Erosion

Information about Erosion

Published on April 17, 2008

Author: Bina

Source: authorstream.com

Content

Slide1:  Mountains: Erosion Slide2:  Erosion Sediment Regime :  Sediment Regime Sediment “regime” of a river is set by the amount and size of material delivered from both hillslopes and upstream. The amount or rate of sediment supply depends on the processes that govern sediment delivery to rivers. Sediment Supply to Rivers :  Sediment Supply to Rivers Size and composition of sediment delivered to rivers reflects: soil properties rock properties the process that delivered it. Graduate student for scale Sediment Budget:  Sediment Budget Soil Creep Landsliding Bank Erosion Upstream Input Stream Reach Downstream Output I - O = DS Sediment inputs from upstream and across channel banks are balanced by either downstream sediment transport or changes in sediment storage. Erosional Processes :  Erosional Processes Soil “Creep” Overland Flow Landslides Glaciers River incision into bedrock Bank Erosion Erosional Processes :  Erosional Processes Soil “Creep” Overland Flow Landslides Glaciers River Incision Bank Erosion Soil creep is the gradual, non-catastrophic downslope movement of weathered material under the influence of gravity (i.e., not by flowing water). Slide8:  The burrowing activity of animals results in a net downslope transport of material that in some environments can be the dominant sediment transport process. Slide9:  Tree-throw can uproot rocks and also usually results in a net downslope transport of soil and broken rock. Slide10:  Plowing a hillslope, ca. 1935 National Archives: RG083 G 36711 Soil Creep:  Soil Creep Soil Creep Landsliding Bank Erosion Upstream Input Stream Reach Downstream Output Slow, steady input of material across channel banks, or delivered to valley bottom. Typical rates of 0.1 to 1 mm yr-1. Erosional Processes :  Erosional Processes Soil “Creep” Overland Flow Landslides Glaciers River Incision Bank Erosion Erosion by overland flow occurs once enough flow accumulates to overcome the erosion resistance of the ground surface. Slide13:  Precipitation that runs off as overland flow can cause substantial erosion once enough flow accumulates to incise the ground surface. Xc Xc is the critical distance needed to incise a channel. Slide14:  Badlands environments are an extreme example where Xc may be just cm’s! Slide15:  Unchanneled valleys occur where the erosion resistance of the ground surface is high relative to the amount of overland flow; Xc is very large. Slide16:  Entrenched channels and gullies can develop in landscapes where overgrazing decreases the erosion resistance of the valley floor. Overland Flow:  Overland Flow Erosion by overland flow is rare in forested mountain landscapes because: rainfall tends to infiltrate into the ground; the ground has substantial erosion resistance due to vegetation. Erosion by overland flow is most common in disturbed or semi-arid landscapes Erosional Processes :  Erosional Processes Soil “Creep” Overland Flow Landslides Glaciers River Incision Bank Erosion Landslides involve the downslope movement of soil and/or rock under the influence of gravity and may be either slow and gradual or rapid and catastrophic. Bedrock landslides:  Bedrock landslides Bedrock landslides can limit the relief of mountain ranges, such as happened at Mt. Cook, New Zealand when the top 10 meters of summit fell away in a massive landslide/avalanche on December 14, 1991. Scarp Runout zone Deposit Bedrock landslides:  Bedrock landslides Earth Flows Lots of internal deformation; typically slow. Earthflow in New Zealand Soil landslides:  Soil landslides Debris Flows Lots of internal deformation; rapid. Failure typically occurs along well-defined shear plane at soil-bedrock interface. Debris flows along Tolt River Landsliding:  Landsliding Soil Creep Landsliding Bank Erosion Upstream Input Stream Reach Downstream Output Rapid, infrequent inputs of large volumes of sediment. Rates of delivery set by landslide frequency, which is often centuries to millennia at a point. Erosional Processes :  Erosional Processes Soil “Creep” Overland Flow Landslides Glaciers River Incision Bank Erosion Glaciers can both entrain loose surface materials and gouge deeply into bedrock. Glacial Erosion:  Glacial Erosion Rapid erosion of material from above perennial snow line. Rates can exceed 10 mm yr-1. Processes of erosion and rates depend on temperature, glacier size, precipitation rate, etc... Erosional Processes :  Erosional Processes Soil “Creep” Overland Flow Landslides Glaciers River Incision Bank Erosion Rivers can carve deeply into bedrock and such incision provides another source of sediment. Slide26:  In the world there is nothing more submissive and weak than water. Yet for attacking that which is hard and strong nothing can surpass it. - Lao-Tzu, 6th century B.C. River Incision:  River Incision Erosion = f (discharge, channel width, slope) More water in a narrower channel down a steeper slope means faster river incision Rates of bedrock river incision typically range from <0.01 mm yr-1 to 1 mm yr-1, but can exceed 5 mm yr-1 in extreme topography. Erosional Processes :  Erosional Processes Soil “Creep” Overland Flow Landslides Glaciers River Incision Bank Erosion Bank erosion recycles material stored on the valley bottom, typically in the floodplain. The rate of bank erosion defines a turnover time for valley bottom landforms. What controls erosion?:  What controls erosion? Potential process drivers: Climate Topography Vegetation Slide30:  Landscape-scale rates of erosion vary with: Erodibility Slope Climate Vegetation Slide31:  Rates of erosion vary with: Erodibility Slope Climate Vegetation Slide32:  Erodibility There is at least a 5 order of magnitude range in bedrock erodiblity Slide33:  Rates of erosion vary with: Erodibility Slope Climate Vegetation Slide34:  Erosion rate versus slope Olympic Mountains Slide35:  Rates of erosion vary with: Erodibility Slope Climate Vegetation Effect of Precipitation and Vegetation on Sediment Yields:  Effect of Precipitation and Vegetation on Sediment Yields Slide37:  Class Concept: Rivers and beaches are part of sediment transfer systems

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