Published on December 23, 2007
Digital National Security Archive (DNSA): Digital National Security Archive (DNSA) The documents that made U.S. foreign policy. Digital National Security Archive: Digital National Security Archive What is DNSA? New Collections Publication Process Using the Product FAQ Digital National Security Archive: Digital National Security Archive Published in collaboration with the National Security Archive in D.C. 55,000+ key declassified documents Over 420,000 searchable page images Covers more than 50 years of U.S. foreign policy. Digital National Security Archive: Digital National Security Archive 24 topical collections of declassified content, including: TERRORISM AND U.S. POLICY, 1968-2002 U.S. POLICY IN THE VIETNAM WAR, PART I, 1954-1968 DEATH SQUADS, GUERILLA WAR, COVERT OPERATIONS, AND GENOCIDE: GUATEMALA AND THE UNITED STATES, 1954-1999. What is the National Security Archive?: What is the National Security Archive? World's largest non-governmental library of declassified documents An aggressive user of the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) An award-winning non-profit: 1999 George Polk Award: “for piercing self-serving veils of government secrecy, guiding journalists in search for the truth and informing us all.” In December 2001, the National Journal listed the Archive’s home site as one of the top five online resources on terrorism. National Security Archive: National Security Archive MISSION To open secret government files To provide context and access to previously unavailable primary sources. To connect scholars and general public with comprehensive collections of documents on topics of greatest interest DNSA 2005 Collections: Afghanistan 1973-1990 The Berlin Crisis 1958-1962 China and the U.S. 1960-1998 The Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 El Salvador 1977-1984 El Salvador 1980-1994 Guatemala and the U.S. 1954-1999 Iran 1977-1980 The Iran Contra Affair Iraqgate 1980-1994 Japan and the U.S. 1960-1976 Nicaragua 1978-1990 The Philippines, 1965-1986 Presidential Directives (Truman – Clinton) Presidential Directives (Truman – G.W. Bush) South Africa, 1962-1989 The Soviet Estimate 1947-1991 Terrorism and U.S. Policy, 1968-2002 U.S. Espionage and Intelligence The U.S. Intelligence Community 1947-1989 U.S. Nuclear History 1955-1968 Military Uses of Space, 1945-1991 Nuclear Non-Proliferation, 1945-1990 U.S. Policy in the Vietnam War, 1954-1968 DNSA 2005 Collections DNSA Highlights:TERRORISM AND U.S. POLICY: DNSA Highlights: TERRORISM AND U.S. POLICY Principal emphasis: International terrorism in Middle East and Southwest Asia Impetus: 9/11 terrorist attacks Contains: 1,500+ documents from White House, FBI, CIA, and more. Coverage: Begins with first politically-motivated hijacking + hostage-taking of El Al jet in 1968 through dozens of incidents over more than 3 decades DNSA Highlights:TERRORISM AND U.S. POLICY: DNSA Highlights: TERRORISM AND U.S. POLICY Materials released as result of lawsuit by former AP reporter and hostage Terry Anderson DNSA Highlights:TERRORISM AND U.S. POLICY: DNSA Highlights: TERRORISM AND U.S. POLICY Prepared by Federal Research Division of Library of Congress 09/1999 DNSA Highlights:TERRORISM AND U.S. POLICY: DNSA Highlights: TERRORISM AND U.S. POLICY DNSA Highlights: U.S. Policy in the Vietnam War, 1954-1968: DNSA Highlights: U.S. Policy in the Vietnam War, 1954-1968 Principal emphasis: Period of the Vietnam War between 1961 and 1968 (part 1 of 2 collections) Contains: 1,576 documents originating from U.S. embassy in Vietnam, Dept. of State, CIA, Dept. of Defense, and more. Value: Documents the deadliest conflict in modern U.S. history prior to the current war against terrorism. Slide13: US Policy in the Vietnam War, 1954-1968 Top Secret memo from Chairman of Joint Chiefs of Staff to Sec. of Defense McNamara, October 14, 1966 . Slide14: US Policy in the Vietnam War, 1954-1968 Secret cable sent from U.S. Ambassador to U.N. to Dept. of State, 1961 Digital National Security Archive (DNSA): Digital National Security Archive (DNSA) What Makes DNSA Different? What makes DNSA Different?: What makes DNSA Different? EACH COLLECTION IS SUPPORTED BY: Full-page images of all primary documents What makes DNSA Different?: What makes DNSA Different? EACH COLLECTION IS SUPPORTED BY: In-depth introduction and analytical essay by experts What makes DNSA Different?: What makes DNSA Different? EACH COLLECTION IS SUPPORTED BY: Searchable indexed chronology detailing key political events China and the U.S. What makes DNSA Different?: What makes DNSA Different? EACH COLLECTION IS SUPPORTED BY: Searchable indexed glossary of people, terms, and events What makes DNSA Different?: What makes DNSA Different? EACH COLLECTION IS SUPPORTED BY: Bibliography with searchable indexed citations. DNSA: Authoritative Sourcing: Source documents include: Top-secret presidential directives Internal working papers Confidential cables Eyes-only memos Single-copy briefing books Codeword intelligence reports Sensitive meeting minutes Email messages preserved from deletion DNSA: Authoritative Sourcing Includes documents shredded at U.S. Embassy in Tehran and reassembled by Iranian militants. DNSA Sample Documents: DNSA Sample Documents Digital National Security Archive (DNSA): Digital National Security Archive (DNSA) Publication Process DNSA: Content Selection: DNSA: Content Selection The National Security Archive: TARGETS key documents centered around an event or issue. ORGANIZES expert editors and scholars to compile collections NOTE: Many editors were policy makers themselves, and include Secretary of Defense Robert S. McNamara, Undersecretary of State George Ball, and Special Assistant to the President Arthur Schlesinger, Jr. FILES hundreds of FOIA requests to retrieve these documents—sometimes going to court to declassify them! DNSA: Goes the Distance: DNSA: Goes the Distance Carter Library in Georgia Bush Library in Texas Communist Party Archives from former East Germany and in Russia DNSA: Controlled-Vocabulary Indexing: Scholars in foreign policy at the Archive index and summarize all documents, capturing 20 fields including: