EJ Genetic Research

Information about EJ Genetic Research

Published on February 24, 2008

Author: Charlie

Source: authorstream.com

Content

Ethical Issues in the Design and Conduct of Human Genetic Studies:  Ethical Issues in the Design and Conduct of Human Genetic Studies Eric T. Juengst Genetic Research in Human Subjects Seminar, June 20, 2007 Fruits of the Human Genome Project (after F.Collins, c.2000):  Fruits of the Human Genome Project (after F.Collins, c.2000) Mapping, Sequencing, Gene Identification New DNA-based Risk Tests New Gene Therapies New”Pharmacogenomics” Population genomics Functional genomics genotyping Fruits of the Human Genome Project (after F.Collins, c.2005):  Fruits of the Human Genome Project (after F.Collins, c.2005) Mapping, Sequencing, Gene Identification “whole genomics”: GWAS, GAIN, ATCG, $1,000 genome “epignomics”: Proteomics, GEIS, epigenetics “epidemiomics”: SNP Consortium HapMap Genographic survey Population genomics Functional genomics genotyping Fruits of the Human Genome Project (after F.Collins, c.2005):  Fruits of the Human Genome Project (after F.Collins, c.2005) Mapping, Sequencing, Gene Identification “whole genomics”: GWAS, GAIN, ATCG, $1,000 genome “epignomics”: Proteomics, GEIS, epigenetics “epidemiomics”: SNP Consortium HapMap Genographic survey Personalized Genomic Medicine Proliferating opportunities to participate in genetic research infrastructure::  Proliferating opportunities to participate in genetic research infrastructure: Voluntary health organization registries & repositories (Genetic Alliance Biobank) Hospital initiatives (CCF/GeneQuest) Regional efforts (Michigan NBS biobank) National projects (UK Biobank) International projects (HapMap/Coriell) Common scale up theme::  Common scale up theme: Using large numbers of genotypes from large numbers of people to be able to say very specific things about individual patients. “The road to personalized medicine is through population biology” Core ELSI Challenge in designing and conducting scale-up research::  Core ELSI Challenge in designing and conducting scale-up research: Navigating the tensions between the interests of individuals and groups in each stage of the research process: Recruitment and enrollment Disclosure and control Benefit-sharing Risk Protections Whose interests are at stake in genetic research?:  Whose interests are at stake in genetic research? Individual volunteers Volunteered Individuals Obligate Participants Non-participating Kin Group as a whole Whose interests are at stake in genetic research?:  Whose interests are at stake in genetic research? Individual volunteers Volunteered Individuals Obligate Participants Non-participating Kin Group as a whole Slide11:  “ I do not object to my daughter discussing family medical history with her doctor. There is no comparison between a questionnaire from a faceless researcher and a question asked by a physician during an examination. If Allison’s doctor asked about the appearance of my genitalia, I would assume there was a specific connection between this question and the ability of the physician to make an accurate assessment of her health. Under this circumstance, I would want her to discuss my abnormal genitalia without first seeking my consent. ( But I assure you the physician later would receive a call from me asking about the relevance of the question!)” R. Curtin, Testimony presented to U.S.Congress, Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy and Human Resources, May 3, 2000. Slide12:  Recruiting Relatives of a Proband with a Stigmatizing Condition ------------------------------------------------------------------------ In 1993, the National Institutes of Health launched its "Molecular Genetics Initiative" by setting out to "collect families" for an analysis of the genetic factors involved in schizophrenia. They intended to begin in the traditional fashion, by identifying probands or index cases amongst patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, and using their medical records to identify family members to recruit. A psychiatrist on the team cautioned that in contacting the relatives the researchers should take pains not to identify the probands: "This is important," he said, "because the presence or severity of mental disorders may be considered a secret, and subjects may not want relatives to learn of their diagnoses." Without reference to the proband's diagnosis, however, how could an investigator, like you, for example, adequately explain to the proband's cousins why you are interested in their participation in a genetic study of this disease? If the phenotypic information you are seeking from the relatives (i.e., presence or absence of diagnosed schizophrenia) is already recorded in the proband's medical history, what are the acceptable approaches to using it for research purposes? What are the pros and cons of using that information for research purposes without contacting the relatives or obtaining their consent? How would you handle this recruitment? ------------------------------------------------------------------------ http://www.onlineethics.com/reseth/mod/genres.html Slide13:  “IRBs might draw a distinction between information about others provided by a subject that is also available to the investigator through public sources (for example, family names and addresses), and other personal information that is not available through public sources (for example, information about medical conditions, adoptions, etc). “ OPRR, “Human Genetic Research,” in Protecting Human Subjects: Institutional Review Board Guidebook (Bethesda, MD, NIH, 1993). Whose interests are at stake in genetic research?:  Whose interests are at stake in genetic research? Individual volunteers Volunteered Individuals Obligate Participants Non-participating Kin Group as a whole Slide16:  “If the disease is rare with few subjects available, and it is scientifically impractical to discard the pedigree, then the results of the data analysis could be published without publishing the pedigree itself, with the pedigree made available to bona fide investigators who request it. If the pedigree must be included in the publication, the nuclear family in which the incompatibility occurs could be left out of the pedigree. If it is necessary to publish the complete pedigree, an approach could be made to the family to elicit admission of nonparternity and to request permission to publish.” H. Austin and M. Kaiser, “Summary Report to the Human Subjects Research