Published on January 9, 2008
NASA’sExplorationArchitecture: NASA’s Exploration Architecture Doug Cooke Deputy Associate Administrator Exploration Systems Mission Directorate October 4, 2005 A Bold Vision for Space Exploration: A Bold Vision for Space Exploration Complete the International Space Station Safely fly the Space Shuttle until 2010 Develop and fly the Crew Exploration Vehicle no later than 2014 (goal of 2012) Return to the Moon no later than 2020 Extend human presence across the solar system and beyond Implement a sustained and affordable human and robotic program Develop supporting innovative technologies, knowledge, and infrastructures Promote international and commercial participation in exploration “It is time for America to take the next steps. Today I announce a new plan to explore space and extend a human presence across our solar system. We will begin the effort quickly, using existing programs and personnel. We’ll make steady progress – one mission, one voyage, one landing at a time” President George W. Bush – January 14, 2004 The Exploration Roadmap: The Exploration Roadmap 1st Human CEV Flight 7th Human Lunar Landing Lunar Outpost Buildup Mars Development The Moon - the 1st Step to Mars and Beyond….: The Moon - the 1st Step to Mars and Beyond…. Gaining significant experience in operating away from Earth’s environment Space will no longer be a destination visited briefly and tentatively “Living off the land” Human support systems Developing technologies needed for opening the space frontier Crew and cargo launch vehicles (125 metric ton class) Earth ascent/entry system – Crew Exploration Vehicle Mars ascent and descent propulsion systems (liquid oxygen / liquid methane) Conduct fundamental science Astronomy, physics, astrobiology, historical geology, exobiology Next Step in Fulfilling Our Destiny As Explorers Possible South Pole Outpost: Possible South Pole Outpost The lunar South Pole is a likely candidate for outpost site Elevated quantities of hydrogen, possibly water ice (e.g., Shackelton Crater) Several areas with greater than 80% sunlight and less extreme temperatures Incremental deployment of outpost – one mission at a time Power system Communications/navigation Rovers Habitat and laboratory modules Crew Exploration Vehicle: Crew Exploration Vehicle A blunt body capsule is the safest, most affordable and fastest approach Separate Crew Module and Service Module configuration Vehicle designed for lunar missions with 4 crew Can accommodate up to 6 crew for Mars and Space Station missions System also has the potential to deliver pressurized and unpressurized cargo to the Space Station if needed 5.5 meter diameter capsule scaled from Apollo Significant increase in volume Reduced development time and risk Reduced reentry loads, increased landing stability, and better crew visibility Launch Systems: Rely on the EELV fleet for scientific and International Space Station cargo missions in the 5-20 metric ton range to the maximum extent possible. New, commercially-developed launch capabilities will be allowed to compete. The safest, most reliable, and most affordable way to meet exploration launch requirements is a 25 metric ton system derived from the current Shuttle solid rocket booster and liquid propulsion system. Capitalizes on human-rated systems and 85% of existing facilities. The most straightforward growth path to later exploration super heavy launch. Ensures national capability to produce solid propellant fuel at current levels. 125 metric ton lift capacity required to minimize on-orbit assembly and complexity – increasing mission success A clean-sheet-of-paper design incurs high expense and risk. EELV-based designs require development of two core stages plus boosters - increasing cost and decreasing safety/reliability. Current Shuttle lifts 100 metric tons to orbit on every launch. 20 metric tons is payload/cargo; remainder is Shuttle Orbiter. Evolution to exploration heavy lift is straightforward. Launch Systems Earth Departure Stage: Earth Departure Stage Liquid oxygen / liquid hydrogen stage Heritage from the Shuttle External Tank J-2S engines (or equivalent) Stage ignites suborbitally and delivers the lander to low-Earth orbit Can also be used as an upper stage for low-Earth orbit missions The CEV later docks with this system and the Earth departure stage performs a trans-lunar injection burn The Earth departure stage is then discarded Lunar Lander and Ascent Stage: Lunar Lander and Ascent Stage 4 crew to and from the surface Seven days on the surface Lunar outpost crew rotation Global access capability Anytime return to Earth Capability to land 21 metric tons of dedicated cargo Airlock for surface activities Descent stage: Liquid oxygen / liquid hydrogen propulsion Ascent stage: Liquid oxygen / liquid methane propulsion Our Destiny is to Explore!: Our Destiny is to Explore! The goals of our future space flight program must be worthy of the expense, difficulty and risks which are inherent to it. We need to build beyond our current capability to ferry astronauts and cargo to low Earth orbit. Our steps should be evolutionary, incremental, and cumulative. To reach for Mars and beyond we must first reach for the moon. A committed and long term lunar effort is needed, and we need to begin that investment now! Slide11: The United States must lead the expansion of the space frontier to continue to maintain our world leadership role, and for the security of the nation. Great nations do great and ambitious things. We must continue to be great.