Published on January 14, 2008
Eat To Win: Eat To Win Quality Training Nutrition Quality Nutrition is Key: Quality Nutrition is Key Enables higher quality training, maximizing genetic potential Speeds recovery Decreases risk of injury, illness, malnutrition Long term healthy eating and health benefits Athletes as role models The Nutrition Challenge: The Nutrition Challenge Looking for a competitive edge often leads to undervaluing the benefits of nutrition basics Ask yourself: Do you follow a high quality nutritional training program? Today’s Goals: Today’s Goals Learn how to: Hydrate and why Eat for high quality training Eat for performance Hydration: Hydration As little as 1% dehydration can begin to impair physical and mental performance i.e. 1.5 lb in a 150 lb person or 3cups (750 ml) 3% causes a 10% decrease in muscle performance Dehydration can cause: early fatigue (speed, intensity, strength, power) decrease concentration/focus/timing Water Needs : Water Needs Average Joe needs 2-3 L water/day Add 1-2 L per hour of exercise. = Athlete training 4 hrs/day needs 6-8L/day ! Athletes typically drink ??? % of fluid losses Prevent Dehydration: Prevent Dehydration Be aware – monitor your hydration status WUT Have a plan – when and what will you drink,… follow it! Weight, Urine color, Thirst: Weight, Urine color, Thirst A simple self assessment hydration monitoring tool Hydration Strategies: Before Exercise: Hydration Strategies: Before Exercise Start day well hydrated Consume at least 500 ml cold fluid 2 hours before 10 – 15 minutes before event hyperhydrate with 300 – 500 ml cold fluid – start with full stomach to maximize rate of absorption Hydration Strategies:During Exercise: Hydration Strategies: During Exercise Match fluid intake with sweat loss as closely as possible Practice drinking during training - aim to replace 80% of sweat loss. General guide: drink 200-250 ml carbohydrate drink every 15 minutes – set watch timer/mark lines on water bottle/specific # mouthfuls, … Cool, tasty fluids Stomach empties ~ .8-1.2 L/hr Fluid should contain 400 – 1100 mg sodium/L Gatorade = 110mg/250ml and Powerade = 55mg/250 ml Hydration Strategies: After Exercise : Hydration Strategies: After Exercise Weigh self - aim to regain lost weight Sip 150% of fluid losses Higher sodium if shorter recovery Greatest fluid intake with 400mg sodium/carb beverage Carbs facilitate faster fluid absorption from gut in short term General Hydration Tips: General Hydration Tips Drink water, milk, juice, tea Eat watery soups, fruits and veggies. Limit caffeine, carbonation, alcohol Plan ahead - Calculate needs, bring what you need and empty them! Study: Study Training Nutrition…: Training Nutrition… Balance: carbohydrate, protein and fat Aim for high food quality Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates Main fuel used by the body Depleted during intense, endurance or multi session/multi day training Depletion = fatigue Athletes usually report intakes similar to age matched, non active individuals Carb rich foods necessary to fill glycogen stores Quality sources include: veggies, fruits, whole grains, legumes, milk, yogurt, soy milk Other sources: processed/white foods juices, sport foods, sweets Glycogen Depletion: Glycogen Depletion Tired, slower movement/reaction time Reduced strength/endurance/coordination Hypoglycemia => stress response => delays recovery Protein breakdown Fuel Use with Increased Exercise Intensity: Fuel Use with Increased Exercise Intensity (Ref: Brooks and Mercier, 1994) Protein: Protein Growth, repair & tissue maintenance Antibodies, hormones, enzymes and hemoglobin Energy source Sources include: fish, meat, poultry, eggs, legumes, soy products, milk, yogurt, low fat cheese, nuts and nut butters, meal replacements, sport bars Protein Requirements: Protein Requirements 0.8 g/kg/d 1-1.2g/kg 1.2-1.4g/kg 1.6-1.7g/kg/d RDA Adults Fitness/youth Endurance Strength North American diet easily provides: 1.4 to 2.0 g/kg/d Fats: Fats Protection, insulation, satiety, flavour, energy, fat soluble vitamin carrier, cell membranes, essential fatty acids, hormones Quality sources include: Avocado, nuts/seeds/olives, vegetable oils & spreads, animal products (meat, dairy, eggs,…) Fatty fish, walnuts, pumpkin seeds, ground flax Avoid hydrogenation Approx. 