Published on January 16, 2008
Slide1: Annex VI Draft Protocol for the Protection of the Black Sea Against Pollution from Land-Based Sources and Activities Annexes National Workshop for Ukraine in Support of Capacity-Building of National and Local Authorities Responsible for the Implementation of the LBSA Protocol to the Bucharest Convention Odessa, 1-2 March 2007 Slide2: Annex I Activities and Substances of Concern This Annex contains elements, which shall be taken into account by the Contracting Parties in the preparation of action plans, programmes and measures for the reduction, control and elimination of pollution from land-based sources and activities referred to in article 3 of this Protocol. Slide3: Action plans, programmes and measures shall aim to cover the activities listed in section A and also cover the groups of substances enumerated in section C, selected on the basis of the characteristics listed in section B, taking into account the provisions of the GPA. Priorities for action should be established by the Contracting Parties by assessing the relative importance of impacts upon public health, coastal and marine resources, ecosystem health, socio-economic benefits, including cultural values. Slide4: A. Activities The following activities (not listed in order of priority) shall be primarily considered when setting priorities for the preparation of action plans, programmes and measures: Agriculture; Animal husbandry; Aquaculture; Cement production; Disposal of sewage sludge; Dredging; Electronic industry; Energy production; Fertilizer production; Food processing; Forestry; Harbour operations; Incineration of waste and management of its residues; Management of municipal solid waste; Slide5: Metal industry; Mining; Other sectors of the inorganic chemical industry; Other sectors of the organic chemical industry; Paper and paper-pulp industry; Petroleum refining; Petroleum pipelines; Pharmaceutical industry; Production and formulation of biocides; Recycling industry; Shipbuilding and repairing industry; Tanning industry; Textile industry; Tourism; Transport; Waste (domestic and industrial) treatment, disposal and management industry; and Works which cause physical alteration of the natural state of the coastline or destruction of habitats. Slide6: Categories of Substances In the preparation of action plans, programmes and measures CPs shall use as guidance the following categories of substances identified on the basis of their hazardous or otherwise harmful characteristics: 1. Organohalogen compounds and substances, which may form such compounds in the marine environment. Priority will be given to Aldrin, Chlordane, DDT, Dieldrin, Dioxins and Furans, Endrin, Heptachlor, Hexachlorobenzene, Mirex, PCBs and Toxaphene; 2. Organophosphorus compounds and substances which may form such compounds in the marine environment; 3. Organotin compounds and substances which may form such compounds in the marine environment; 4. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; 5. Heavy metals and their compounds; Used lubricating oils; 7. Radioactive substances; 8. Biocides and their derivatives; Slide7: Pathogenic microorganisms; 10. Endocrine disrupting substances; Crude oils and hydrocarbons of petroleum origin; 12. Cyanides and fluorides; 13. Non-biodegradable detergents and other non-biodegradable surface-active substances; 14. Nitrogen and phosphorus compounds and other substances which may cause eutrophication; 15. Litter (any persistent manufactured or processed solid material which is discarded, disposed of, or abandoned in the marine environment and coastal areas); 16. Thermal emissions; 17. Acid or alkaline compounds which may impair the quality of water; 18. Non-toxic substances that have an adverse effect on the oxygen content of the marine environment; 19. Non-toxic substances that may interfere with any legitimate use of the sea; 20. Non-toxic substances that may have adverse effects on the physical or chemical characteristics of seawater. Slide8: Characteristics of Substances In the preparation of action plans, programmes and measures the Contracting Parties shall take into account, where relevant, the following characteristics and factors: 1. Persistence; 2. Toxicity or other noxious properties (e.g. carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, teratogenicity); 3. Bioaccumulation; 4. Radioactivity; 5. Ratio between observed concentrations and no observed effect concentrations (NOEC); 6. Potential for causing eutrophication; Slide9: 7. Health effects and risks; 8. Transboundary significance; 9. Risk of undesirable changes in the marine ecosystem and irreversibility or durability of effects; 10. Negative impacts on marine life and the sustainable use of living resources or another legitimate uses of the sea; 11. Effects on the taste or smell of marine products intended for human consumption; 12. Effects on the smell, colour, transparency or other characteristics of seawater ; and 13. Distribution pattern (i.e. quantities involved, use patterns and probability of reaching the marine environment). Slide10: Annex II Diffuse Sources of Pollution from Agriculture and Forestry A. Definitions For the purposes of this Annex: "Diffuse sources of pollution from agriculture" means diffuse sources of pollution