Published on July 9, 2015
1. World Pork Expo National Pork Producers Council Des Moines Iowa June 4, 2015 Richard Raymond M.D.
2. Staphylococcal aureus was discovered in 1880 Penicillin was discovered in 1928 by Fleming and first mass produced in 1944 for the Army pre- Normandy By 1950, 40% of hospital isolates of S aureus were Penicillin resistant By 1960, 80% of S aureus isolates were resistant Methicillin was introduced in 1959 to treat Penicillin resistant Staph infections MRSA was first reported in 1960 33% of those in this room have S aureus in their nasal cavities—1.5% have MRSA
3. For four decades MRSA was only acquired in hospital settings Beginning around 2000 more ill patients were now treated as outpatients and MRSA became community acquired Hospital acquired MRSA is down 54% from 2005- 2011 (CDC. JAMA 11/25/13 Vol 173, No. 21) Community acquired is down 27.7%2005-2011 80% of MRSA cases involve health care facilities CDC: “Community acquired MRSA is primarily limited to skin infections with no long term care implications.
4. Why not? We share an environmental ecosystem, but do they give it to us, or did we give it to them? Even if some are colonized by working with animals, no one in the US has ever been known to become ill with livestock-acquired MRSA 75% of all new human infections are zoonotic, coming from animal contact. Infections like monkey pox, West Nile Virus, Hanta virus, Avian Influenza, SARS etc. This is not a new phenomenon!!!!
5. Some say Strep Throat will once again kill children because of the use of penicillin in animals, yet plain old penicillin is still the drug of choice for Strep Throat, Syphillis and many other gram positive infections. Resistance has not developed in these bacteria for reasons unknown to our top scientists despite penicillin being used for over 60 years to treat these infections
6. “80 % off all antibiotics sold in this country are sold for use in perfectly healthy animals raised for food” Congresswoman slaughter “In the United States, antimicrobial use in food animals is estimated to account for ~80% of the nation’s annual antimicrobial consumption.” Princeton University et al report titled Global trends in antimicrobial use in food animals.”
8. FDA 2013 report on all “antibiotics sold or distributed for use in food-producing animals”: Ionophores 30%(not used in human medicine at all) are antiparasitics Not Individually Reported (NIR) 8.0% (Almost none used in human medicine) Tetracyclines 44% (71% of Medically Important antibiotics used in animal ag)
9. 1. Penicillin (Augmentin) Kg share = 44.0% 2. Cephalosporins (Keflex) Kg share = 15.1% 3. Sulfa and TMP (Bactrim) Kg share = 14.2% 4. Quinolones (Cipro) Kg share = 9.2% 5. Macrolides (Z-Pak) Kg share = 5.3% These top five classes represent 88 % of all antibiotics sold for use in human medicine. Source: FDA letter to Congresswoman Slaughter
10. Two of the top four classes of antibiotics of critical importance in human health are rarely sold for use in animals: 1. Cephalosporins: 0.2% of all sales for use in animals 2. Flouroquinolones: Less than 0.1% of all sales for use in animals These two comprise 25% of human abx
11. Aminoglycosides 3% Lincosamides 3% Macrolides 6% Penicillins 9% Sulfas 4% Tetracyclines 71%
12. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Animal Human 82% of the total volume sold for animals 68% of the total volume sold for humans Animal vs. Human Use Little Overlap
13. Yellow—animal sales Green—human sales 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Sulfa Macrolides Series 1 Series 2
14. Over all sales up 1 % and the sky is falling, BUT Macrolides Down 9% Penicillin Down 14% Sulfa Down 22% Cephalosporins and Flouroquinolones too low to even mention Tetracyclines Up 9% Ionophores Up 10% from 2009-2013 (never used in human health)
15. Antibiotic resistant bacteria are increasing and are deadly: FACT Chipotle and Chik-Fil-A’s announcements (What do they know that I don’t?) McDonald’s and Costco’s recent announcements of going to meat and/or poultry that will be raised without antibiotics used in human medicine (not trying to explain ionophores is smart business) Perdue’s recent move to antibiotic free
16. Largest city school boards’ announcement of going to antibiotic free chicken, even if the product is not available and at what cost? City councils of large metropolitan areas passing resolutions in favor of antibiotic free animal husbandry (are they truly reflecting their constituent’s thoughts and protecting them, or putting meat and poultry prices out of their budget ranges?)
17. Reality: Most superbug, antibiotic resistant infections are acquired in a medical setting. Others, like Multi-Drug Resistant (MDR) Salmonella, may have connections with food consumption and antibiotic use in animals but these are not necessarily superbugs. Perception: the Foster Farms related outbreak was more serious because of antibiotic resistant Salmonella. Reality: The drugs of choice to treat Salmonellosis remained effective.
18. President’s Council on Scientific and Technology (PCAST) September 2014 National Action Plan for Combating Antibiotic- Resistant Bacteria March 2015 National Institute for Animal Agriculture’s White Papers following their third and fourth conferences on antibiotic use in animals and its interface with human medicine in November of 2013 and 2014
19. 1. Slow the emergence of resistant bacteria and prevent the spread of resistant infections 2. Strengthen the national “One-Health” surveillance efforts 3. Advance the development and use of rapid and innovative diagnostic tests 4. Accelerate basic and applied research and development 5. Improve international collaboration and capacities.
20. Princeton Study July 2014 Antibiotic use in human health, world wide, up 36% from 2000-2010 BRICS countries account for 76% of the increase Princeton Report on Global Trends in antimicrobial use in Food Animals Antibiotic consumption by animals “will rise by 67% by 2030 and nearly double in Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa” (They also used the 80% in animals raised for food number)
21. The issue shouldn’t be the amount or frequency of antimicrobials used. The real issue: IS THERE A SIGNIFICANT IMPACT ON HUMAN HEALTH?
22. What people think they want is producing change Large retailers and restaurants are responding to what people think they want, and can afford When my surgeon operates on me, I want him or her to have a very clear diagnosis based on facts before the incision is made We don’t have a very clear understanding of how resistance to antibiotics develops, or what the interface between human, animal and environmental health even is.
23. Statement from Ron DeHaven, DVM and Executive Vice President and CEO of the American Veterinary Medical Association: “When policy regarding the judicious and safe use of antibiotics in food producing animals is being debated and formulated, it should be based on biological science, not political science.”