DYB US PRC

Information about DYB US PRC

Published on October 16, 2007

Author: Janelle

Source: authorstream.com

Content

Measuring sin22q13 with the Daya Bay nuclear power reactors:  Measuring sin22q13 with the Daya Bay nuclear power reactors Yifang Wang Institute of High Energy Physics Neutrinos :  Neutrinos Basic building blocks of matter: Tiny mass, neutral, almost no interaction with matter, very difficult to detect. Enormous amount in the universe, ~ 100/cm3 , about 0.3% -1% of the total mass of the universe Most of particle and nuclear reactions produce neutrinos: particle and nuclear decays, fission reactors, fusion sun, supernova, g-burst,cosmic-rays …… Important in the weak interactions: P violation from left-handed neutrinos Important to the formation of the large structure of the universe, may explain why there is no anti-matter in the universe Brief history of neutrinos:  Brief history of neutrinos 1930 Pauli postulated neutrinos 1956 Neutrinos discovered(1995 Nobel prize) 1962 μ-neutrino discovered(1988 Nobel prize ) 1957 Pontecorvo proposed neutrino oscillation 1968 solar neutrino deficit, oscillation ? (2002 Nobel prize ) 1998 atmospheric neutrino anomaly => oscillation (2002 Nobel prize) 2001 SNO:solar ne conversion => oscillation 2002 KamLAND:reactor ne deficit => oscillation Neutrino oscillation: a way to detect neutrino mass A new window for particle physics, astrophysics, and cosmology Neutrino oscillation: PMNS matrix :  Neutrino oscillation: PMNS matrix EXO Genius CUORE NEMO A total of 6 parameters: 2 Dm2, 3 angles, 1 phases + 2 Majorana phases If Mass eigenstates  Weak eigenstates  Neutrino oscillation Oscillation probability: P(n1->n2)  sin2(1.27Dm2L/E) Atmospheric solar bb decays crossing:CP 与q13 Super-K K2K Minos T2K Daya Bay Double Chooz NOVA Homestake Gallex SNO KamLAND Slide5:  Evidence of Neutrino Oscillations Unconfirmed: LSND: Dm2 ~ 0.1-10 eV2 Confirmed: Atmospheric: Dm2 ~ 210-3 eV2 Solar: Dm2 ~ 8 10-5 eV2 P(n1->n2) = sin22qsin2(1.27Dm2L/E) 2 flavor oscillation in vacuum: A total of six n mixing parameters::  A total of six n mixing parameters: Known: |D m232|, sin22q32 --Super-K D m221, sin22q21 --SNO,KamLAND Unknown:sin22q13, d, sign of Dm232 at reactors: Pee  1  sin22q13sin2 (1.27Dm213L/E)  cos4q13sin22q12sin2 (1.27Dm212L/E) at LBL accelerators: Pme ≈ sin2q23sin22q13sin2(1.27Dm223L/E) + cos2q23sin22q12sin2(1.27Dm212L/E)  A(r)cos2q13sinq13sin(d) Why at reactors:  Why at reactors Clean signal, no cross talk with d and matter effects Relatively cheap compare to accelerator based experiments Can be very quick Provides the direction to the future of neutrino physics Small-amplitude oscillation due to 13 Large-amplitude oscillation due to 12 Slide8:  Current Knowledge of 13 Global fit fogli etal., hep-ph/0506083 Sin2(213) < 0.09 Sin2(213) < 0.18 Direct search PRD 62, 072002 Allowed region Slide9:  No good reason(symmetry) for sin22q13 =0 Even if sin22q13 =0 at tree level, sin22q13 will not vanish at low energies with radiative corrections Theoretical models predict sin22q13 ~ 0.1-10 % An experiment with a precision for sin22q13 less than 1% is desired model prediction of sin22q13 Experimentally allowed at 3s level Importance to know q13:  Importance to know q13 1)A fundamental parameter 2)important to understand the relation between leptons and quarks, in order to have a grand unified theory beyond the Standard Model 3)important to understand matter-antimatter asymmetry If sin22q13>0.01,next generation LBL experiment for CP If sin22q13<0.01, next generation LBL experiment for CP ??? 4)provide direction to the future of the neutrino physics: super-neutrino beams or neutrino factory ? Recommendation of APS study report::  Recommendation of APS study report: 2004.11.4 APS How to do this experiment:  How to do this experiment How Neutrinos are produced in reactors ? :  How Neutrinos are produced in reactors ? The most likely fission products have a total of 98 protons and 136 neutrons, hence on average there are 6 n which will decay to 6p, producing 6 neutrinos Neutrino flux of a commercial reactor with 3 GWthermal : 6 1020 /s Fission rate evolution with time in the Reactor :  Fission rate evolution with time in the Reactor Neutrino rate and spectrum depend on the fission isotopes and their fission rate Neutrino energy spectrum:  Neutrino energy spectrum F  