Subject People named Classification Creator Recipient Abstract Etc. DNSA: Controlled-Vocabulary Indexing Indexing lists people who have served under several titles (Secretary of State, Ambassador, etc.) Indexing picks up alternative spellings of names in Arabic, Chinese, Russian, etc. PQ Distributes DNSA: PQ Distributes DNSA Each collection is published in microfiche with a printed guide. Fiche collections are scanned to provide full image access to documents in DNSA. Chronologies, essays, glossaries, bibliographies, photographs and other supporting material are searchable in DNSA. Updated with new collections annually. DNSA is available by permanent access. Digital National Security Archive (DNSA): Digital National Security Archive (DNSA) Using the Product Slide29: Search any combination of 11 index fields, including subject, classification, date, creator, and recipient. Use KEYWORD to search for key terms and people. Use CLASSIFICATION to search by level of government classification. Use DOCUMENT TYPE to search by type of record, such as memo, email, telegram, minutes and more. Use COLLECTION field to search for documents in a specific topic collection (s) Slide30: Searching “Iraq AND Bush” in KEYWORD field yields 42 records from different collections. Slide31: Click a title to go to the full citation and document image. Slide32: Hyperlinked names link to glossary definitions. Click the title for the full image. Hyperlinked subjects find other documents in DNSA with that subject. Slide33: View documents in .GIF format (small or large) or download in PDF. Slide34: Collections: Find in-depth analysis and research notes on all 20 collections in DNSA. Slide35: Collections: Cuban Missile Crisis includes an essay, photos, and background on the documents. Slide36: Chronology: Search for events within a single collection or in a date range across all collections. Slide37: Chronology results for Iraq-Gate details relevant events regarding Iraq and the U.S.’s relationship with this country across administrations. Slide38: Glossary: In-depth definitions explain people and terms in the context of the events in which they were involved. Slide39: Bibliography: Find hundreds of additional references for all 22 collections. Fully searchable. Digital National Security Archive (DNSA): Digital National Security Archive (DNSA) Frequently Asked Questions Why Use DNSA?: Why Use DNSA? DNSA AIDS RESEARCH IN… U.S. foreign policy worldwide from the Cold War to today, including positions towards Iraq, Afghanistan, and international terrorism. The presidency and presidential policymaking Cabinet-level government and decision-making Executive Branch-congressional relations The role of Congress in foreign policy National security policy formation Intelligence studies U.S.-Soviet relations International relations U.S. nuclear policy and much more… “It is important to my work, as a scholar, that I have access to actual government documents… Such documents allow me to have a more accurate understanding of events. … The National Security Archive is providing an invaluable service.“ --Rachel M. McCleary, Ph.D., Lecturer, Department of Politics, Princeton University How is DNSA Different?: How is DNSA Different? Unlike other declassified document resources: The National Security Archive is not affiliated with the government Documents are targeted by experts for acquisition FOIA is aggressively used, lawsuits filed if necessary for more complete content and for timely release Documents supplemented by explanatory essays, chronologies, glossaries, and useful bibliographies. DNSA: Common Questions: DNSA: Common Questions Q: Isn’t the material in DNSA available on the Internet for free? A: NO. The National Security Archive works for years to declassify these documents through FOIA (sometimes going to court!). These documents are identified as the “cream of the crop” on the topics and many are exclusive to DNSA. DNSA Upcoming Collections: U.S. Policy in the Vietnam War, Part II: 1969-1975 Japan and the United States: Diplomatic, Security, and Economic Relations, Part II, 1977-1992 The Kissinger Transcripts: A Verbatim Record of U.S. Diplomacy, 1969-1977 DNSA Upcoming Collections DNSA: Summary: DNSA: Summary Essential primary documents (full-page images!) indexed by experts and targeted by expert researchers, using explicit selection criteria Editorial board of scholars and former officials for each subject collection Detailed authority-controlled indexing = precise searching Chronologies, essays, glossary, and bibliographies prepared by foreign policy experts add context Steady growth, with new topical collections added annually. A collection of the primary documents that shaped U.S. foreign policy in the 20th Century and into the 21st Century! DNSA: What Are The Experts Saying?: DNSA: What Are The Experts Saying? “Since 1985, the non-profit National Security Archive has been a FOILer’s best friend [and become] a one-stop shopping center for declassifying and retrieving important documents, suing to preserve such government data as e-mail messages, pressing for appropriate declassification of files, and sponsoring research that has unearthed major revelations.” –1999 George Polk Award “Unparalleled in extent, and better organized and indexed than such materials anywhere else… The combination of Freedom of Information Act materials with other documents at [the] Archive permits me to put together a picture of recent U.S. policies… that I could not hope to duplicate elsewhere.” –Nikki Keddie, Professor of History, UCLA DNSA: The Reviews are In!: DNSA: The Reviews are In! “An indispensable resource not only for scholars… but for anyone concerned about regional conflicts, the Reagan doctrine, and the origins of the post-Cold-War world.”—Dr. Barnett R. Rubin, Associate Professor of Political Science, Columbia University “Anyone interested in one of the most dangerous crises of the Cold War era must take this collection into account. No research library can afford to be without it.” –Martin J. Hillenbrand, Professor of Political Science, University of Georgia; former ambassador to West Germany Thank You.: Thank You.