originating from the cultivation of crops and rearing of domesticated animals, excluding intensive animal rearing operations that would otherwise be defined as point sources; “Diffuse sources of pollution from forestry” means diffuse sources of pollution originating from forestry activities Slide11: B. Plans for the Prevention, Reduction and Control of Diffuse Sources of Pollution from Agriculture and Forestry Each Contracting Party shall no later than five years after this Protocol enters into force, develop policies and plans, and establish legal and economic mechanisms for the prevention, reduction and control of pollution of the Black Sea from diffuse sources of pollution from agriculture and forestry that may adversely affect the marine environment or coastal areas of the Black Sea. Such policies, plans and mechanisms shall address, in particular, diffuse sources of pollution containing nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus), pesticides, sediments and pathogens. Slide12: Plans should include inter alia the following elements: An assessment and evaluation of diffuse sources of pollution from agriculture and forestry that may adversely affect the marine environment and coastal areas of the Black Sea, including: An estimation of loadings that may adversely affect the marine environment and coastal areas of the Black Sea; An identification of associated environmental impacts and potential risks to human health; An evaluation of the existing administrative framework to manage diffuse sources of pollution from agriculture and forestry; An evaluation of existing best management practices and their effectiveness; and The establishment of monitoring programmes. Slide13: Policy, legislative and economic measures including: An assessment and evaluation of adequacy of plans, policies and legal mechanisms directed toward the management of diffuse sources of pollution from agriculture and forestry and the development of a plan to implement such modifications as may be necessary to achieve best management practices; and The development and promotion of economic and non-economic incentive programmes to increase the use of best management practices to prevent, reduce and control pollution of the marine environment and coastal areas of the Black Sea from diffuse sources of pollution from agriculture and forestry. Slide14: C. Reporting Each Contracting Party shall report on its plans for prevention, reduction and control of pollution of the marine environment and coastal areas of the Black Sea from diffuse sources of pollution from agriculture and forestry in accordance with Article 18 of this Protocol. Slide15: Annex III Pollution Transported through the Atmosphere (Article 5.c.) This Protocol shall apply to polluting emissions into the atmosphere under the following conditions: The discharged substance is or could be transported to the marine environment and coastal areas of the Black Sea under prevailing meteorological conditions; The input of the substance into the marine environment and coastal areas of the Black Sea is hazardous in relation to the quantities of the same substance reaching the marine environment and coastal areas by other means. This Protocol shall also apply to polluting emissions into the atmosphere affecting the marine environment and coastal areas of the Black Sea from land-based sources and activities within the territories of the Contracting Parties and from fixed man-made offshore structures under their jurisdiction. Slide16: In the case of pollution of the marine environment and coastal areas of the Black Sea from land-based sources and activities through the atmosphere, the provisions of articles 4 and 7 of this Protocol shall apply progressively to appropriate activities and substances listed in Annex I to this Protocol as will be agreed by the Contracting Parties. Subject to the conditions specified in paragraph 1 above, the provisions of Art. 6 (para.1) of this Protocol shall also apply to: Emissions - quantity and rate - of substances emitted to the atmosphere, on the basis of the information available to the Contracting Parties concerning the location and distribution of air pollution sources; The content of substances of concern in fuel and raw materials; The efficiency of air pollution control technologies and more efficient manufacturing and fuel burning processes; and The application of substances of concern in agriculture and forestry. Slide17: The provisions of Annex IV to this Protocol shall apply to pollution through the atmosphere whenever appropriate. Air pollution monitoring and modelling using acceptable common emission factors and methodologies shall be carried out in the assessment of atmospheric deposition of substances, as well as in the compilation of inventories of quantities and rates of pollutant emissions into the atmosphere from land-based sources. 6. All Articles of this Protocol shall apply equally to pollution from land-based sources and activities transported through the atmosphere wherever applicable and subject to the conditions specified in paragraph 1 above. Slide18: Annex IV Authorisation for Emissions When authorising emissions (Article 7) containing substances listed in Annex I, the following factors should be considered: Characteristics and Composition of the Emissions 1. Type and size of point or diffuse source (e.g. industrial process). 