Dr. Tim Safranski - Mitigating Impact of Seasonal Loss of Productivity

Information about Dr. Tim Safranski - Mitigating Impact of Seasonal Loss of Productivity

Published on July 8, 2015

Author: trufflemedia

Source: slideshare.net

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1. Mitigating Impact of Seasonal Loss of Productivity Dr. Tim Safranski University of Missouri (573) 884-7994 [email protected] P.O.R.K. Academy World Pork Expo June 4th , 2015

2. Quantifying the Heat Stress Problem • $300 million annually in U.S. – St. Pierre et al., 2003 • “Seasonality costs me more than PRRS” – Steve Pollman, Director of Operations Murphy-Brown Western Operations • Wild pig – seasonal breeder – temperature – photoperiod – other 2

3. Describing the Heat Stress Problem 3

4. Thermoregulatory Mechanism of Testis Rectal temperature: 38.24° C (Boar 1) 37.75° C (Boar 2) Testis is 5 to 6°F cooler Levis 1. Scrotum 2. Pampiniform plexus 3. Cremaster muscle 4. Tunica dartos muscle Pampiniform plexus: Convolution of veins and arteries for cooling blood entering testis

5. Effect of season on percent discarded ejaculates Stud2 Winter (%) Summer (%) A 6.7 + 1.0 21.4 + 3.4 B 8.2 + 1.3 10.7 + 2.8 C 2.4 + 0.9 18.8 + 3.7 D 4.5 + 1.1 35.4 + 8.9 1 % motility or % normal morphology was < 70% in ejaculates not used. (Flowers,NCR-57,2002, unpublished) 2 means are from ~ 2000 ejaculates / stud / season.

6. Describing the Heat Stress Problem 6

7. Describing the Heat Stress Problem – delayed puberty – weaker, shorter and more irregular cycles – increased embryonic death (if early gestation) – increased stillborns (if late gestation) – increased aborts and NIP – decreased lactation feed intake • decreased piglet growth • increased weight loss • prolonged WEI – increased sow mortality – I’m running out of room…

8. Quantifying the Heat Stress Problem 8 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 12/14/05 2/2/06 3/24/06 5/13/06 7/2/06 8/21/06 10/10/06 11/29/06 1/18/07 Date AnnualizedMortalityRate(%) USDA data courtesy Steve Meyer

9. Influence of season on 28-day RTUInfluence of season on 28-day RTU pregnancy diagnosispregnancy diagnosis NCR-57, 2002NCR-57, 2002 56 herds Similar management, facilities, feed & genotype

10. Daily temperature cycles HS TN

11. Brody Environmental Center TN HS TN HS Gestation and Breeding Farrowing

12. RR RT ST Body weight gain

13. Least squares means treatments denoted as TN-TN-TN, TN-HS-TN, HS-TN-HS or HS-HS- HS where the series of abbreviations represent the environmental temperature (TN; 18 to 20o C) or heat stress (HS; 24 to 30o C) that the sow experienced in gestation-farrowing- breeding. Trt P < 0.001 Group NS Trt*group NS Day P < 0.001 Trt*day P < 0.001

14. Rectal temperatures Amanda Minton

15. Whitney Martin

16. Trt P<0.036 Group NS Trt*group NS Day P<0.001 Trt*day p < 0.001

17. Trt NS Sex NS Trt*sex NS Trt P<0.001 Sex P<0.044 Trt*sex NS Trt P<0.001 Sex P<0.020 Trt*sex NS a

18. RR RT ST FI IGF-I Milk Piglet growth (-) Energy balance Follicle growth Body weight loss

19. Safranski et al., 2013

20. Does heat stress in utero affect piglets later in life? 28-34°C18-22°C GTN G GTN GHS TN HS

21. IUTN IUHS ProteinAccretion(g/d) 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 A P < 0.01 IUTN IUHS Adipose:Protein(g/g) 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 C P < 0.01 IUTN IUHS AdiposeAccretion(g/d) 120 160 200 240 280 320 360 B P < 0.07 Johnson et al., 2014 60-80kg pigs

22. GTN G GTN GHS

23. Weight,g

24. Barrow Feed Disappearance Wilmoth et al., 2014 SE 0.08SE 0.05SE 0.08

25. GTN G GTN GHS From 2-4 months of age progeny gilts (n=165) were evaluated for several measures twice weekly -At 6am and 2pm rectal temperatures, ear and rump skin temperatures, and respiration rate (RR) were recorded -Percentage of pigs standing, lying, standing at feeder, standing at water, and sitting was recorded at the top of every hour using video cameras -Body weights were recorded every three weeks

26. Lynch et al., 2014

27. Lynch et al., 2014

28. Lynch et al., 2014

29. Lynch et al., 2014

30. Lynch et al., 2014

31. Management • <150d estrous detection with 15 min/d BE • 6/123 showed estrus within 40d • 81/117 responded to PG-600 (Sept. 28) • 123 shipped to Suffolk, VA (Oct. 7)

32. Distribution of PG-600 induced estrus (~69% responded)

33. Management • Group housed • Mated AI to Yorkshire boars • Limit fed in gestation • ad lib fed in lactation (2x/d) • Minimal fostering (w/in treatment only w/in 24hr) • PRRS negative • Mycoplasma and ileitis seropositive (no symptoms)

34. Production Measures* GHS GTN Gestation length, d 115.0 ±.25 114.8 ±.21 Weight at breeding (lbs) 353.26 ± 6.90 353.73 ± 6.69 Gestation weight gain (lbs) 105.46 ± 9.54 101.69 ± 6.40 Lactation weight loss (lbs) 49.99 ± 7.50 41.87 ± 7.54

35. Lactation Feed Intake* • tended to differ (P=.07) – GHS 11.95 ± 0.25 lb/d – GTN 11.31 ± 0.26 lb/d *>5% difference

36. Piglet Numbers Per Litter* a b *~3/4 of litters

37. Piglet Numbers Per Litter* *all litters; # weaned no longer statistically different

38. possible carry-over effects of GHS on subsequent reproductive performance of P1 sows. Although not significantly different, P1 sows from GTN farrowed a greater percentage of litters comprised of 13-14 or 15-16 total born compared with P1 sows from GHS

39. Conclusions • Direct effect of thermal stress on pregnant females beginning to be understood • Mediated through the dam, subsequent progeny are also affected • True cost of heat stress is underestimated – Reduced feed efficiency – Effects on carcass – Reproductive performance and efficiency 41

40. Future Directions • Assess milk production and composition and whether effects persist to progeny – Michelle Rhoads, VT (funded by Checkoff) • Intense data collection during pregnancy - Mizzou (funded by Checkoff) • Endocrine profiles by parity – Not yet funded 42

41. Solving the Heat Stress Problem • Air conditioning • Check and calibrate ventilation systems – Fan controls – Inlets – Dusty fan blades reduced flow (80%) – Drippers (0.8 gal/hour) – Cool cells

42. Solving the Heat Stress Problem • Use of exogenous hormones – Label approved • PG-600 – Research setting • prostaglandin • oxytocin

43. Solving the Heat Stress Problem • Feed accordingly (especially in lactation) – maximize feed intake – manage cooling systems – wet feed? – feed often or automatic/self feeders

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