Published on November 20, 2009
ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF VERTEBRATES : ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF VERTEBRATES BY Mrs. RANI ASHOK Lecturer (SS) in Zoology Lady Doak College, Madurai - 2 HERPETOLOGY : HERPETOLOGY Herpetology (Greek, herpetos,”creeping”), branch of zoology concerned with the study of amphibians and reptiles, including their taxonomy (classification), behaviour, anatomy, life history, distribution, and ecology. Many herpetologists specialize, studying a single living group, or fossils of extinct species. The science is also concerned with venoms and their effects, economic uses—such as skins for leather, eggs for food, and gland extracts for perfumes—and, increasingly, the conservation of species. ECONOMIC VALUE of FISHES : Fish are one of the most important sources of animal protein for humans, and many fishes are used as food. Subsidiary uses of fish and fish products include the manufacture of nitrogenous fertilizers from fish and fish scraps, the extraction of fish-liver oils as one of the sources of vitamin D, and the manufacture of pet food. Fish scales are sometimes used in making artificial pearls. Isinglass, a form of gelatin, is prepared from the swim bladders of certain species, and glue can be made from fish offal. ECONOMIC VALUE of FISHES Economic Importance of Fishes – Contd.. : Fish Farming, intensive cultivation of freshwater and salt-water fish and shellfish in tanks or sea cages. Fish farming is sometimes referred to as aquaculture, although strictly speaking this also includes edible seaweed cultivation. It is found in almost all countries with a seaboard, or coastline, with the exception of African countries. However, the development of tilapia—a perch-like, freshwater fish—farming has lent itself to the creation of inland, freshwater farms in some African countries where it is seen as a valuable source of protein. Economic Importance of Fishes – Contd.. Economic importance of fishes – Contd.. : Economic importance of fishes – Contd.. Glue is an impure form of gelatin, while a purified form, obtained from the air bladders of certain fishes, including sturgeon, cod, catfish, and carp, is called isinglass. Slide 6: Sea horses are monogamous and have a complex courtship ritual. They exhibit parental care.They are exploited for traditional Chinese medicine, the aquarium trade, and as curios. Has Aphrodisiac properties. Fishes : Fishes Isin glass is obtained. Used as manure. Used as source of protein. Used for obtaining fish oil. Harmful effects : Harmful effects Spines cause injury – eg. Balistes, porcupine fish Poisonous – eg. Coffer fish Injury by bites – eg. Shark Damage to small ships etc. due to the splashing action of certain fishes eg. Shark Harmful effects – Contd. : Harmful effects – Contd. Attack and damage the nets used for fishing. Electric shock – Ray fishes etc. produces a high voltage current which can lead to death of divers. A torpedo ray generates electricity from columns of stacked, platelike cells called electroplates that are organized into many small blocks of muscle on either side of its head. Nerves branching throughout the electric organs initiate the charge, which intensifies as it passes through the column. The torpedo ray wraps its pectoral fins around its prey, disabling it with a 200-volt shock. : Torpedo Ray A torpedo ray generates electricity from columns of stacked, platelike cells called electroplates that are organized into many small blocks of muscle on either side of its head. Nerves branching throughout the electric organs initiate the charge, which intensifies as it passes through the column. The torpedo ray wraps its pectoral fins around its prey, disabling it with a 200-volt shock. AMPHIBIANS : AMPHIBIANS Frog & toad : Frog & toad Economic Importance of Frogs : Economic Importance of Frogs Frogs aid humans in many ways. They control insect pests in woods, farms, and gardens, and several species have been introduced to various parts of the world as a defence against undesirable insects. From earliest times frogs have been widely used as food. FROGS Contd… : FROGS Contd… Efforts have been made to raise them for market, but frogs eaten today are generally taken from their natural habitat. Frogs are also important to research and medical laboratories because their skeletal, muscular, digestive, nervous, and other systems are similar to those of higher animals. Economic Importance of Frogs – Contd.. : Economic Importance of Frogs – Contd.. Glue obtained from frog is used in surgery. Medicine obtained from frog is used for treating ulcer and other alimentary canal problems. Poison obtained from frog is applied on the arrows by the African tribal population & is used to kill the prey and paralyze the enemies. Salamanders help to study neoteny. Some salamanders cause fear due to their fiery colour combinations like red & black, green & black, yellow & black etc. ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF BIRDS : ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF BIRDS AS SOURCE OF FOOD : AS SOURCE OF FOOD Flesh – Chicken, duck, quail, partridge. Eggs – Chicken, duck, quail. USE IN AGRICULTURE, HORTICULTURE & FORESTRY : USE IN AGRICULTURE, HORTICULTURE & FORESTRY It plays role directly or indirectly. 85% of the birds are insectivorous which are pests of crops – eg. Stork, drongo, night jar. Birds help in cross pollination and dispersal of seeds – eg. Humming bird, parakeets, pigeon. Destroy large amounts of cultivated fruit crops – eg. Parrot, bulbul. 132 species of birds predate on crops – eg. Sparrow, Baya. BIRDS WITH MEDICINAL USE : BIRDS WITH MEDICINAL USE Birds have been used in medicine in various forms like Poultry eggs (Chicken, duck) Bird flesh (Peacock, cuckoo, pheasant, pigeon) Oil (Pelican, peacock, great pied hornbill) Feathers (Grey hornbill, peacock) Nests (Collocalia spp. [Swiftlet]) MISCELLANEOUS ASPECTS : MISCELLANEOUS ASPECTS Role in fishery management - Aquatic birds like herons, gulls, king fishers causes serious reduction of edible fishes. Role in Apiculture, Sericulture, etc. – Wood pecker, crow, cause damage to apiculture. Lesser spotted eagle, Himalayan tree pie causes damage to sericulture. Role in poultry-, etc. – Birds of prey like eagle, buzzard rob chicken, ducklings, etc. MISCELLANEOUS ASPECTS – Contd. : MISCELLANEOUS ASPECTS – Contd. Role in Problems of health, sanitation, etc. – Crows, pigeon, myna, sparrow spreads diseases. Role in communication – Pigeons are used in communication. Role in R&D activities – Pigeons, Quail, Guano birds are used in research studies. Role in control of vector, mosquito – Sand martin and sand piper feed on mosquita larvae. Myna feeds on pupae of house fly. ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF REPTILES : ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF REPTILES ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF REPTILES : ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF REPTILES Reptiles consists mainly of snakes, tortoises, crocodiles. Snakes are consumed as food eg. Boa. Snakes are used for preparing antivenim. Snake skin is used for making bags, purses etc. Pain killers are prepared from neurotoxin in venom Powerful enzymes in venom is used by researchers to study biochemical studies in breaking complex molecules Snake bite can cause death due to anaphylaxis attack, neurotoxicity or hemotoxicity. ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF REPTILES – Contd.. : ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF REPTILES – Contd.. Crocodile skin is used for making bags, belts etc. Tortoise shell is of ornamental use. Tortoise flesh & food is consumed as food. Varanus is used for climbing. Courtship behaviour can be studied using Chamaeleon sp. Calotes also help in controlling many insect population. Chamaeleon helps in learning the basics of life so as to adjust to the existing situation. REPTILES : REPTILES ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF MAMMALS : ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF MAMMALS Mammals : Mammals Mammals are used in transport – Buffalow, cow, camel etc. To carry weight – Elephant, camel etc. To give dairy products – Cow, cattle, sheep. To give wool – sheep, rabbit. Serve as food – Flesh of pig, sheep, cattle, cow. Mammals – Contd.. : Mammals – Contd.. Elephant tusk is of ornamental use & once upon a time it was used as currency in the barter system. Also worshiped as god. Used in circus. Donkey’s milk is used in new born babies to cure certain birth diseases. Monkeys are source of entertainment, good research animal, study ethology as they have behaviour pattern similar to humans. Whales are used as source of oil, entertainment etc. Mammals – contd… : Mammals – contd… Elephant population when in excess can drastically reduce the vegetation. It can also kill humans. Monkeys can cause a loss to agricultural crops, injury etc. Zoo, Parks and Sanctuaries gives entertainment Hunting of animals are sportive. Mammals – Contd… : Mammals – Contd… Fruit eating Bats help in pollination. The horn of deer has found to have medicinal value Dogs are used for security purpose. They are grown as pets. Cats are also grown as pets. MAMMALS – Contd… : MAMMALS – Contd… Rhinoceros horn has aphrodisiac properties. Cheetah is hunted for their valuable skin, teeth, bones. Koalas are also hunted for their fur skin. Whales are hunted for the blubber or brown tissue from which medicinal oil is obtained.