exp(a+bEn+cEn2) K. Schreckenbach et al., PLB160,325 A.A. Hahn, et al., PLB218,365 P. Vogel et al., PRD39,3378 Reactor thermal power:  Reactor thermal power Fission rate depend on the thermal power Typically Known to ~ 1% Prediction of reactor neutrino spectrum :  Prediction of reactor neutrino spectrum Three ways to obtain reactor neutrino spectrum: Direct measurement First principle calculation Sum up neutrino spectra from 235U, 239Pu, 241Pu and 238U 235U, 239Pu, 241Pu from their measured b spectra 238U(10%) from calculation (10%) They all agree well within 3% Slide18:  10-40 keV Neutrino energy: Neutrino Event: coincidence in time, space and energy neutrino detection: Inverse-β reaction in liquid scintillator 1.8 MeV: Threshold t  180 or 28 ms(0.1% Gd) n + p  d + g (2.2 MeV) n + Gd  Gd* + g (8 MeV) Reactor Experiment: comparing observed/expected neutrinos::  Reactor Experiment: comparing observed/expected neutrinos: Palo Verde CHOOZ KamLAND Typical precision: 3-6% How to reach 1% precision ?:  How to reach 1% precision ? Three main types of errors: reactor related(~2-3%), background related (~1-2%) and detector related(~1-2%) Use far/near detector to cancel reactor errors Movable detectors, near far, to cancel part of detector systematic errors Optimize baseline to have best sensitivity and reduce reactor related errors Sufficient shielding to reduce backgrounds Comprehensive calibration to reduce detector systematic errors Careful design of the detector to reduce detector systematic errors Large detector to reduce statistical errors Systematic error comparison:  Systematic error comparison Slide22:  xperi Angra, Brazil Diablo Canyon, USA Braidwood, USA Chooz, France Krasnoyasrk, Russia Kashiwazaki,Japan Daya Bay, China Young Gwang, South Korea Proposed Reactor Neutrino Experiments Currently Proposed experiments:  Currently Proposed experiments Daya Bay nuclear power plant:  Daya Bay nuclear power plant 4 reactor cores, 11.6 GW 2 more cores in 2011, 5.8 GW Mountains near by, easy to construct a lab with enough overburden to shield cosmic-ray backgrounds Convenient Transportation, Living conditions, communications:  Convenient Transportation, Living conditions, communications DYB NPP region - Location and surrounding 60 km Cosmic-muons at sea level: modified Gaisser formula:  Cosmic-muons at sea level: modified Gaisser formula Cosmic-muons at the laboratory:  Cosmic-muons at the laboratory Baseline optimization and site selection :  Baseline optimization and site selection Neutrino spectrum and their error Neutrino statistical error Reactor residual error Estimated detector systematical error: total, bin-to-bin Cosmic-rays induced background (rate and shape) taking into mountain shape: fast neutrons, 9Li, … Backgrounds from rocks and PMT glass Best location for far detectors:  Best location for far detectors Rate only Rate + shape Slide32:  Total Tunnel length 3200 m Detector swapping in a horizontal tunnel cancels most detector systematic error. Residual error ~0.2% Backgrounds B/S of DYB,LA ~0.5% B/S of Far ~0.2% Fast Measurement DYB+Mid, 2008-2009 Sensitivity (1 year) ~0.03 Full Measurement DYB+LA+Far, from 2010 Sensitivity (3 year) <0.01 The Layout LA: 40 ton Baseline: 500m Overburden: 98m Muon rate: 0.9Hz/m2 Far: 80 ton 1600m to LA, 1900m to DYB Overburden: 350m Muon rate: 0.04Hz/m2 DYB: 40 ton Baseline: 360m Overburden: 97m Muon rate: 1.2Hz/m2 Access portal Waste transport portal 8% slope 0% slope 0% slope 0% slope Mid: Baseline: ~1000m Overburden: 208m Geologic survey completed, including boreholes:  Geologic survey completed, including boreholes Weathering bursa (风化囊) Faults(small) far near near mid Site investigation completed :  Site investigation completed Engineering Geological Map:  Engineering Geological Map Slide36:  Engineering geological sections Line A Tunnel construction:  Tunnel construction The tunnel length is about 3000m Local railway construction company has a lot of experience (similar cross section) Cost estimate by professionals, ~ 3K $/m Construction time is ~ 15-24 months A similar tunnel on site as a reference How large the detector should be ?:  How large the detector should be ? Detector: Multiple modules:  Detector: Multiple modules Multiple modules for cross check, reduce uncorrelated errors Small modules for easy construction, moving, handing, … Small modules for less sensitive