Published on November 2, 2011
Unit 10: Recycling: Unit 10: Recycling (giảm lượng rác thải) (thực vật) 3 Rs Slide 3: Logo Đại diện bảo vệ môi trường tiết kiệm nguồn tài nguyên thiên nhiên Slide 5: vật chất vải da Slide 7: old cardboard boxes (pl) hàng hóa thùng, xô (để múc nước) Slide 8: X X X X Slide 15: First, take the used tea leaves from the tea pot. Next, scatter the tea leaves on the tray. Then, dry the leaves in the sun. Finally, put the dry leaves in a pot for future use. 2. In some areas people burn dry tea leaves to keep mosquitoes away. Look at the pictures. Make the instructions on how to prepare the tea leaves, using the given words in the box. take put dry scatter Slide 16: t liquid. specific chemicals. 2 Slide 17: into intended shapes. Slide 20: 4. Complete the letter. Use the correct forms of the verb be and the adjectives in the box. Happy Delighted Certain Relieved Sure Afraid Passive forms: Passive forms The passive form of verbs is formed of BE + the past participle , (example : English is spoken here) ◊ We use the active form of a verb to say what a subject does . Example : The chef cooks food every day. ◊ We use the passive form to say what happens to the subject . Example : Food is cooked every day. ◊ The subject of a passive verb corresponds to the object of an active verb. * Food is cooked every day. (Passive) * The chef cooks food every day. (Active) ◊ We use the passive form of a verb when it is not important who does the action , or when we don't know who does it. * The letter was delivered at 9 a.m. (The identity of the person who delivered the letter is unknown or unimportant.) If we want to say who does the action, we use 'by + agent' : * The letter was delivered by the postman. VERB ACTIVE PASSIVE Infinitive To cook To be cooked Present Simple : I cook food in the kitchen every day. Food is cooked in the kitchen … . Present Continuous : I am cooking food in the kitchen now. Food is being cooked in the kitchen … . Present Perfect : I have cooked food in the kitchen for 5 years. Food has been cooked in the kitchen ... . Past Simple : I cooked food in the kitchen yesterday. Food was cooked in the kitchen … . Past Continuous : I was cooking food in the kitchen last spring. Food was being cooked in the kitchen ... . Past Perfect : I had cooked food in the kitchen before I ate. Food had been cooked in the kitchen … . Future Simple : I will cook food in the kitchen next year. Food will be cooked in the kitchen … . Modals : I can cook food in the kitchen. Food can be cooked in the kitchen. Trung Tâm Gia Sư Hoa Thọ Web: hoatho.notlong.com Slide 22: By To state what the cause of a passive action is, you can use by . For example: - This photo was taken by my friend . - I was given this by my brother . It is often not necessary to state the cause of a passive action, especially when clearly understood or irrelevant. For example: - The meeting was cancelled. (The meeting's cancellation is what is important, not who cancelled it.) - These boots were made in Italy. (The fact they were made in Italy is what's important, not who made them.) Born When talking abut the birth of specific people of things we use the passive form "to be born". For example: - I was born in Iran. - The twins were born just last year. Get Get can be used instead of to be in situations where something happens. For example: - Our flight got cancelled = Our flight was cancelled. - I got paid today = I was paid today. Get can't be used with general situations and state verbs (verbs that express a state, not an action). For example: Get is used more often in informal English. - He is liked by a lot of people. - OK - He gets liked by a lot of people. - Incorrect. - She is known to be a hard-working employee. - OK - She gets known to be a hard-working employee. - Incorrect Active sentences with two objects in passive Active : The policeman gave you a medal . Passive : You were given a medal by the policeman. ( a medal = direct object = D.O) Passive : A medal was given to you by the policeman. ( you = indirect object = I.O ) In the first sentence, the verb gave , in the Active Voice, takes the direct object medal and the indirect object you . In the second and third sentences, the verb was given is in the Passive Voice. In the second sentence, the former indirect object, you , is the subject of the verb, and the former direct object, medal , remains the direct object. In the third sentence, the former direct object - medal - is the subject of the verb, and the former indirect object, you , is preceded by the preposition to . Verbs with prepositions in passive When we put an active sentence, where a preposition follows after the verb (e.g. break into, look after), into passive - the preposition remains immediately after the verb. Active sentence: Someone broke into the pet shop. Passive sentence: The pet shop was broken into . Slide 23: Active sentences with two objects in passive When there are two objects in an active sentence, there are two possible active sentences and two possible passive sentences. possibility 1: The professor explained the students the exercise. possibility 2: The professor explained the exercise to the students. There are two objects in each of the following sentences: object 1 = indirect object: the students object 2 = direct object: the exercise An indirect object is very often a person, a direct object a thing. When a direct object is followed by an indirect one, we put to in front of the indirect object. active sentence - possibility 1 subject verb indirect object direct object The professor explained the students the exercise . active sentence - possibility 2 subject verb direct object indirect object The professor explained the exercise to the students . Each of the objects (direct and indirect) can be the subject in the passive sentence. passive sentence - possibility 1 subject verb object (by-agent) The students were explained the exercise . (by the professor). passive sentence - possibility 2 subject verb object (by-agent) The exercise was explained to the students (by the professor). Possibility 1 is sometimes called