Elvis 1

Information about Elvis 1

Published on November 14, 2007

Author: smith

Source: authorstream.com

Content

Quasar Structure: Why the details matter for Co-evolution:  Quasar Structure: Why the details matter for Co-evolution Martin Elvis Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics AGN & Galaxy Evolution:  AGN & Galaxy Evolution Example: AGN winds, radiation inhibit star formation? Bimodal galaxy colors in GOODS need to turn off star formation in massive galaxies (R. Somerville) mbulge > 2x1010 Msol AGN turns off star formation by ejecting gas by either gas or radiation pressure? (never re-accreted) R. Somerville: CfA lunch talk, March 2005 3 Pathways for AGN Feedback:  3 Pathways for AGN Feedback Radiation Heat, ionize ISM: inhibit star formation Universal in AGN, but AGN rare Jets Prevent cooling flows from cooling or flowing Rare: 10% radio loud at any moment, Do quiescent BH have ’dark’ jets? [see G. Fabbiano talk] Winds Less explored role Common, even universal? Winds, Tori and Feedback:  Winds, Tori and Feedback Winds: Location: mass, KE, mv, Z rates Geometry: fc, vescape, escape route Torus: blocks 80% feedback to ISM 3.Host disk torus: larger - ISM directly 4.Disk Wind torus: smaller - mdot dependent? Winds:  Winds AGN Wind Basics:  AGN Wind Basics Winds clearly present in >~50% of AGN, quasars Probably present in all AGN, quasars Provide mass/energy/metals to host galaxy, IGM: Influence of AGN Winds:  Influence of AGN Winds Quantitative results hampered by lack of numbers for winds Most papers assume: Mdotacc=MdotEdd, Mdotout = 0.1 Mdotacc All of wind escapes Need: examples to give reality check theoretical understanding to extrapolate to quasar population: Dependence on full range of M, Mdot, Z, z mass/energy/metals ejection by AGN Winds :  mass/energy/metals ejection by AGN Winds Rates depend heavily on Location and Geometry covering factor, equatorial vs conical vs polar blocking by torus, host ISM Estimates of location span factor 106 in radius kpc to 1000Rg Mdot = 75 Msol/yr at 0.2pc Netzer et al. 2003 Unsustainable: Mdot (out) >> Mdot(acc) Paradox Unified Model: 80% of lines of sight blocked by torus Produces 4:1 ratio of type2:type1 AGN Most AGN radiation, wind does not reach host galaxy  AGN feedback NOT important? X-ray Warm Absorbers and UV NALs = Wind:  X-ray Warm Absorbers and UV NALs = Wind Narrow UV lines High ionization CIV, OVI High ionization OVII, OVIII Outflow ~1000 km s-1 Seen in 50% of quasars Seen in same 50% of quasars Same outflow Narrow X-ray lines Same Outflow ~1000 km s-1 ‘Warm Absorber’ Narrow X-ray lines Narrow UV lines: NAL 1. Wind Location:  1. Wind Location Breakthrough Result: A measured WA radius in NGC4051:  Breakthrough Result: A measured WA radius in NGC4051 Time Evolving Photoionization measures R:  Time Evolving Photoionization measures R Nicastro et al. (1999) Response is not instantaneous: ‘Ionization time’ and ‘Recombination time’ measure ne independent of Ux and so measures R Step function change Gradual WA response NGC 4051: Two Warm Absorber Components in Photoionization Equilibrium:  Krongold et al., 2005, Nature, submitted NGC 4051: Two Warm Absorber Components in Photoionization Equilibrium log Ux(t), measured log Ux(t), predicted from photoionization equilibrium High Ionization phase Low Ionization phase  Both WA components are DENSE and COMPACT XMM EPIC Light Curve Lower limit on LIP ne and hence R:  Lower limit on LIP ne and hence R Low Ionization Phase, LIP in photoionizatin equilibrium at all times  teq(LIP) < tl,m = 3 ks  ne(LIP) > 8.1 107 cm-3 But (neR2)LIP = 6.6 1039 cm-1  R(LIP) < 8.9 x 1015 cm < 0.0029 pc < 3.5 light days Measurement of HIP ne and hence R:  Measurement of HIP ne and hence R At extremes (high and low) HIP is out of photoionization equilibrium  teqi,j+k(HIP) > tj+k = 10 ks HIP is in eq. at moderate fluxes  teql,m(HIP) < tl,m = 3 ks  ne(HIP)=(0.6-2.1)x 107 cm-3  R(HIP) = (1.3- 2.6)x 