Published on October 9, 2007
Earth Science Review: Earth Science Review We Have Studied: We Have Studied Land- Lithosphere Air- Atmosphere Water- Hydrosphere Lithosphere: Lithosphere Three main layers of the Earth Crust- Top layer. Relatively thin Mantle- Middle layers. -Core- Thickest layer. Outer core is liquid. Mapping: Mapping Latitude- Imaginary lines that run horizontally. Tell how north or south a place is. Equator is 0 degrees latitude. Longitude- Imaginary lines that run vertically. Tell how east or west something is. Prime meridian is 0 degrees longitude. Rocks: Rocks Three types Igneous- made from volcano Sedimentary- sediments that are pressed/glued together. Metamorphic- used to be either igneous or sedimentary but through heat and pressure have changed to a new kind. Rock Structures: Rock Structures Fault- Crack in crust Fracture- crack in rock Dike- fracture that was filled in. Strata-layers of rock. Aging Rock: Aging Rock Law of superposition- Top layers are younger. Cross cutting rule- Any disturbance in a rock is younger than the rock itself. Volcanoes: Volcanoes Shield- largest. Gently sloping sides. Smooth lava. Composite- layers caused by different types of materials in past eruptions. Ex. Ash, lava, chunks/rocks. Cinder cone- Smallest. Steep sloping sides. Chunky lava. Violent eruptions. Earthquakes: Earthquakes Plate boundaries Convergent- Plates pressing into one another. Divergent- Plates moving away from one another. Sliding- Plates sliding past each other. ATMOSPHERE: ATMOSPHERE Composition 78% nitrogen 21% oxygen Argon, carbon dioxide etc. Layers of the Atmosphere: Layers of the Atmosphere Troposphere- Weather Stratosphere- planes Mesosphere- meteors burn up Ionosphere- Auroras Exosphere- very few molecules. Clouds: Clouds Cirro- High altitude Alto- Mid-altitude Cumulo- puffy Strato- flat Nimbo- storm Water cycle: Water cycle Evaporation- Water changing from liquid to gaseous phase. Condensation-Water changing from gaseous to liquid phase. Transpiration-evaporation of water from the leaves of plants. Weather: Weather Rain- Temperatures above freezing the whole way down. Sleet- Temps. Below freezing at end of fall. Small balls of ice. Freezing rain- Rain that freezes after it hits the ground. Hail- Large balls of ice. Frozen rain gets cycled back into cloud by updraft, growing each time. Snow- Temps. Below freezing all the way down. Global Warming: Global Warming Radiant Heat- Heat absorbed by objects/earth that is emitted when the sun goes down. Greenhouse gases Carbon dioxide- From burning fossil fuels Methane- rice paddies, cattle, landfills Nitrous oxide- cars, manufacturing fertilizers How do greenhouse gases effect ocean currents?: How do greenhouse gases effect ocean currents? Too much greenhouse gases causes too much radiant heat to be deflected back toward Earth. This causes a rise in average temperatures which can lead to melting of the ice caps. Melting of the ice caps puts too much fresh water in the ocean. Too much fresh water in the ocean does not allow water at poles to sink and pull water from south. Ocean currents slow and continents cool. Ozone: Ozone What is ozone? Three oxygen molecules bonded together (O3) Where is ozone? In the stratosphere What does ozone do? Deflects most UV radiation from the sun. HYDROSPHERE: HYDROSPHERE Percent salt water- 97% What is salinity?- Amount of salt in water -Where is all the fresh water? Most is in glaciers/ice caps, underground/in soil, rivers/lakes, atmosphere Water terms: Water terms Estuary-Where fresh and salt water mix. Geyser- Spring that erupts water periodically. Spring- underground water that bubbles up to surface. Thermocline- Area under top, warm layer of ocean where the temperature declines rapidly. Indirectly polluting hydrosphere: Indirectly polluting hydrosphere Factories- Sulfur oxides Automobiles- Nitrogen oxides Farms- pesticides and fertilizers Cleaning up pollution: Cleaning up pollution Factories- Wet scrubbers Automobiles- Catalytic converters Farms- Use less, natural pesticides (insects that eat pest insects), slow release fertilizers, crop rotation. Directly polluting Hydrosphere: Directly polluting Hydrosphere How- Factories etc. directly piping or dumping polluted waste water or garbage into waterways. Thermal pollution- Factories piping heated water into waterways.