Advisory Committee on the Meetings of the Intramural Working Group on Human Genetics Research” (Bethesda, NIH, Aug. 23, 1993), p.2-3. Slide17:  When the Proposed Research May be Objectionable to the Source of the Tissue ------------------------------------------------------------------------ A researcher interested in the genetics of alcoholism has identified what she believes is a candidate gene for susceptibility. Knowing the prevalence of alcoholism is especially high in certain ethnic groups, she asks a tissue repository for samples of tissue from Native Americans living in the Southwest, and from a control group of non-Native Americans from the same region. She neither requests nor needs any personally identifying information with each sample other than whether it is from a Southwestern Native American, so that the samples could be taken from fully anonymous or unlinked specimens. The tissue repository says that, according to its arrangement with the Native American community that donated tissues samples, all protocols for work with their tissue must be vetted by their own IRB, and they have a history of rejecting studies they deem potentially stigmatizing. The investigator considers soliciting samples directly from individual Native Americans through a n urban University clinic where she works instead, and stripping samples of identifiers upon collection. ------------------------------------------------------------------------ Whose interests are at stake in genetic research?:  Whose interests are at stake in genetic research? Individual volunteers Volunteered Individuals Obligate Participants Non-participating Kin Group as a whole Progeny of the Human Genome Project:  Progeny of the Human Genome Project NSF: Human Genome Diversity Project, 1992-1998 CDC: Public Health Genetics Program, 1997- NIEHS: Environmental Genome Project, 1998- NHGRI: The SNiP Consortium, 1998- NIGMS: Pharmacogenomics Initiative, 1999- All involve “comparative population genomics:” I.e.,collecting DNA samples from members of different human groups for comparative analysis Slide20:  Inuit Nation Inuit-American Graduate students Hopi Nation Native Canadians Native Americans Indigenous North Americans Slide21:  “Consistent with the requirements of this Code, the powers of the Navajo National Health Research Review Board shall include: A. the review and approval or disapproval of research proposals. B. the review of manuscripts (including theses and dissertations) prior to publication. C. the negotiation of additional procedures, methodologies, and approaches to research and publication with researchers…..” Navajo Nation Health Research Code, para. 10, Title 13, Navajo Tribal Code Features of participation, once recruited::  Features of participation, once recruited: Sample & information deposited in bank Potential for multiple future uses, possibly unrelated to donor’s health concerns Issues of stewardship and control Potential for profit to bank managers Questions in IRB review:  Questions in IRB review How open-ended may the consent be? What counts as “identifying personal information” in genetic research? How should early results of potential clinical benefit be managed? What level of control over the disposition of samples should be offered to participants? How should familial and group identifiers be presented in publication? One example: “Returning Results”:  One example: “Returning Results” The tradition: “clinical researchers may minimize potential harm to subjects by separating, as much as possible, their research role from clinical roles. If a genetic test reaches a level of reasonable medical certainty, and the subject wishes testing to learn their risk, the subject can be referred to a qualified clinical genetic counselor for provision of such information, rather than obtaining test results in the research setting” Am.J.Med.Gen., 1993 Pressures to change::  Pressures to change: Increased pace of translation of basic science Increased participant activism (and funding!) Participants as “collaborators” not “subjects” Spectre of “look-back liability” Challenging results to return:  Challenging results to return Unanticipated findings? Misidentified paternity –or ancestry! Plieotropic implications? APOE4 significance for AD/CAD Unvalidated findings? Almost everything at first! “Returning Results”:  “Returning Results” Today, “We believe that the major responsibility of this type of investigation is formal education of the affected individuals, their families and their physicians … As a part of the education component in our study, all local subjects are afforded a clinical visit to review all data, and all patients and all doctors receive a detailed letter describing the data obtained” Slide28:  “Thus in the end perhaps genetics research is best served by the routine practices of disclosure used in the medical treatment area. Disclosure of results which are material to a patient’s decision-making could become standard of care so long as the information is reasonably believed to offer some clinical benefit to the subject. As the study of the human genome gives way to the practice of genetic medicine, our sensibilities about disclosure may follow this path.” Laidlaw, Whittier Law Review, 2002 Home Grown Wisdom:  Home Grown Wisdom Use clinical standards for research information disclosure Too conservative? Vet information through clinical DSMB/community advisory board Too cumbersome? Staged information disclosure process Too alarming? Bottom-Lines:  Bottom-Lines Movement toward more involvement of and communication with biobank donor populations. Movement away from premature individual disclosures driven by ‘clinico-legal panic’. Increased attention to developing a validation process for clinical genetic testing For further reading:  For further reading Holtzman NA, et al. Predictive genetic testing: From basic research to clinical practice. Science 1997;278:602--5. Merz JF, et al. Protecting subjects’ interests in genetics research. American Journal of Human Genetics 2002;70:965--71. Quaid KA, Jessup NM, Meslin EM. Disclosure of genetic information obtained through research. Genetic Testing 2004;8:347--55. Renegar G, et al. Returning genetic research results to individuals: Points-to-consider. Bioethics 2006;20(1):24--34 Slide32:  CGREAL The Center for Genetic Research Ethics and Law Case Western Reserve University Supported by NIH Grant P50-HG-003390-01 Brought to you by: www.cgreal.org

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