1015 cm = (0.5-1.0) light days Warm Absorber (wind) Location: outer :  Warm Absorber (wind) Location: outer RHIP ~ 0.5-1.0 light-day = (1.3-2.6) x 1015 cm RLIP < 3.5 light-day: consistent Rules out Narrow Emission Line Region (kpc scale) Rules out Obscuring molecular torus (Krolik & Kriss, 2001) Minimum dust radius, rsubl(NGC4051) ~ 12-170 light-days Rules out Hb broad emission line region (BELR) R(Hb) = 5.9 light-days (Peterson et al. 2000) light-days 5 10 15 HIP ~HeII BELR Hb BELR Dusty molecular torus LIP Dust sublimation radius Warm Absorber (wind) Location: inner :  Warm Absorber (wind) Location: inner RHIP ~ 0.5-1 light-day ~2200 - 4400 Rg Mbh=1.9+/-0.78 x 106 Msol (Peterson et al. 2004)  Disk winds arise on accretion disk scale Consistent with high-ionization BEL size R(HeII) ~< 2 light days. HeII blueshift ~400km/s = wind signature? Close to gravitational instability radius R(grav. unstable) = 1330 rg x (k/kes)2/3 (Goodman 2003) NGC4051 Wind Location: Summary:  NGC4051 Wind Location: Summary Disk wind dense consistent with pressure balance associated with high ionization BELR is gravitational instability implicated? Rules Out: NELR, Torus and Continuous Flow Can now move on to assess Mass/KE outflow rates - needs geometry 2. Wind Geometry:  2. Wind Geometry Wind Geometry:  Wind Geometry Equatorial winds would impact Torus no escape, no effect on host, IGM some fireworks: few 1000 km/s impacting mol. cloud: large, ongoing SNR shocks Winds not equatorial: large scale height/covering factor 50% AGNs have Winds Or torus and accretion disk not aligned UV Evidence for Transverse winds:  UV Evidence for Transverse winds Arav, Korista & de Kool 2002, ApJ 566, 699 Arav, Korista, de Kool, Junkkarinen & Begelman 1999 ApJ 516, 27 CIV doublet 2:1 ratio Departures from 2:1 ratio give covering factor NGC4051 Warm absorber is radially thin:  NGC4051 Warm absorber is radially thin From the independent measure of NH(HIP) 3.2x1021cm-2 R = 1.23 NH/ne  R(LIP) < 9x1012 cm  R(HIP) = (1.9-7.2)x1014 cm (R/R)HIP = 0.1-0.2; (R/R)LIP < 10-3 From the estimates of ne and (neR2): (R/R) = 1.23 NH ne-1/2 (neR2)-1/2  (R/R)LIP = 1 % (R/R)HIP  either the LIP is embedded in the HIP (pressure balance) or the LIP is a boundary layer of the HIP Cylindrical/Conical Geometry:  Cylindrical/Conical Geometry NGC4051 Wind is Thin: spherical shells are implausible needs impulsive ejection; inconsistent with 50% of AGN having WA would become a continuous flow - testable by re-observing in 2006 Next simplest symmetry: cylindrical (or bi-conical) Elvis 2000 Confirms Major Features of Elvis ‘funnel wind’:  Confirms Major Features of Elvis ‘funnel wind’ Elvis 2000 ApJ 545, 63; 2003 astro-ph/0311436 Pressure balance Becoming a secure basis for physical wind models: will allow extrapolation Slide25:  Conical/Polar Winds Avoid Torus can escape to affect host, IGM 2. Wind Mass, KE rates:  2. Wind Mass, KE rates Mass Outflow Rates vs Mass Accretion Rate:  Mass Outflow Rates vs Mass Accretion Rate MdotHIP = (4.3 - 9.2) x 10-5 Msol yr-1 MdotLIP < 6 x 10-5 Msol๏yr-1 = 0.02 Mdotacc Mdotout = 2% - 5% Mdotacc KEWIND = 2.5 X 1037 erg s-1 SMALL Mdotout insensitive to q, j unless j>75o, q<10o Mdotout = 0.8 p mp NH vr R f(q,j) AGN wind mass deposited to IGM:  AGN wind mass deposited to IGM If lifetime =108yr  Mtot(out)=(0.4-2)x104 Msol Mdotout scales with BH mass if at same Rg MBH(NGC4051) = 2 x 106 Msol  for MBH = 108-109 Msol  Mtot(quasar) = 106-107 Msol KEtot(wind) = 1055 erg small, but comparable with ULIRGs Caveats:  Caveats Only one object ‘Narrow Line Seyfert 1’ Unusually distant BELR ~10xRg(normal)  higher Mdotout Unusally weak wind? (= eigenvector 1?) Low Mbh 1.9 x 106 Msol  low Mdotout? Mdotout Scales with BH mass if at constant Rg Mdotout = 0.8 p mp NH vr R f(j,q) = A Mbh ‘Very High Ionization’ (Fe-K) absorber?  