold price swap, assuming settlement will be every six months, beginning four months from today. Also, the term will be 22 months and the floating price will be the spot price of gold on each settlement date. Today, gold futures prices are: Months to Next Delivery Date Gold Futures Price 4 409.20 10 415.10 16 420.40 22 425.80 Pricing a Commodity Swap, II.: Pricing a Commodity Swap, II. Assume the appropriate zeros, with time expressed in years, are: r(0,0.33)=4.0%, r(0,0.83)=4.2%, r(0,1.33)=4.5%, r(0,1.83)=4.7% The swap consists of an asset and a liability. One side of the swap is an agreement to buy gold. Based on the gold futures ‘term structure’, the PV of these expected floating payments is: Pricing a Commodity Swap, III.: Pricing a Commodity Swap, III. The present value of the agreement to sell gold at the fixed price (F) is: Pricing a Commodity Swap, IV.: Pricing a Commodity Swap, IV. Thus, the swap dealer will quote to sell fixed at $417.46 plus a profit margin, and to buy fixed at $417.46 minus a profit margin.