El Karib Hagmann 2001 HEKS ACORD

Information about El Karib Hagmann 2001 HEKS ACORD

Published on October 23, 2007

Author: Techy_Guy

Source: authorstream.com

Content

Sudan and Armed Conflict – Are They Siamese Twins?:  Sudan and Armed Conflict – Are They Siamese Twins? Presentation for the ACORD/HEKS Swiss Interchurch Aid Focus Meeting 21-22 May 2001, Zuerich Asha El-Karib & Tobias Hagmann The Country: A Background:  The Country: A Background Location: NE Africa (surrounded by 9 countries and RS) Rich in natural resources with the Nile as main feature Inhabited by hundreds of tribes who speak different languages & dialects, and have different cultures & traditions (Diversity) Population growth 10.3 (1956); 20.6 (1983); 25.6 (1993); 29.7 (1999) Skewed pop. distribution between rural & urban settings Suffering from brain & muscle drain to all over the world Suffering from prevalence of large-scale poverty (>90%) The civil war has been ongoing for more than 40 years Understanding Armed Conflict:  Understanding Armed Conflict ROOT CAUSES PROXIMATE CAUSES … increasing conflict … decreasing conflict Armed conflict INTERVENING FACTORS Root Causes of Armed Conflict in the Sudan:  Root Causes of Armed Conflict in the Sudan Pre-British Colonial Period … Earlier movement of Arab Moslems & domination of the Arab culture Turko-Egyptian rule (slavery in the south) The south was regarded as land of cheap resources The Mahdia period (remote areas in the Sudan) British-Egyptian Colonial Period… Adoption of divide and rule policy The closing districts policy (south & Nuba Mountains) The creation of an elite society South was deprived from all development activities In attempt to stop expansion of Islam and the Arab culture the British decided to close the south Root Causes (cont.):  Root Causes (cont.) The Post-Dependence Causes Continue to adopt the British administrative system Failure to sustain a democratic system Adopting an urban-biased development Dominance of Arab elites & affiliation to Arab world Pressure from the external forces Opting for violence as means for conflict resolution Struggle between secular/democratic & religious/authoritarian forces inside Sudan Recurrent famines & droughts & consequent depletion of natural recourses Proximate Causes:  Proximate Causes Dual system & polarization (north/south; men/women; urban/rural/ moslems/other; Arab/non-Arab, etc.) Top down approach at looking at the problem Failure of the Sudanese to sustain democracy Fluid political system in the Sudan Exploitation of religions & misuse to aggravate the war Imposing of the Shari’a law Ill-adoption of the current federal system Proximate Causes (cont.):  Proximate Causes (cont.) Dominance of a totalitarian, Islamic-fundamentalist, military regime Impact of the oil The expansion of conflict to include other areas Unadressed grievances & distrust between the parties Failed internal and external conflict mitigation Competition over resources between southern militias Regional instability Ignoring early signs of conflict & failure to deal with them Intervening Factors Increasing Conflict:  Intervening Factors Increasing Conflict Conflict parties keep not fulfilling their promises Misusing Islam to trigger the War (Jihad) Oil and its consequences Effect of globalization & interest of international actors The frequent droughts & famines Improved relations between GoS & Eritrea & Ethiopia Spill-over of conflict & border instability with N Uganda Western interest in oil increases government revenues Intervening Factors Decreasing Conflict:  Intervening Factors Decreasing Conflict Increasing awareness of people of the war’s impacts The acceptance of Sudanese to self determination The emergence of many local peace initiatives The emergence of a vibrant civil society organizations The creation of platforms for dialogue at various levels International pressure on oil companies Conflict Mapping:  Conflict Mapping SPLA/M GoS Nuba mts BEJA NDA SPDF SSIM SMPA/M-United PDF Uganda USA Arab League? IGAD (Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda, Djibouti) Libya/Egypt OAU? China PNC (Turabi) Iran and others   Regular contact Military support/alliance Conflict Armed conflict Lessons Learned Re: Conflict:  Lessons Learned Re: Conflict The conflict is no longer a political issue, it has to be dealt with as a social issue The war could continue forever. There will be no winning party in such a war Self-determination principle could no longer be ignored It is of vital importance to separate religion from politics Good governance prerequisite for meaningfull negotiation Solution has to be sought in relation to the country’s position in the Horn and the Nile valley Lessons Learned Re: Peacebuilding:  Lessons Learned Re: Peacebuilding External attempts to be complemented by internal ones External actors can support peace by targeting concerned parties Interventions have to be based on thorough analysis Interventions should be long-term, process-oriented, focused and in collaboration with existing initiatives Support institutional capacities of partners in peacebuilding

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