embrapa1

Information about embrapa1

Published on October 23, 2007

Author: Danielle

Source: authorstream.com

Content

Slide1:  www.fao.org Vitor Afonso Hoeflich Professor at the Federal University of Paraná Researcher at Embrapa Forest (National Forest Research Center of the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation - EMBRAPA Brazilian Forest and Forestry: an overwiev Slide2:  to the southern tip of the state of Rio Grande do Sul on the Atlantic coast and bordering Uruguay. The Federative Republic of Brazil has continental dimensions. It extends over 8 547 400 km2, 40 degrees of longitude, from the extreme east of the state of Paraiba on the Atlantic, to the extreme west of the state of Acre on the border with Peru, and 39  ° of latitude, from the northern tip of the territory of Roraima bordering Guyana and Venezuela, 5°15’N, www.fao.org Slide3:  www.fao.org -- the vast Amazon Basin, which spans the width of northern Brazil, Two geographic features dominate the landscape of Brazil: -- an extensive highland plateau, known as the Brazilian Highlands, which covers most of the south and south-east. The Amazon Basin contains the world's largest river and the world's largest tropical rain forest. In the south and south-east, the Brazilian Highlands an eroded plateau dotted with irregular mountains and crossed by river valleys forms the major feature of the landscape. The highlands separate Brazil's inland regions from a narrow coastal plain that stretches from Ceará in the north-east to the Uruguayan border in the south. Slide4:  www.fao.org The Amazon River and its tributaries is the largest in the world based on its flow, and the second longest in the world after the Nile. The Paraná River drains much of the southern part of the country and empties into the Río de la Plata estuary in Argentina. The principal river of the eastern plateau region is the São Francisco Many smaller rivers drain the land sloping to the Atlantic seaboard. The climate of Brazil is largely tropical or subtropical, with temperatures averaging from 26° C with little seasonal variation in the lower Amazon basin to 16° C in the southern region (less on the mountains of the south-eastern Atlantic coast). Slide5:  varies from 3 000 mm or more in some parts of the northern region (the Colombian border and the delta of the Amazon river) to 1 600 mm in central Brazil to as little as 300 mm in some parts of the "drought polygon" in the north-eastern region (in particular the states of Rio Grande do Norte, Paraiba, Pernambuco, Alagoas and Sergipe). www.fao.org Annual rainfall Slide6:  www.fao.org Ecological zones Slide7:  Campos Sulinos Southern fields 176.496 km2 (2,07%) Cerrado /Savannah 2.036.448 km2 (23,92%) Caatinga 844.453 km2 (9,92%) Mata Atlântica Atlantic Forest 1.110.182 km2 (13,04%) 4.196.943 km2 (49,29%) Savannah Caatinga Pantanal Swampland 150.355 km2 (1,76%) Amazon Coast System Coast System Slide8:  www.fao.org Forest cover - natural woody vegetation Slide9:  www.fao.org The humid tropical forests of the Amazon region -- constitute the largest block of closed forests in any tropical country. -- they correspond to humid or very humid climates (rainfall more than 1 500 mm) at lowland to submontane altitudes (less than about 2 000 meters) and can be "ombrophilous" or "evergreen", "seasonal" or not. The number of forest types is large, whatever the criteria used, whether dryland or alluvial zones (swamp forests and periodically or permanently inundated forests). Slide10:  a small proportion of the caatinga appears as dense forest (classified on the UNESCO/C.I.T.V. map as "sclerophyllous dominated extremely xeromorphic forest") among many other open tree or scrub vegetation types. In the northeastern zone, www.fao.org Slide11:  www.fao.org -- the climax zone of which stretches from Natal (6° S) to parallel 30° S on a 100- to 200-km wide band, remains only on the ridges and their total area does not exceed 3 million hectares. In the south there is a transition zone with coniferous stands of Araucaria spp. and Podocarpus spp. The humid evergreen forests of the Atlantic coast Araucaria Slide12:  www.fao.org Mangroves Comparison with other maps, however, show that mangrove stands do not exceed a total area of 2.5 million ha (forests and scrubs). extend along the Atlantic coast from the border with French Guyana to Florianapolis in the southern state of Santa Catarina (28° S) where shrub trees of Laguncularia racemosa ("mangue-branco") can still be found almost 1.3 million ha of mangrove forest were identified, while the UNESCO/C.I.T.V. map indicated for the whole of Brazil an area approximately equal to 3.6 million ha. Slide13:  Map of Brazilian Biomas http://www.jornaldomeioambiente.com.br/JMA-NaturezaBrasileira/ Slide14:  corresponds the 2/5 of the South America and the half of Brazil The biggest tropical forest of the Planet, the South American Amazônia, AMAZON Slide15:  Amazon Amazon The Amazon forest surpasses the limits of the borders of countries, occupying the Orinoco and Amazonas basins, moving forward from its tributaries and penetrating to the north in the countries of Guyana, Suriname and French Guiana. The Amazon forest is in the Mid-north of Brazil with nearly 5.6 million square kilometers and it is one of the main Brazilian biomas. ... Slide16:  The Caatinga is an only ecosystem with occurrence of rich vegetation in a semi-arid region National Park of the Capivara Hills Caatinga Slide17:  Amazon Brazilian Amazon It reaches the Atlantic, going by the delta of Amazonas, covering again part of the northeast of Maranhão