Published on January 22, 2008
Slide1: PAP Bio 8/31-9/4 Don’t forget to do you jobs!!!!! WU Biosphere PowerPoint Study and work on objectives HW: No change in tb reading and assigned SG pgs Computer/copier paper Optional Project: Biomes Foldable due 9/17-18 Ecology: Ecology THE STUDY OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AN ORGANISM AND ITS’ ENVIRONMENT IS CALLED ECOLOGY Biosphere: Biosphere While the earth is huge, life is found in a very narrow layer, called the biosphere. If the earth could be shrunk to the size of an apple, the biosphere would be no thicker than the apple's skin. The biosphere, like the human body, is made up of systems that interact and are dependent on each other. Ecosystem: Ecosystem The biosphere’s systems are called ECOSYSTEMS. All ecosystems must have a constant source of energy (usually the sun) and cycles or systems to reuse raw materials. Examples are the water, nitrogen and carbon cycles. An ecosystem is made up of all the biotic or living and the abiotic or non-living components in a given area. Abiotic Factors: The nonliving things in an environment are called ABIOTIC factors. Examples of abiotic factors are sunlight , temperature, rainfall, climate and soil conditions. Abiotic Factors Biotic Factors: Biotic factors are all the living things or their materials that directly or indirectly affect an organism in its environment. This would include organisms, their presence, parts, interaction, and wastes. Factors such as parasitism, disease, and predation (one animal eating another) would also be classified as biotic factors. Some Biotic Factors parasitism disease predation Biotic Factors Population: Population A population is all the members of a given species in a given area. Example - All the turtles in Town Lake. Community: Community Community - all the species in a given area. Example - all the living things in Town Lake Ecological Niche: Ecological Niche A plant's or animal's ecological niche is a way of life that is unique to that species. Niche and habitat are not the same. While many species may share a habitat, this is not true of a niche. Each plant and animal species is a member of a community. The niche describes the species' role or function within this community. Slide11: For example, the red fox's habitat, which might include forest edges, meadows and the bank of a river, is shared with many animals . The niche of the red fox is that of a predator which feeds on the small mammals, amphibians, insects, and fruit found in this habitat. Red foxes are active at night. They provide blood for blackflies and mosquitoes, and are host to numerous diseases. The scraps, or carrion, left behind after a fox's meal provide food for many small scavengers and decomposers. This, then, is the ecological niche of the red fox. Only the red fox occupies this niche in the meadow-forest edge communities. In other plant communities different species of animal may occupy a similar niche to that of the red fox.