to scintillator aging Scalable Two modules at near sites Four modules at far site: Side-by-side cross checks Central Detector modules:  Central Detector modules Three zones modular structure: I. target: Gd-loaded scintillator II. g-ray catcher: normal scintillator III. Buffer shielding: oil Reflection at two ends 20t target mass, ~200 8”PMT/module sE = 5%@8MeV, ss ~ 14 cm I II III g Catcher thickness Oil buffer thickness Water Buffer & VETO:  Water Buffer & VETO 2m water buffer to shield backgrounds from neutrons and g’s from lab walls Cosmic-muon VETO Requirement: Inefficiency < 0.5% known to <0.25% Solution: Two active vetos active water buffer, Eff.>95% Muon tracker, Eff. > 90% RPC scintillator strips total ineff. = 10%*5% = 0.5% Neutron background vs water shielding thickness 2m water Slide42:  Two tracker options : RPC outside the steel cylinder Scintillator Strips sink into the water RPC from IHEP Scintillator Strips from Ukraine Contribution of JINR,Dubna Background related error:  Background related error Need enough shielding and an active veto How much is enough ?  error < 0.2% Uncorrelated backgrounds: U/Th/K/Rn/neutron single gamma rate @ 0.9MeV < 50Hz single neutron rate < 1000/day 2m water + 50 cm oil shielding Correlated backgrounds: n  Em0.75 Neutrons: >100 MWE + 2m water Y.F. Wang et al., PRD64(2001)0013012 8He/9Li: > 250 MWE(near) & >1000 MWE(far) T. Hagner et al., Astroparticle. Phys. 14(2000) 33 Slide44:  Fast neutron spectrum Precision to determine the 9Li background in situ Spectrum of accidental background Background estimated by GEANT MC simulation:  Background estimated by GEANT MC simulation Sensitivity to Sin22q13:  Sensitivity to Sin22q13 Reactor-related correlated error: sc ~ 2% Reactor-related uncorrelated error: sr ~ 1-2% Calculated neutrino spectrum shape error: sshape ~ 2% Detector-related correlated error: sD ~ 1-2% Detector-related uncorrelated error: sd ~ 0.5% Background-related error: fast neutrons: sf ~ 100%, accidentals: sn ~ 100%, isotopes(8Li, 9He, …) : ss ~ 50-60% Bin-to-bin error: sb2b ~ 0.5% Many are cancelled by the near-far scheme and detector swapping Sensitivity to Sin22q13:  Sensitivity to Sin22q13 Other physics capabilities: Supernova watch, Sterile neutrinos, … Slide48:  Prototype: 45 PMT for 0.6 t LS Slide49:  Backgrounds 60Co spectrum Uniformity before correction linearity s=5.6% @ 2.5 MeV In agreement with or better than expectation Development of Gd-loaded LS:  Development of Gd-loaded LS LS (Gd0.1% Mesitylene 40% 60% bicron mineral oil) IHEP and BNL both developed Gd-loaded LS using LAB: high light yield, high flash point, low toxicity, cheap, long attenuation length Slide51:  Electronics for the prototype Readout module Readout Electronics Aberdeen tunnel in HK::  Aberdeen tunnel in HK: background measurement Slide53:  North America (9) LBNL, BNL, Caltech, UCLA Univ. of Houston,Univ. of Iowa Univ. of Wisconsin, IIT, Univ. of Illinois-Urbana-champagne China (12) IHEP, CIAE,Tsinghua Univ. Zhongshan Univ.,Nankai Univ. Beijing Normal Univ., Shenzhen Univ., Hong Kong Univ. Chinese Hong Kong Univ. Taiwan Univ., Chiao Tung Univ., National United univ. Europe (3) JINR, Dubna, Russia Kurchatov Institute, Russia Charles university, Czech Daya Bay collaboration Status of the project:  Status of the project CAS officially approved the project Chinese Atomic Energy Agency and the Daya Bay nuclear power plant are very supportive to the project Funding agencies in China are supportive, R&D funding in China approved and available R&D funding from DOE approved Site survey including bore holes completed R&D started in collaborating institutions, the prototype is operational Proposals to governments under preparation Good collaboration among China, US and other countries Schedule of the project:  Schedule of the project Schedule 2004-2006 R&D, engineering design, secure funding 2007-2008 proposal, construction 2009 installation 2010 running Summary:  Summary Knowing Sin22q13 to 1% level is crucial for the future of neutrino physics, particularly for the leptonic CP violation Reactor experiments to measure Sin22q13 to the desired precision are feasible in the near future Daya Bay NPP is an ideal site for such an experiment A preliminary design is ready, R&D work is going on well, proposal under preparation

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