state with a characteristic vegetation that will be described below. Accompanying the rivers, Amazon invades the area of the plateau, and therefore of savannah; to the west it finds the Andes in the countries of Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador and Colombia. Slide18:  Brazilian Amazon Brazilian Amazon Its great vastness reaches Central America (with forest that has characteristics  different from that of the Brazilian Amazon) and it can be found even in the south of Mexico Adding all areas covered by the forest, we have the incredible number of 6 million square kilometers. Brazilian Amazon 3,5 million of km2 >50% of the forest 42% of the Brazilian territory Slide19:  The geographical position of the Amazon (in the area of the equator) has resulted in  a  concentration of solar energy, accompanied by an almost permanent provisioning of humid air masses, with absence of cold or dry stations, and without a very large thermal width. Brazilian Amazon Brazilian Amazon Slide20:  These are the characteristics that have facilitated the appearance of the great green mass. In the periphery forest area, in the Brazilian states from Rondônia to Acre exists the "coldness phenomenon" that consists of a penetration of the Atlantic air tropical mass in Amazon in the winter period of the Southern Hemisphere.  This causes a small temperature drop. Brazilian Amazon Brazilian Amazon Slide21:  Amazon fauna and flora colors and contrast never fail to impress. There exists a contrast of colors even in the rivers. The white rivers transport a great amount of fine sediments, as clay in solution, at the same time that sand is moved. Slide22:  Little amount of sediments is taken by the water, just organic matter in decomposition are found there, consisting in their largest part of the leaves' layer and animal remains of the forest ground. Despite the fact that they carry few sediments mixed in their waters, they transport some sand. At times this causes the formation of banks of sand, in their Slide23:  The igarapé (igara means embarkation dug in the one tree log, pé means way) in scientific terms means amazon courses of water of first or second order.  -- are primary tributaries of small, medium and big rivers, and their courses are an access to the forests. -- is used even today as roads for the local inhabitant -- runs gently into an almost closed forest tunnel, with palm trees aligned on its margins, between small ravines and the immense forest. -- Most have dark waters because they run inside the forest; their waters have organic matter in suspension Slide24:  With all these characteristics, the Amazon shelters an enormous variety of animals and vegetable species that until the current day were not studied. The Amazon is a complex ecosystem that gathers an invaluable wealth of fauna and flora. It can be used to bring unimaginable benefits to man. But the immensity hides the fragility of this living mass. Slide25:  Caatinga is a vegetation type whose location is mainly the Brazilian northeast, but also occurs in the north of Minas Gerais State Caatinga This area is characterized by a semi-arid climate with irregular rains. It presents two seasons not very well defined: One hot and dry and the other hot and wet. It is common during the dry season to prolong and to provoke calimite to the population of this place. Slide26:  Savannah (Cerrado) The savannah is located in the areas of the central plateau, prevailing in Mato Grosso and Goiás, also happening in Bahia, in Minas Gerais and São Paulo. It occupies around 20% of the national territory. Savannah (Cerrado) Slide27:  The climate is diversified, however the tropical climate prevails with two season very well defined, one dry and the other humid. Its soil is sandy, but it is being used with some success in agriculture, mainly of legumes such as soy in association with corn. The area  possesses underground sheets of water that are not very deep.  This facilitates the extraction of water through artesian wells, which are used in irrigation Savannah Slide28:  The vegetation of the savannah characteristically possesses trees of medium height (3 to 6m) with twisted logs and branches, groos peel, coriaceous leaves, and deep roots (reaching at times the sheet of water). In agreement with the spacing between the trees and the height of these, divisions appear as cerradão ("high savannah", formation that more resembles a forest), and cerradinho (similar to a field with some bush). Savannah Slide29:  Several answers exist for the trees twisted characteristic; for example, the lack of nutritious soil. But one of the best explanations is the burns of the growth zone. Plants have a main growth zone and secondary zones, that are inactive and only work when the main zone stops existing. Savannah Slide30:  With the periodic burns that happen in the savannah, the main growth zone would be burned and the secondary zones would be activated and, begin growing in another direction. The explanation of fire makes sense, when it is analyzed that some seeds  only germinate after they have been burned. This  can be considered a protection against  fire; or when we analyzed the extremely gross peel, another protection against fire. Savannah Slide31:  In the savannah they exit many interesting fauna including the Giant Anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla), the  maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), the Giant armadillo (Priodontes maximus) and others. The vegetation with its adaptations is also extremely attractive. Savannah Slide32:  Savannah One of the savannah and Pantanal advantages is a less dense forest character that makes it easier to see animals more easily than in other locales of dense forest such as the Atlantic forest Slide33:  This ecosystem is located mainly in the South Region but also occurs in high altitudes of the Southeast Region. The climate is  subtropical with relatively regular rain for the whole year and temperatures relatively low. Araucaria angustifolia Paraná-pine Araucaria angustifolia Paraná-pine The araucaria (Araucaria augustifolia) or Pinheiro-do-Paraná:  The araucaria (Araucaria augustifolia) or Pinheiro-do-Paraná This tree can reach up to 50m and produces edible seeds. It has branches distributed around a central log. This area has little flora diversity due to the cold climate.  