2. Type of emissions (e.g. origin, average composition). 3. State of waste (e.g. solid, liquid, sludge, slurry). Total amount (volume discharged, e.g. per year). Discharge pattern (continuous, intermittent, seasonally variable, etc.). 6. Concentrations of substances listed in Annex I. 7. Physical, chemical and biochemical properties of the waste emissions. Slide19: Characteristics of Discharge Constituents with Respect to their Harmfulness Persistence (physical, chemical, biological) in the marine environment. Toxicity and other harmful effects. Accumulation in biological materials or sediments. Biochemical transformation producing harmful compounds. Adverse effects on the oxygen content and balance. Susceptibility to physical, chemical and biochemical changes and interaction in the aquatic environment with other seawater constituents which may produce harmful biological or other effects on any of the uses listed in section F below.\ All other characteristics as listed in Annex I, section C. Slide20: C. Characteristics of Discharge Site and Receiving Environment Hydrographic, meteorological, geological and topographical characteristics of the coastal area. Location and type of the discharge (outfall, canal outlet, etc.) and its relation to other areas (such as amenity areas, spawning, nursery, and fishing areas, shellfish grounds) and other emissions. Initial dilution achieved at the point of discharge into the receiving environment. Dispersion characteristics such as effects of currents, tides and wind on horizontal transport and vertical mixing. Receiving water characteristics with respect to physical, chemical, biological and ecological conditions in the discharge area. Capacity of the receiving marine environment to receive waste emissions without undesirable effects. Slide21: D. Characteristics of the Activity or Source Category Performance of existing technologies and management practices, including indigenous technologies and management practices; Age of facilities, as appropriate; and Existing economic, social and cultural characteristics. E. Alternative Production, Waste Treatment Technologies or Management Practices Recycling, recovery and reuse opportunities; Less hazardous or non-hazardous raw material substitution; Substitution of cleaner alternative activities or products; Low-waste or clean technologies or processes; and Alternative disposal activities (for example on land disposal). Slide22: Potential Impairment of Marine Ecosystems and Seawater Uses Effects on human health through pollution impact on: Edible marine organisms; Bathing waters; and Aesthetics. Effects on marine and coastal ecosystems, in particular living resources, endangered species and critical habitats. Slide23: Annex V Best Available Techniques (BAT) and Best Environmental Practice (BEP) In accordance with Articles 5, 7, 8, and 9 of this Protocol the Contracting Parties shall utilize or promote the application of BAT and BEP. Best Available Techniques BAT means the latest stage of development of processes, facilities or methods of operation, which indicate the practical suitability of a particular measure for limiting emissions and waste. Slide24: In applying BAT special consideration shall be given to: Comparable processes, facilities or methods of operation which have recently been successfully tried out; Technological advances and changes in scientific knowledge and understanding; The economic feasibility of such techniques; Time limits for installation in both new and existing plants; The nature and volume of the emissions and emissions concerned; and The precautionary principle. What is "BAT" for a particular process will change with time in the light of technological advances, economic and social factors, as well as changes in scientific knowledge and understanding. Slide25: In making a selection following should be considered: The provision of information and education to the public and to users about the environmental consequences of choice of particular activities and choice of products, their use and ultimate disposal; The development and application of Codes of Good Environmental Practice which cover all aspects of the activity in the product's life; The mandatory application of labels informing users of environmental risks related to a product, its use and ultimate disposal; Saving of resources, including energy; Making collection and disposal systems available to the public; Avoiding the use of hazardous substances or products and the generation of hazardous waste; Slide26: Recycling, recovery and re-use; The application of economic instruments to activities, products or groups of products; Establishing a system of licensing, involving a range of restrictions or a ban. 3. Particular consideration should be given to: The environmental hazard of the product and its production, use and ultimate disposal; The substitution by less polluting activities or substances; The scale of use; The potential environmental benefit or penalty of substitute materials or activities; Advances and changes in scientific knowledge and understanding; Time limits for implementation; Social and economic implications; and Precautionary principle.