Larger Mdot Steady state winds not the whole story? Centaurus A (NGC5128) ‘Smoke Ring’ M. Karovska et al 2002:  Centaurus A (NGC5128) ‘Smoke Ring’ M. Karovska et al 2002 Smoke Ring: R ~ 8 kpc; kT~0.6 keV LX~ 4 x 1038 erg/s Eth ~1.2 x 1055 ergs ~100 Etot(wind) in NGC4051 Mgas ~ 106 Msol Includes swept up ISM v~600 km/s; t(outburst) 107 yrs Impulsive injection? Merger ~ 107 yr Only visible in Cen A (D=3 Mpc) Tori:  Tori 3. A Larger Torus: Host Galaxy Scale :  3. A Larger Torus: Host Galaxy Scale Obscuring Torus: What and Where?:  Obscuring Torus: What and Where? Canonical donut? Dynamic structure? Tied to host? Wind? Aligned with disk? Aligned with host? Aligned with neither? Answers affect feedback Tori in AGNs:  Polarized broad emission lines in the Type 2 (narrow line) AGN NGC1068 Tori in AGNs Clearly there is a flattened obscuring region in most AGNs >20 year old result Keel 1980, Lawrence & Elvis 1982, deZotti & Gaskell 1985, Antonucci & Miller 1985…. Axisymmetry requires a torus But is this toroid the `donut’ shaped parsec-scale object usually invoked? AGN Obscuring Torus:  AGN Obscuring Torus What does a torus explain? Hidden Broad Line Regions Ionization cones Ratio of type2/type1 AGNs ~ 4:1 Antonucci & Miller 1985 ApJ 297, 621 Hidden Broad Emission Line Tadhunter & Tsvetanov 1989 Nature 341, 422 The Standard Torus:  The Standard Torus Molecular Torus posited by Krolik & Begelman (1988 ApJ 392, 702): Large scale height: h/r~0.7 r~1pc [set by dust sublimation radius] NH~1024cm-2 ~ Compton thick Torus Issues:  Torus Issues How is donut supported? Covering fraction >50%, yet cold (dusty) Cloud-cloud collisions should flatten structure Thick clumpy accretion needs Mtorus>MEdd see SgrA* Vollmer, Beckert & Duschl 2004 A&A 413, 949 Can’t see accretion disk edge-on Difficult for BEL polarization PA rotation - all type 1 AGNs are ~pole-on Limb darkening can’t be used to explain ‘continuum energy deficit’ Netzer et al. 1985, ApJ 292, 143 and ‘ionizing photon deficit’ Binette et al. 1993 PASP 105, 1150 Torus believed to Align with Accretion Disk:  Torus believed to Align with Accretion Disk Radio Jets misaligned with host disk Polarization aligned with radio jets Antonucci 1983 Nature 303, 158 So obscurer not aligned with host disk Ulvestad & Wilson 1984 ApJ 285, 439 DPA host - kpc radio Torus Invented for NGC1068:  Torus Invented for NGC1068 Yet not needed in NGC 1068 itself: IRAM CO mapping suggests a warped disk on ~70pc scale Schinnerer et al. 2000 ApJ 533, 850 NGC 1068 has hollow `ionization’cones Crenshaw & Kraemer 2000 ApJ 532, L101 I.e. Matter bounded - a true outflow cone Not ISM illuminated by collimated continuum Still leaves type1:type2 ratio Radio alignments are problematic:  Radio alignments are problematic kpc radio Jets misaligned with VLBI pc-scale radio* Middelberg et al. 2004 Too few objects to test alignment with host disk What about polarization? Coming up! *Some concerns about self-calibration technique (J. Gallimore, private communication) Is the Torus Instead Aligned with the Host Galaxy Disk?:  Is the Torus Instead Aligned with the Host Galaxy Disk? Obscured AGN hosts preferentially edge-on? E.g. “Piccinotti Sample” 32 AGNs Hard X-ray Selected (2-10keV) 5 `Narrow Emission Line Galaxies’ Large NH Red optical spectra Seyfert 1.8, 1.9 Ha/Hb(broad)>5 Obscuration Aligned with Host Disk:  Obscuration Aligned with Host Disk Lawrence & Elvis 1982 ApJ 256, 410 log(Hb/LX) log(L3.5mm/LX) Edge-on Host galaxy Axial ratio Edge-on Face-on Hb absorbed Obscurer is Aligned with Host Disk:  Obscurer is Aligned with Host Disk Kirhakos & Steiner 1990, AJ 99 1722 The missing edge-on type 1 AGNs Host galaxy Axial ratio Strong continuum polarization PA(polarization) - PA(host disk) Thompson & Martin 1988 ApJ 330, 121 Host Galaxy Aligned Obscurer:  Host Galaxy Aligned Obscurer dominated by galaxy potential too large to be outer limit of BELR, disk? large scale height from warps? Solves problems: unobscured lines of sight sample all disk inclinations (for random disk/host orientation) photon, energy deficits may be