Personal passive . Verbs with prepositions in passive When we put an active sentence, where a preposition follows after the verb (e.g. break into, look after), into passive - the preposition remains immediately after the verb. Active sentence Passive sentence Someone broke into the pet shop. The pet shop was broken into . Slide 24: 1) Personal Passive When we put an object of an active sentence into passive, it becomes subject of the passive sentence. Active voice: The professor explained the students the exercise. The professor explained the exercise to the students. Passive voice: The students were explained the exercise. The exercise was explained to the students. We sometimes use a pronoun for "the students" or "the exercise" in its subject form (here: they/it). Passive voice: They were explained the exercise. It was explained to the students. We very often leave out the by-agent in the passive sentence (here: by the professor). 2) Impersonal Passive - It is said ... The phrase It is said ... is an impersonal passive construction. We often use it in news. Passive sentence - version 1: It is said that children are afraid of ghosts. Passive sentence - version 2: Children are said to be afraid of ghosts. The correct active sentence would be: Active sentence: People say that children are afraid of ghosts Slide 25: Personal and Impersonal Passive Personal Passive simply means that the object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence. So every verb that needs an object (transitive verb) can form a personal passive. Example: They build houses. – Houses are built. Verbs without an object (intransitive verb) normally cannot form a personal passive sentence (as there is no object that can become the subject of the passive sentence). If you want to use an intransitive verb in passive voice, you need an impersonal construction – therefore this passive is called Impersonal Passive . Example: he says – it is said Impersonal Passive is not as common in English as in some other languages (e.g. German, Latin). In English, Impersonal Passive is only possible with verbs of perception (e. g. say, think, know). Example: They say that women live longer than men. – It is said that women live longer than men. Although Impersonal Passive is possible here, Personal Passive is more common. Example: They say that women live longer than men. – Women are said to live longer than men. The subject of the subordinate clause (women) goes to the beginning of the sentence; the verb of perception is put into passive voice. The rest of the sentence is added using an infinitive construction with 'to' (certain auxiliary verbs and that are dropped). Sometimes the term Personal Passive is used in English lessons if the indirect object of an active sentence is to become the subject of the passive sentence. ACTIVE: Everybody thinks Cathy works very hard. PASSIVE 1: Cathy is thought to work very hard. PASSIVE 2: It is thought that Cathy works very hard. ACTIVE: They believe Tom is wearing a white pullover. PASSIVE 1: Tom is believed to be wearing a white pullover. PASSIVE 2: It is believed that Tom is wearing a white pullover. Adjectives followed by: Adjectives followed by It’s + Adj + (for somebody) + to.infinive Một số tính từ được theo sau bằng những động từ nguyên mẫu, cụ thể khi chúng ta nói về: * Cảm xúc hoặc cách chúng ta phản ứng với sự việc hoặc người khác như: glad, sorry, sad, delighted, pleased, afraid, anxious, surprised, shocked … Ex: It’s difficult for you to get a good job. I’m very pleased to see you here. It’s easy to learn English. It’s not difficult to learn English. * Sau các tính từ trong cấu trúc câu có từ: enough hoặc too. Ex: The apples are ripe enough to pick. It’s too hard to do that. S + Be + Adj + that + noun clause Mệnh đề danh từ (Noun clause) thường được dùng với các tính từ diễn tả xúc cảm, sự lo lắng, sự tin tưởng … như: delighted, glad, pleased, anxious, certain, confident … E.g : He will win the game. I am sure. I am sure that he will win the game. You want to know more. I am pleased. I am pleased that you want to know more. We are delighted that you passed your English exam. Slide 27: Turn the sentences into passive voice : 1. They didn’t give me the money. I wasn't given the money. 2. Has anybody told you what to do? Have you been told what to do? 3. People believe that the company is losing a lot of money. It is believed that the company is losing a lot of money. 4. He suggested allowing council tenants to buy their houses. Council tenants were allowed to buy their house by his suggestion. 5. He doesn’t like people laughing at him. He doesn't like being laugh at. 6. We added up the money and found out that it was correct. The money was added up and found out that it was correct. 7. I’m afraid we have sold all our copies but we have ordered more. I'm afraid all our copies have been sold but we hahe ordered more 8. It is your duty to make tea at 11 o’clock. (use supposed) You are supposed to make tea at 11 o'clock. 9. We know that the expedition reached the South Pole in May. The expedition is known to have reached the South Pole in May. 10. He likes people to call him “sir”. He likes being called "sir" 11. They expect the weather will be good tomorrow. The weather is expected to be good tomorrow. 12. Don’t touch this switch. This switch hasn't been touched. 13. It is impossible to do this. (use can’t) This can't be done. 14. You order me about and I’m tired of it. (use I’m tired of…) I'm tired of being ordered about. 15. We don’t allow smoking. Smoking isn't allowed. (is forbidden) 16. I think they should have offered Tom the job. I think Tom should have been offered the job. 17. They decided to divide the money between the widows of the lifeboatmen. (use They decided that the money…) They decided that the money was divided between the windows of the lifeboatmen. 18. They urged the government to create more jobs. The gormvement was urged to create more jobs. 19. You will have to get someone to see it. Some one will have to be got to see it. 20. You have to see it to believe it. (2 passives) It has to be seen to be believed.