1 gram/kg/day Food Quality to Peak Performance: An Overview: Food Quality to Peak Performance: An Overview Variety Fresh/Unprocessed/Whole Colorful Smelly/gassy/hot/spicy High quality fats Frequent & enjoyable Slide22: Vegetables and fruit Carbohydrates, fibre, vitamins, minerals Lean meat alternatives, dairy, soy Protein, fat, vitamins, minerals Whole grains Carbohydrates (6 -10 g /kg/day), fiber, vitamins, minerals Training Nutrition: A Quality Foundation Quality visible fat Slide24: Berries Carbohydrates, fibre, vitamins, minerals Milk and egg Protein, fat, vitamins, minerals Old fashioned oatmeal Carbohydrates (6 -10 g /kg/day), fiber, vitamins, minerals Training Nutrition: A Quality Foundation Ground flax fats Slide25: spinach, onion tomatoes, etc. orange or other fruit Carbohydrates, fibre, vitamins, minerals Omelet Protein, fat, vitamins, minerals Sprouted grain bread Carbohydrates (6 -10 g /kg/day), fiber, vitamins, minerals Training Nutrition: A Quality Foundation Olive oil fat Slide26: Raw veggies apple Carbohydrates, fibre, vitamins, minerals Canned salmon Protein, fat, vitamins, minerals Sprouted grain bread Carbohydrates (6 -10 g /kg/day), fiber, vitamins, minerals Training Nutrition: A Quality Foundation Ground flax fats Slide27: Broccoli and Salad Carbohydrates, fibre, vitamins, minerals Meat chili Protein, fat, vitamins, minerals Quinoa Carbohydrates (6 -10 g /kg/day), fiber, vitamins, minerals Training Nutrition: A Quality Foundation vinaigrette fats Stay Tuned:This Is What I Often See!!: Stay Tuned: This Is What I Often See!! Slide29: Meats and dairy Protein, fat, vitamins, minerals Veg/Fruit Carbs, fiber, vit/min Training Nutrition: A Poor Foundation Hidden and visible fats, “junk food” Saturated and trans fats White grains and sugars Carbohydrates, a few vitamins and minerals Possible Challenges to Great Eating: Possible Challenges to Great Eating Training/travel/life demands: time crunch, fatigue peer culture Stress = increased nutrient needs Dieting Food psychology, history, preferences A few short cuts to improve the odds: A few short cuts to improve the odds Ask for help Menu plan, prepare a grocery list, keep a running list of items needed and if possible shop on a weekly schedule early morning or late night Share favorite, fast recipes Once a week make a high quality baked good for snacking Buy food for portable snacking – fruit/veg bars, trail mix, fresh fruit, nuts and seeds, easy open tuna cans, sport bars, … Cook enough grains (brown rice, quinoa, barley, whole grain pasta) for the week and make enough for “planned overs” Pre-cut fresh veggies for several days, or buy bagged salads, precut veggies and frozen stir fry veggies Steam meat, potatoes/rice, veggies in one pot or in a foil packet A few easy meal ideas: A few easy meal ideas Meal in one potatoes i.e. baked potato with baked beans, cottage cheese, leftover chili, ... Salads with protein such as leftover chicken Veggie burgers with cheese - broil for a few minutes Brown rice/pasta with legumes/eggs/shrimp/cottage cheese and veggies - add jarred tomato sauce, salsa, Patak’s curry paste or pesto “Homemade” soups made from bouillon, frozen/leftover veggies and canned tomatoes/legumes i.e. chick peas, kidney beans, black beans Tofu, bean or Yves Mexican ground round burritos, quesadillas Bake chicken or fish with yogurt and Dijon or honey and curry powder Noodle casseroles, or tortilla lasagna Scrambled eggs/tofu add tomatoes and greens, stir fry’s, bean soups Sloppy Joe’s, tuna/salmon melts, homemade pizza on whole wheat pita Whole grain cereal, milk and toast with pb * add veg/fruit to all meals Performance Nutrition: Performance Nutrition Before , During and Recovery Eating Nutrition Before: Nutrition Before glycogen synthesis prevents hunger, fatigue and fatigue related injury improves endurance and power output, improving training/performance potential mental preparation Nutrition Before - con’t: Nutrition Before - con’t Most important if intakes poor 24 hrs. prior approx. 0.5 -1g carb/kg per hour: example - 30–70g for a 68kg (150lb) athlete in the hour before ? protein in the hr before pay attention to: individual differences, timing, easily digested, familiar, hydration, glycemic index 1 hour before: 30 - 50 grams carb: 1 hour before: 30 - 50 grams carb 1 cup cereal shake, fruit smoothies, CIB 1- 2 containers flavored yogurt 250 – 500ml carton chocolate milk 1 sport bar, 3 – 4 fig bars, 1 large low fat muffin 1 large banana (30g) or 1 – 2 cups fruit juice 1 bowl oatmeal/cold cereal and milk 1 pancake with syrup, 1 toast with jam …….. 