solved AGN continuum reaches host galaxy ISM (= torus) Host ISM may be blown away but not instantly else no obscuration will be seen 4. A Smaller Torus: Disk Wind Scale:  4. A Smaller Torus: Disk Wind Scale Another Possibility: A Compact Torus:  Another Possibility: A Compact Torus Virtually all obscured AGN have variable NH Risaliti, Elvis & Nicastro, 2002 5 < Nclouds < 10 2 timescales: ~< 6 months, ~5 years Inner and Outer obscuring tori? Structure Function 3 examples… NGC4151: ~1day NH variations:  NGC4151: ~1day NH variations DNH ~ 2-3 x1022cm-2 in ~ 2 days BeppoSAX 1996 July Puccetti et al. 2005 150ksec A B C D NH 1022cm-2 1 2 5 NGC4388: 4 hour NH variations:  NGC4388: 4 hour NH variations RXTE 1 day outburst; NH 1/10 normal DNH ~ 1022cm-2 in 4 hours Expected ~ 1/year for ~1 day if due to Poisson clouds moving at BELR velocities Elvis et al. 2004 ApJ 615, L25 NGC1365: Rapid Compton-thick/-thin transitions:  NGC1365: Rapid Compton-thick/-thin transitions Normally Compton-thick: e.g. Chandra 2002 Dec Compton-thin 3 weeks later- XMM Compton-thick 3 weeks later still- XMM DNH~1024cm-2 Evidence for DNH~1023cm-2 in 6 hours Rapid Variability - Small Size:  Rapid Variability - Small Size Short timescale hard to reconcile with parsec-scale absorber: even dense clouds move too slowly Assume Keplerian motion of obscuring matter R < 104 r102 t42 Rs (t4 in 4-hours, r in cm-3) Is the Inner Torus the Disk Wind?:  Is the Inner Torus the Disk Wind? Could a disk wind be the sought for toroidal structure? Thick to BELs? oversupply of BEL clouds, or dust from outer regions of disk Wind has a large scale height Large covering factor easy to create Radiation blocked, but not matter ISM can be affected Easier torus physics: Wind is steady state, but not static No problem supporting obscuring structure Low dust-to-gas ratio easily understood, qualitatively Hydromagnetic Winds?:  Hydromagnetic Winds? Can make dusty ‘tori’ Give observed NH distribution Kartje, Königl & Elitzur, 1999 ApJ 513, 180 Predicted Fe-K optical depth vs. observation Kartje, Königl, 1994 ApJ 434, 446 Kartje, Königl, 1994 ApJ 434, 446 Kartje, Königl & Elitzur, 1999 ApJ 513, 180 AGN Winds & Tori: Conclusions:  AGN Winds & Tori: Conclusions Winds: Disk winds at 100’s - 1000’s Rg NELR, continuous, torus origins RULED OUT Conical flows (or funnel shaped) required - c.f. Elvis 2000 Highly Non-spherical fc~10% Large NH down cone = BALs? Mass, KE, Z flux are small AGN Winds are not a panacea Radiation, jets remain still a lot of extrapolation involved Are we missing something? Cen A ring Tori: 2 types of torus make blocking less important host oriented (kpc-scale) tori Torus is host ISM Random alignments allow radiation to impact host ISM disk oriented (10,000 Rg scale) tori Wind, but not radiation, can affect host ISM AGN structure details matter And can be solved Quasars are newly important to Cosmology:  Quasars are newly important to Cosmology Large NH , velocity along flow: BALs:  Large NH , velocity along flow: BALs NH along flow direction NH(cone) ~ R.ne R.ne(HIP) ~ 5 x 1022 cm-2 NH(cone) >10 x NH(obs) Approaches BAL column densities Larger velocity & velocity spread V(cone) ~ 4 vr ~4000 - 8000 km/s NAL=BAL c.f. Elvis 2000 NH(obs) NH(cone) AGN as a panacea?:  AGN as a panacea? overcooling problem/LF shape galaxy red sequence & bimodality decline of bright QSO’s MBH-s relation QSO and galaxy ‘downsizing’ cluster cooling flow problem/entropy floor R. Somerville: OIR lunch talk, 3/29/05 Slide57:  >100 absorption features - 6 parameter model pressure balance to 5% 3rd component on top branch Netzer et al. 2003 C.f. ISM phases Krongold, Nicastro, Brickhouse, Elvis, Liedahl & Mathur, 2003 ApJ 597, 832. astro-ph/0306460 X-ray Warm Absorber 2-3 phase gas in pressure equilibrium Same medium Other examples emerging: NGC985 NGC4051 WA is two-phase medium? :  WA is two-phase medium? PHASE gives average Temperature in Photoionization equilibrium x