Published on March 20, 2008
Trafficking in Human Beings for sexual exploitationPresentation by Steve Harvey First Officer - Trafficking Human Beings Group: Trafficking in Human Beings for sexual exploitation Presentation by Steve Harvey First Officer - Trafficking Human Beings Group Slide2: ‘..it’s not that the world has suddenly realized that its women are being kidnapped, sold and raped. The only difference is that today it’s flourishing as never before.’ Victor Malarek – The Natashas: Inside the New Global Sex Trade Why is Trafficking in Human Beings a growth crime.: Why is Trafficking in Human Beings a growth crime. Globalisation of the market place Demand for purchased sex A commodity which is not in short supply A commodity which is re-useable Initial investment recovered in a very short time Massive profit margins Few or no risks to traffickers / pimps A Low risk –High reward enterprise: A Low risk –High reward enterprise Professional and organised criminals examine the risks associated with their activities and will seek to reduce those risks through the implementation of measures designed to minimise the threat to themselves or their organisations. In consideration of this, identifying a risk free environment to operate in or one that has less risk will inevitably attract their attention. Why is OC involved in trafficking in human beings: Why is OC involved in trafficking in human beings OC groups and professional criminals are motivated in the first instance by financial reward. To that end they will trade in any area and with any commodity that is likely to return a high profit. $7 - 10,000,000,000,000 Why low risk ?: Why low risk ? The principal or key figures do not get arrested Vulnerability of victim Many investigations into traffickers and trafficking networks still based on victim complaint Difficulties faced by prosecutors in gathering evidence and presenting cases Response from law enforcement Corruption: Corruption ‘The human rights violation of trafficking in persons cannot flourish without the complicity of indifferent and corrupt state officials’ Martina Vandenberg – Human Rights Watch Serbia and Montenegro: Shameful investigation into sex-trafficking case: Serbia and Montenegro: Shameful investigation into sex-trafficking case ‘The government of Montenegro must re-open as a matter of priority a high-profile sex-trafficking case in which Montenegrin politicians, judges, police and civil servants are implicated’ Letter from Amnesty International to the Minister of the Interior of Montenegro. Organised Crime in the European Union: Organised Crime in the European Union In the majority of the Member States, OC is dominated by indigenous groups A number of new ethnic criminal organisations are trying to establish themselves in the EU. These are made up of criminals of Romanian, Lithuanian, Moldovan, Chinese, Vietnamese, Chechen and Pakistani nationality, and Albanians The crime groups with the largest geographical spread originate from: Russia, Turkey, Albania, China, Romania, the Western Balkans, Bulgaria, Nigeria and Italy. Scale of trafficking in human beings in the European Union: Scale of trafficking in human beings in the European Union ? Numbers of women smuggled and trafficked annually into the EU and Central and Eastern Europe have been put at 300,000 (Council of Europe report: Current Trends in International Migration in Europe 2003) Major Source Countries of victims trafficked to the EU: Major Source Countries of victims trafficked to the EU Source country – the place where women and children are ‘recruited’ from Transit country – the place through which victims are trafficked or temporarily housed pending arrival at their final destination Destination country – the place where it is intended that the trafficked victims will ‘work’ Slide12: MOLDOVA ROMANIA BULGARIA LITHUANIA RUSSIA UKRAINE OC Groups Source Countries: OC Groups Source Countries Russian OC Bulgarian OC Romanian OC Lithuanian OC Moldovan OC Russia and Ukraine Bulgaria Romania Lithuania Moldova Levels of trafficking networks: Levels of trafficking networks Amateur or low level – locally based individuals who provide a single service or act as occasional traffickers. They may act on behalf of larger networks. Small groups or medium level – more permanent and operating cross border International or high level network – able to conduct the whole process from recruitment to forced prostitution including transport, provision of documents, high level corruption and money laundering OC Strategies and Trends: OC Strategies and Trends Dependant upon the level and infrastructure of the trafficking network Dependant upon nationalities (victims and traffickers) involved Dependant upon countries of origin, transit and destination Dependant upon law enforcement / government response to trafficking in area of operation Methods of recruitment for sexual exploitation: Methods of recruitment for sexual exploitation False employment opportunities False representation of declared sex work Lover boy Family or relatives act as brokers Kidnap/abduction Use of force and intimidation Drug and alcohol addiction The law enforcement response: The law enforcement response Recognition and prioritisation of THB as a threat Specific anti-trafficking legislation Dedicated / specialised anti-trafficking units Participation in training / awareness raising programmes Use of specialist investigative techniques Anti-trafficking strategy: Anti-trafficking strategy National Rapporteur Co-ordinated multi-agency response Country Action Plans Implementation of recommendations of European Commission Experts Working Group Report Implementation of anti-corruption legislation and investigations Raise awareness in destination countries Final thoughts: Final thoughts ‘Traffickers, pimps and brothel keepers are impervious to the power of the international community’s resolutions, treaties, covenants and protocols unless they impact upon the conduct of the Police officers or constables in their streets. Unless the brothel keeper actually gets in serious trouble with the civil authorities he’s going to keep doing what he’s doing. There is just too much money to be made’ Gary Haugen – Head of the International Justice Mission, Washington D.C.