2 hours before - 75 -100 g: 2 hours before - 75 -100 g 2c pasta, ½ - 1c tomato sauce and 1c chocolate milk 30 - 60g cereal, 1 - 1.5c milk and 2c juice or 1/4c raisins 2 toast or 1 bagel with p.b.* & jam, 1c milk lean protein* sandwich, 2c juice 1c rice, 1/2c lentils**, 1c juice 2 French toast/pancake, 2 tbsp. syrup,1c fruit yogurt or 1 - 2c juice *Not everyone will tolerate and some will need ** may cause GI upset 3 hours before: 3 hours before add an extra 50 - 100 grams carbohydrate i.e. increase portion size add low fat protein and a small amount of fat Nutrition during longer training sessions: > 90 minutes: Nutrition during longer training sessions: > 90 minutes enhances physical and mental performance prevents injury delays deterioration of sport specific skills spares protein How Much?: How Much? carbs: 30 - 60g/hour or 2 – 4 cups (500 ml – 1L) sport drink/hour fluids 1 - 2 cups (250 - 500 ml) every 15 minutes most likely sport drinks and gels Recovery Nutrition: Recovery Nutrition Goals: the 3 R’s Refuel Repair Re-hydrate WHY ???: WHY ??? Replenish liver and muscle glycogen Prevents muscle protein breakdown and aids in protein synthesis during recovery Enhances immune system Reduces stress hormones Improves future training & performance Recovery Nutrition Details: Recovery Nutrition Details A.S.A.P. fluids-150% or more of lost weight or pale urine 0.8 - 1.2g carb/kg (50+ grams) in the first hour and then follow training diet First snack high glycemic then low GI protein 10 - 20g every 2 hrs. Plan for and have a portable nutrition source close at hand. Glycemic Index of Some Common Foods: Glycemic Index of Some Common Foods High G.I. (>85) Glucose Sucrose Maple syrup Honey Bagel Candy Corn flakes Carrots Crackers Molasses Potatoes Raisins Bread Soda Med. G.I. (60-85) All-bran cereal Grapes Oatmeal Orange juice Pasta Rice Yams Corn Whole-grain rye bread Baked beans Potato chips Low G.I. (<60) Fructose Apple Applesauce Cherries Kidney beans Chick peas Lentils Dates Figs Peaches Plums Ice cream Milk Yogurt Tomato soup Slide45: 1/2 liter Gatorade or other sports drink + 5 tablespoons skim milk powder Total: 45 grams carb and 10 grams protein Heavier athlete: 1.5 – 2 X the above Notes: Tastes ok Shake vigorously in a water bottle – it sometime looks curdled, it is not This would also work in the hour before training or racing if you have trouble digesting solids Immediate Recovery - for a 50 kg athlete Slide46: 1 175 ml container flavored yogurt Approximately 25+g carb and 8+g pro + 1 banana or 1 large slice watermelon approx 25 g carb and 2g pro Total: 50g carbohydrate and 10g protein For a heavier athlete: try 2 containers of yogurt for 75 + grams of carb and 16 + grams of protein Immediate Recovery: 50 kg athlete Slide47: 1 - 250 ml container Boost High Protein Total: 41g carbohydrate + 14g protein For a heavier athlete: add additional carbohydrates by also drinking sport drink – add 250 ml per 10 kg of weight (15 grams of carbohydrate per 250 ml) Notes: Boost has a fairly sweet taste Boost is in process of obtaining “clean for sport” certification Available at most large chain grocery stores Could use in the hour before training/racing if trouble digesting solids Immediate Recovery: 50 kg athlete Slide48: 500 ml Chocolate Milk Total - 50g carb and 16g pro For a heavier athlete: add additional carbs by also drinking sport drink – add 250 ml per 10 kg of weight (15g of carb/250 ml) Notes: This would also work in the hour before training or racing if you have trouble digesting solids Immediate Recovery: 50 – 60 kg athlete Slide49: 1 pkg. Carnation Instant Breakfast mixed with 500 ml of milk Total: 52 g carbohydrate and 23 g protein For a heavier athlete: add additional carbs by also drinking sport drink – add 250 ml per 10 kg of weight (15g of carb/250 ml) or make the milk chocolate for an extra 26g of carb. Notes: Shake vigorously in a water bottle Could use in the hour before training/racing if trouble digesting solids Immediate Recovery: 50 – 60 kg athlete Slide50: ½ cup Raisins – 60 grams carb + ½ cup roasted soy nuts – 30 grams carb and 15 grams protein Total: 15 grams of pro and 90 grams carbohydrate Notes: Don’t forget to hydrate Immediate Recovery: 60 + kg athlete Slide51: Optional: Mix and match foods from the recovery cards to eat at least 10 grams of protein and 0.8 - 1 gram of carbohydrate per kg of weight i.e. 40 – 50 grams carb for a 50 kg athlete 48 – 60 grams carb for a 60 kg athlete …and so on Immediate Recovery Slide52: Susan Boegman, RDN (250) 882 7001 e-mail: [email protected] Thank you!