densities = pressure: P(HIP) = (2.9 - 10.5) x 1012 K cm-1 P(LIP) > 2.4 x 1012 K cm-1 LIP and HIP consistent with pressure balance No assumption of co-location embedded phase preferred? WA Location: 1:  WA Location: 1 Both LIP and HIP respond to Ionizing Flux Changes, within timescales of few ks  Rules Out Continuous Flow Model The Winds must be Compact  Rules Out NELR (kpc-scale) Model Fenovcik et al. 2005 also require small WA WA ionization tracks continuum:  WA ionization tracks continuum  WA components stay near photoionization equilibrium (neR2)HIP = 3.8 x 1037 cm-1 (neR2)LIP = 6.6 x 1039 cm-1 Two Obscuring Regions in NGC1068:  Two Obscuring Regions in NGC1068 Imaging AGN Winds:  Imaging AGN Winds A 20-30 meter telescope would get images at ~3 times the resolution: GMT AGN Biconical Winds on Larger Scales?:  AGN Biconical Winds on Larger Scales? Cen A At 3 Mpc 0.1” = 1.5 pc, same as 15mas @ 20 Mpc HST Pa image: disk or bicone? Schreier et al. 1998 ApJ 499, L143 Magellan resolved 10mm emission r ~1 pc Karovska et al. 2003 NGC4151 hot dust: r~0.1 pc. Keck K-band interferometry, Swain et al. 2003 ApJ 596, L163 r = 0.04 pc = 48+/-2 light-days from reverberation Minezaki et al. 2003 ApJ 600, L35 Host Galaxy Inner Structure:  Host Galaxy Inner Structure NGC 1068 Archetype of Hidden Nuclei ~100 pc warped molecular disk Schinnerer et al. 2000 Host Galaxy Disk Torus Solves Problems:  Host Galaxy Disk Torus Solves Problems If Accretion Disk is randomly aligned with Host Galaxy torus unobscured lines of sight sample all disk inclinations photon, energy deficits solved AGN continuum reaches host galaxy ISM (= torus) Host ISM may be blown away but not instantly else no obscuration will be seen Imaging AGN Winds:  Imaging AGN Winds smaller Imaging the Broad Emission Line Region:  Imaging the Broad Emission Line Region CIV High Ionization BELR have sizes ~0.1mas in nearby AGN Low ionization region several times larger Begins to be resolved with VLT-I, Ohana 10 times better resolution (few km baselines) would be enough to see shape Interferometer at Antarctica Dome C? Elvis & Karovska, 2002 ApJ, 581, L67 Two Obscuring Regions in AGNs:  Two Obscuring Regions in AGNs Accretion Disk wind + Host Galaxy disk Measuring the Metric via Quasar Imaging:  Measuring the Metric via Quasar Imaging Distances from pure geometry Needs 1mas images to resolve 10mas Use reverberation times to give physical size Ideal telescope would image the wind in space and velocity 5 km-10 km IR 2mm interferometer at ‘Dome C’ in Antartica ½-1km UV space interferometer = NASA ‘Stellar Imager’ 2nd version should be the ‘Quasi-stellar Imager’ Elvis & Karovska, 2002 ApJ, 581, L67 AGN Feedback:  AGN Feedback Now a given that AGN/quasar feedback affects galaxy evolution Mbh - sv, -Mdm relations Ferrarese & Merritt, Gephardt et al. 200X, Ferrarese 200X Jets prevent ‘cooling flows’ from cooling and flowing e.g. Begelman 2003 Colors of massive galaxies GOODS Somerville et al. 2005 Radiation, Jets, Winds all possible mechanisms Many (>40?) papers on origin of Mbh - sv relation ALL* assume L=LEdd and Spherical symmetry “…assume a spherical AGN uniformly emitting winds in all directions…” Let’s see if these assumptions matter… * well, all that I’ve checked. Please send me exceptions Slide71:  AGN Structures AGN Structures:  AGN Structures Moving outwards: Jet Accretion disk Wind Obscuring torus Host Galaxy More complex than normally assumed Moving outwards: Jet Accretion disk Wind Obscuring torus Host Galaxy Two Obscuring Regions in AGNs:  Two Obscuring Regions in AGNs Accretion Disk wind + Host Galaxy disk Randomly aligned? When Host galaxy disk dominates: Most lines of sight still obscured unobscured lines of sight sample all disk inclinations photon, energy deficits solved Host galaxy ISM can be blown away by AGN continuum in ~20% of cases Two Obscuring Regions in AGNs:  Two Obscuring Regions in AGNs Accretion Disk wind + Host Galaxy disk