and the araucarias stand out, being isolated. This facilitates much deforestation  and the danger of extinction for this ecosystem. Slide35:  544 million hectares (64% of its territory) has some form of forest cover. Brazil has the largest expanse of tropical forest in the world -- 350 million hectares as an effective availability of natural forest Forests and the forestry sector: Brazilian resources 412 million hectares: The natural forest area with timber potential (approximately) -- 124 million hectares are in the public domain and include national forests, reserves of indigenous populations, national parks and other conservation areas. - - 12 million hectares (15% of the total area with timber potential) are under permanent conservation (ex: river banks or water springs, as prescribed by the Forest Code). -- 288 million hectares are under private ownership www.fao.org Slide36:  113 million m3 per year: the potential sustainable production Forest plantations cover approximately 6 million hectares, which places Brazil first in Latin America Eucalyptus: ~3.540.000 ha (59 %) Pine: ~ 2.220.000 ha ( 37 %) other species: ~ 240.000ha (3,4%) 775 million m3: volume estimated of the forest plantations www.fao.org Slide37:  Forestry Products 30 million m3 of round wood is supplied by The Amazon region (approximately 85 percent of annual natural forest production) Making Brazil the world's largest consumer of tropical wood. Virtually all of this is for the domestic market. Round wood processing is generally inefficient and actual production equates to only 35 percent of the harvested volume, Brazil accounts for 4 percent of the world tropical wood market. which implies a very high level of waste. www.fao.org Slide38:  www.fao.org Consumption ~175 million m3 / year: consumption of natural forest round 2.7 million m3/year: (average) consumes each year 108 million m3 of wood of forest plantations, corresponding to some 400 000 ha of plantations. the pulp and paper sector wood for industrial processing, wood and charcoal production of board Slide39:  www.fao.org external trade, Brazil -- 2 percent of the global market for pulp and paper -- 3.5 percent for plywood, -- 8 percent for veneer, -- 2 percent for chipboard. 1,5% of the total traded in the world US$ 290 billion (wood products) US$ 45 billion (non wood products) Slide40:  Brazil's share of this trade is in fact very limited as the exportation of roundwood logs has been banned since 1980. Although approximately one-third of the planet's tropical rainforests are in Brazil's Amazon region, which covers more than 300 million hectares and has an export potential of 15 000 million m3 of timber www.fao.org Timber production ~175 million m3 / year: consumption of natural forest round wood for industrial processing, wood and charcoal Slide41:  are very important and generate significant local employment and income. Non-wood forest products such as the Brazil nut, rubber and palm hearts, www.fao.org Slide42:  The evolution of forest plantations Until 1966 they covered a small surface area and were geared towards the emerging steel industry and the railways from 1967 to 1987 there was a period of fiscal incentives and large afforestation programmes, which led to some 4 million hectares being planted. This was followed by reduced planting from 1988 when the incentives were withdrawn www.fao.org Abraf Slide43:  progressing from growth rates of 20m3/ha/year to 40 m3/ha/year. The evolution of forest plantations reduced planting from 1988 when the incentives were withdrawn but this did not prevent the sector from becoming an important component of the national economy, with the pulp and paper sector attaining international importance and Brazil featuring as the world's leader in fast-growth, high-yield plantation techniques www.fao.org Slide44:  FOREST COVER BRAZILIAN FOREST SECTOR Slide45:  The forest industry has had an important economic and social impact on the country's development National production of sawn wood posted cumulative growth of more than 47 percent from 1986 to 1996. which increased from 1 million m3 in 1986 to 4 million m3 in 1996. Another important aspect has been the contribution of conifer wood from plantations, The largest consumer of sawn wood: -- civil construction (38 percent) -- the furniture and higher added-value sector (35 percent). www.fao.org Slide46:  PLANTED AREA (2000) Others 3,4% ABRAF 3,05 million 1,88 million Slide47:  BRAZILIAN FOREST SECTOR Slide48:  BRAZILIAN MARKET OF ROUND WOOD In Brazil already the wooden double of reforestation of that of native forests is harvested. Million of m3 cc (2000) PINUS EUCALYPTUS TROPICAL TOTAL SPECIES T O T A L (m3) 33,1 60,4 53,3 146,8 22,5% 41,1% 36,4% 100% ABRAF Slide51:  Thank you ! Vitor Afonso Hoeflich

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