Energy in Ecosystems

Information about Energy in Ecosystems

Published on December 15, 2009

Author: dantescience

Source: authorstream.com

Content

ENERGY IN ECOSYSTEMS : ENERGY IN ECOSYSTEMS 1 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) Food Chains : Food Chains A linear relationship demonstrating the flow of energy & organic matter in an ecosystem 2 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) All energy in an ecosystem comes from the sun : All energy in an ecosystem comes from the sun 3 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) The Sun : The Sun M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) 4 The sun produces energy (heat, light, and radiation) through fusion. Slide 5: M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) 5 The Sun : The Sun M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) 6 Harmful energy components are “filtered” by Earth’s atmosphere and magnetic field The Ozone Layer : The Ozone Layer M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) 7 September 1979: Ozone Levels : M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) 8 September 1979: Ozone Levels August 2009: Ozone Levels http://ozonewatch.gsfc.nasa.gov/monthly/climatology_09.html The Ozone Layer : The Ozone Layer M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) 9 The Sun : The Sun M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) 10 The Sun : The Sun M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) 11 Provides energy for Earth’s BIOSPHERE: the combined ecosystems (living parts) of our planet, the location of life The Sun : The Sun M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) 12 Majority of Sun’s energy reach our planet and interacts with the Earth’s physical components: Atmosphere Lithosphere Hydrosphere The Sun : The Sun M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) 13 Drives our planet’s CLIMATE by controlling temperature, wind, and amounts of precipitation The Sun & Wind Patterns : The Sun & Wind Patterns M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) 14 NOW A CLIP Albedo Effect : Albedo Effect M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) 15 The tendency of an object to reflect light, instead of absorbing it. Albedo is the percentage of light reflected by any object Slide 16: 16 LOW ALBEDO HIGH ALBEDO Albedo Effect : Albedo Effect M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) 17 Notice anything common about the locations of our planet with HIGH ALBEDO Albedo Effect : Albedo Effect M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) 18 HIGH ALBEDO Objects which are light coloured such as snow, sand, clouds, and areas without trees Reflect light, meaning they do not absorb light/heat. Slide 19: M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) 19 Albedo Effect : Albedo Effect M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) 20 LOW ALBEDO Objects which are dark coloured such as asphalt, dark soil, and forests. Absorb light, release infared radiation (heat) Bodies of water also absorb light Albedo Effect & Global Warming? : Albedo Effect & Global Warming? M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) 21 Greenhouse Effect : Greenhouse Effect A natural layer of greenhouse gases insulate the earth They trap the heat released by the Earth Helps maintain a global temperature which maintains life 22 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) Greenhouse Effect : Greenhouse Effect M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) 23 Greenhouse effect is NOT global warming ENERGY FLOW IN ECOSYSTEMS : ENERGY FLOW IN ECOSYSTEMS 24 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) Food Chains : Food Chains A linear relationship demonstrating the flow of energy & organic matter in an ecosystem But the animal relationships are much more complex in ecosystems. 25 M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) Food Chains & Energy : Food Chains & Energy Arrows point in the direction of energy flow 1st organism is always the producer Primary Consumer: 2nd organism is the consumer that eats the producer Secondary Consumer: 3rd organism is the consumer that eats the 1st level consumer And so on.... Food Webs : Food Webs M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) 27 In reality, ecosystems are very complex having many interweaving food chains which form a food web. Slide 28: M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) 28 Slide 29: M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) 29 Trophic Levels : Trophic Levels M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) 30 Trophic level describes the position of the organism in relation to how it gets its nutrients & energy Literally means “feeding level” Organisms eating the same food would be at the same feeding level Slide 31: M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) 31 1st Trophic Level 2nd Trophic Level 3rd Trophic Level 4th Trophic Level Slide 32: M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) 32 Note how energy flows in one direction but how the matter all ends up in the detrivores and decomposers eventually. For this reason, decomposers and detrivores belong to all trophic levels except the first one. Thermodynamics : Thermodynamics M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) 33 Thermodynamics is the study of energy and energy change Types of Energy? 1st Law of Thermodynamics: Energy is never created or destroyed, but only changes form. Thermodynamics : Thermodynamics M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) 34 2nd Law of Thermodynamics: every time energy changes form, some energy is lost in the form of heat. This holds true for ecosystems (food chains/webs) Energy Loss in Ecosystems : Energy Loss in Ecosystems M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) 35 Only about 10% of energy gets passed through each step of a food chain 90% of energy is lost at each step to carry out life process, lost as heat or through feces Energy Loss in Ecosystems : Energy Loss in Ecosystems M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) 36 How much energy would be available to the rabbit and fox? 1000 KJ ? ? 100 KJ 10 KJ Energy Loss in Ecosystems : Energy Loss in Ecosystems M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) 37 Question: suppose 10 000 KJ of energy are available at the level of the grasses. What is the total number of energy units lost by the time energy reaches the coyote? Answer: 9990 KJ Energy Pyramid : Energy Pyramid M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) 38 Energy pyramids illustrated how much energy is available at a given trophic level. Allows you to understand there are less consumers, as you move up a food web. Slide 39: M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) 39 Energy Pyramid : Energy Pyramid M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) 40 Slide 41: M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) 41 Slide 42: M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) 42 Pyramid of Numbers : Pyramid of Numbers M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) 43 Provide information at the number of individuals at each trophic level in an ecosystem Are not always pyramid shaped Often depends on the sized of organisms involved Pyramid of Numbers : Pyramid of Numbers M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) 44 Typical pyramid for involving carnivores Pyramid of Numbers : Pyramid of Numbers M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) 45 Pyramid in which there is one large producer Pyramid of Numbers : Pyramid of Numbers M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) 46 A food chain involving parasites Pyramids of Biomass : Pyramids of Biomass M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) 47 Convey energy about the amount of “dry mass” or BIOMASS at each trophic level They always pyramid shaped. Pyramids of Biomass : Pyramids of Biomass M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) 48 Pyramids of Biomass : Pyramids of Biomass M.Bregar (Dante C.S.S.) 49 Why are pyramids of Biomass always pyramid shaped?

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