Related presentations


Other presentations created by smith

Lecture 10 Foodborne
03. 01. 2008
0 views

Lecture 10 Foodborne

july1
23. 11. 2007
0 views

july1

power3 quiz bowl questions
04. 10. 2007
0 views

power3 quiz bowl questions

kiasan rama dan bunga
02. 10. 2007
0 views

kiasan rama dan bunga

Leadership Presentation FISH
06. 11. 2007
0 views

Leadership Presentation FISH

mergers and acquisitions
20. 11. 2007
0 views

mergers and acquisitions

cs221 20070427 multicast
28. 11. 2007
0 views

cs221 20070427 multicast

Workshop1 Isabel Dedring
18. 12. 2007
0 views

Workshop1 Isabel Dedring

manilabridges
30. 12. 2007
0 views

manilabridges

Encryption
31. 12. 2007
0 views

Encryption

swi
01. 01. 2008
0 views

swi

class objective 3
03. 01. 2008
0 views

class objective 3

surveillance homeland security
03. 01. 2008
0 views

surveillance homeland security

38 39
04. 01. 2008
0 views

38 39

Chap1
07. 01. 2008
0 views

Chap1

localization process
03. 12. 2007
0 views

localization process

Daniel Argyropoulos
07. 01. 2008
0 views

Daniel Argyropoulos

31199
06. 03. 2008
0 views

31199

ExecComp
12. 03. 2008
0 views

ExecComp

PPT Monika KRZYKAWSKA 11A20
14. 03. 2008
0 views

PPT Monika KRZYKAWSKA 11A20

050408 rtn
18. 03. 2008
0 views

050408 rtn

Two Shrines short b
21. 03. 2008
0 views

Two Shrines short b

f Tim Ball Westin May16 06
07. 04. 2008
0 views

f Tim Ball Westin May16 06

presentation CF30 11 07r
30. 03. 2008
0 views

presentation CF30 11 07r

PPT8
13. 04. 2008
0 views

PPT8

6 SerhiyLoboyko
21. 11. 2007
0 views

6 SerhiyLoboyko

truckandfreight
26. 02. 2008
0 views

truckandfreight

FDNS E 89 14
04. 03. 2008
0 views

FDNS E 89 14

ddc and soggetario ifla 2006
06. 12. 2007
0 views

ddc and soggetario ifla 2006

ColdWarinterpretatio ns
19. 12. 2007
0 views

ColdWarinterpretatio ns

ULSD Transportation
09. 11. 2007
0 views

ULSD Transportation

Chapt 10 Revolt and Reform
07. 12. 2007
0 views

Chapt 10 Revolt and Reform

dain
16. 11. 2007
0 views

dain