Published on December 13, 2007
Ancient Egypt: Ancient Egypt Martha Gilchrist Economics: Economics How were the people fed? Trade: Trade Began in 4th century B.C.E Traded with countries easily accessed by water Imports: silver, iron, cedar, horses, ivory, copper, cattle, skins, spices Exports: gold/minerals, wheat, barley, papyrus scrolls Money: Money No fixed prices No coin money Prices were bargained Price measured in debin 5 oz copper Jobs: Jobs Most were farmers Had specialists Gov. officials, soldiers, scribes, doctors, merchants, fishermen, hunters, bankers, carpenters Artists, dancers, spinners, weavers, jewelers Schooling: Schooling Children attended between the ages of 4 and 14 Learned reading, writing, math Boys learned father’s profession at a young age Slide8: Animals Farming: Farming On fertile banks of Nile River Flooding, growing, harvesting seasons Annual floods left fertile mud Crops: wheat, fruits, vegetables Animals: goats, cattle, pig, duck, geese Irrigation was essential Used canals to get water from river Castes: Castes Decided by wealth Top- Pharaoh (ruled all) Upper- Royal family, gov., priests, soldiers Middle- Farmers, skilled workers Low- Servants and slaves To escape poverty; had no money Military: Military How were the people protected? Individuals of Interest: Individuals of Interest Montu- falcon warrior/sun god General Weni- led army into battles Ahmose- Secured N and S boarders Ramses II- general of New Kingdom; secured boaders Ramses III- maintained existance of country Montu and Ramses II: Montu and Ramses II Technology of Military: Technology of Military Spears, clubs, sticks, daggers, shields Quiver, battle axe Scalloped headed axe Chariots, composite bow, narrow axe Sickle sword, body armor Slide19: Pharaoh is Commander in Chief 10 % of males served Both army and navy Needed full time Helped to build an empire!!!: Helped to build an empire!!! Government: Government How were the people governed? Dominated by Pharaoh: Dominated by Pharaoh King was a god, not a man Had absolute power over empire and people Priests/nobility- advisors Also a theocracy: Also a theocracy Ruled by clergy Vizier (prime minister) Chief treasurer Tax collector Minister of the public Army commander Taxes : Taxes Paid in goods/labor Labor tax Army drafts Forced labor Backed by Religion: Backed by Religion Law and Courts: Law and Courts How were the disputes settled between people? Administration/Taxation: Administration/Taxation Divided into districts (nomes) Each has a governor Pharaoh…: Pharaoh… Proclaimed laws Delivered justice Kept laws in order Rights: Rights Laws based on right and wrong Men and women were equal Both had many rights Punishment : Punishment Fines Facial mutilation Exile Serious death Drowned Burned at the steak Decapitated Writing: Writing How did people communicate ideas and information? Slide35: In Hieroglyphics Picture symbols It was important to record information Government Religion Hieroglyphics: Hieroglyphics Began- 3,000 B.C.E Inscribe temples Record sacred text 700 symbols No vowels On papyrus scrolls In ink Carved Painted Simple cursive (everyday) Religion: Religion How was the spiritual life of the people organized? Gods and Goddesses : Gods and Goddesses Influenced activity and nature on Earth Re- main god/sun god. Good harvests Isis- devoted mother/wife Osiris- vegetation and dead Horus- sky god; w/ falcon head Priests: Priests People usually prayed at home King= Chief priest Job was to serve god/deity The Afterlife: The Afterlife It could/should be enjoyed Made pyramids/tombs Mummies last forever Filled tombs w/ useful items Clothes Jewels Food Art: Art How were the values and ideals of the people symbolized? Influence: Influence Nature/every day things Religion Beliefs shown Pictures of gods/goddesses Color- perfection in afterlife Forms: Forms Mummy cases Relief art Statues Mummy Cases: Mummy Cases Dead bodies of kings could rest Were able to enjoy afterlife Relief Art: Relief Art Pictures carved into layers of limestone Showed about everything Statues: Statues Of gods/goddesses Symbol of peoples’ beliefs Had to be youthful figures Architecture: Architecture How were the spirit and power of the civilization projected in its structures and temples? Forms: Forms Pyramids Temples The Great Sphinx Pyramids at Giza: Pyramids at Giza Pyramids: Pyramids Built for tombs of pharaohs/queens Made of stone; gold stone on top Shape First land at beginning of time Slope sides- can climb them to heaven Represent rays of the sun King Tut’s Pyramid: King Tut’s Pyramid Temples: Temples Mysterious places! Made of stone- last forever! Looked impressive Covered in scenes Homes of gods/goddesses Each dedicated to one Worshiped by priests Sacred lake at end for rituals Temple: Temple The Great Sphinx: The Great Sphinx Large human w/ lion’s head Carved out of natural mound of rock Guards pyramids at Giza Story Written on paws Boy falls asleep nearby and uncovers it Technology: Technology What were a few of the most significant technological accomplishments and breakthroughs? Tools: Tools Change from… Copper Bronze Iron Calendar: Calendar 10 days: 1week 3 weeks: 1 month 4 months: 1 season 3 seasons: 1 year 365 days: 1 year First pple w/ that calculation Clocks: Clocks Sundial Circle w/ #s around; stick in middle Shadow on certain #= certain time Water clock Water at certain level= certain time Inside monuments: Inside monuments Ramps Levers Rollers Slide77: Thank you for watching my presentation of the civilization of Ancient Egypt.