Published on May 2, 2008
TECHNICAL SALES TRAINING: TECHNICAL SALES TRAINING We’ll help you capture your prey, like a viper! COMPANY PROFILE: COMPANY PROFILE Founded by Francesco Pompei in 1979 to develop new methods of reducing energy use Mr. Pompei was hired by Harvard University to solve energy related problems and saved up to $10 million in its first years The first pocket sized infrared scanners were developed to save energy The first infrared sensor in history capable of providing a thermocouple signal measuring temperature, non contact, with no power source was developed Medical infrared thermometers were developed and used at the Boston Marathon, Barcelona Olympic games, and Desert Shield Slide3: WHAT’S THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EXERGEN AND THE SNAKE? HISTORY OF INFRARED: HISTORY OF INFRARED All objects emit infrared energy, at temperatures above absolute zero (-273°C, -460°F) Sir William Herschel discovered infrared radiation by measuring the temperature of various colors separated by a prism. Herschel accidentally placed his thermometer below the red region, and noted a further increase in temperature. Herschel called this invisible light, infrared, which means below red. Infrared Innovators: Infrared Innovators Desperation Move to Explain Black Body Radiation Mathematical Equation for Thermal Radiation Confirmed Planck’s Quanta by Explanation of Photoelectric Effect But Never Really Liked the Eventual Result Max Planck Albert Einstein Francesco Pompei Learned for both of these guys and: Invented the world’s first pocket sized scanner, Infrared thermocouple and non invasive medical infrared thermometers Introduced Speed Boost Equation INFRARED INVENTIONS: INFRARED INVENTIONS 1901: The first patent for a total radiation thermometer was granted 1931: The first commercially-available total radiation thermometers were introduced 1980 - Exergram - first quantitative heat loss camera system for energy conservation. 1983 - Microscanner - first pocket sized infrared temperature scanner. 1987 - Dermatemp - first infrared scanner for emissivity error-free skin temperature assessment 1991: The first patented infrared thermocouple (IRt/c) was introduced 1999 - SensorTouch - first temporal artery thermometers for professionals and consumers, now TemporalScanner 2001: The patented Smart IRt/c, with long term accuracy is introduced Infrared Thermometry: Infrared Thermometry Thermopile detector measures target radiation Detector converts radiant energy into an electrical signal which is displayed Optics are used to measure a variety of field of views Why use Infrared Sensors: Why use Infrared Sensors Can measure moving objects Measures product temperature Won’t contaminate or damage product Longer lifetime Faster response time Slide9: DEMONSTRATION OF RESPONSE TIME INFRARED THEORY: INFRARED THEORY Infrared radiation obeys many of the laws that apply to light When infrared energy strikes an object it may be reflected from that surface, transmitted through the surface, or absorbed into that surface The sum of the reflectivity plus absorptivity plus transmisivity equals one (1 =r+a+t) When an object is at thermal equilibrium, the amount of absorption is equal to the the amount of emission (a=e) UNDERSTANDING EMISSIVITY: UNDERSTANDING EMISSIVITY Emissivity characterizes an object’s ability to emit radiation Objects with high emissivity radiate well Objects with low emissivity radiate poorly Emissivity – Mathematically: Emissivity – Mathematically Definition - amount of energy an object emits compared to that of a black body at the same wavelength and temperature. e = real object emitted energy blackbody emitted energy Emissivity values range from 0 to 1 MATERIAL PROPERTIES: MATERIAL PROPERTIES HIGH EMISSIVITY TARGETS – Non metals, paper, rubber, plastic, water, etc. LOW EMISSIVITY, HIGHLY REFLECTIVE TARGETS – Metals, metallic coatings, etc. LOW EMISSIVITY, HIGHLY TRANSPARENT TARGETS – Thin films and plastics, semiconductors,etc. SOME EMISSIVITY VALUES: SOME EMISSIVITY VALUES RAT Theory: RAT Theory At thermal equilibrium Absorptivity = Emissivity R = RELECTIVITY A = ABSORPTIVITY T = TRANSMISSION Black Body: Black Body Ideal IR radiator or perfect emitter Nothing can emit more energy at all wavelengths than a blackbody Utopia - it doesn’t exist in the real world Slide17: PERFECT EMITTER Emissivity = 1.0 Reflectivity = 0.0 Transmission = 0.0 GOOD EMITTER Emissivity = 0.9 Reflectivity = 0.1 Transmission = 0.0 HIGH EMISSIVITY SURFACES Measuring High Emissivity Targets, ONE POINT CALIBRATION: Measuring High Emissivity Targets, ONE POINT CALIBRATION Install IRt/c as close to the target as possible At high operating temperature, measure actual temperature with D Series Adjust SPAN, GAIN, or HI CAL in input device to match reference NOTE: If the readout reads high at ambient, it is due to leakage current in the input device, and a TWO POINT CALIBRATION is required Measuring High Emissivity Targets, TWO POINT CALIBRATION: Measuring High Emissivity Targets, TWO POINT CALIBRATION Install IRt/c as close to the target as possible At low operating temperature, measure actual temperature with D Series Adjust OFFSET or CAL LO in input device to match reference At high operating temperature, measure actual temperature with D Series Adjust GAIN, SPAN, or CAL HI in input device to match reference Slide20: PERFECT REFLECTOR Emissivity = 0.0 Reflectivity = 1.0 Transmission = 0.0 POOR EMITTER Emissivity = 0.1 Reflectivity = 0.9 Transmission = 0.0 LOW EMISSIVITY, HIGHLY REFLECTIVE SURFACES METALS One Pt. Vs. Two Pt. Calibration: One Pt. Vs. Two Pt. Calibration MEASURING METAL TARGETS: MEASURING METAL TARGETS Heat up metal target Paint a spot on the metal target Measure temperature of painted spot touching with a D or DX Aim IRt/c at bare metal Adjust GAIN in input device until IRt/c matches temperature at step 3. If there is not enough GAIN to calibrate, Smart IRt/c technology is necessary. NOTE: Special LoE models will measure metal targets with filtering to block out higher wavelength reflected energy Slide23: PERFECT TRANSMITTER Emissivity = 0.0 Reflectivity = 0.0 Transmission = 1.0 POOR EMITTER Emissivity = 0.1 Reflectivity = 0.0 Transmission = 0.9 Low Emissivity, Highly Transparent Surfaces THIN FILMS, SEMICONDUCTORS & PLASTICS MEASURING TRANSPARENT TARGETS: MEASURING TRANSPARENT TARGETS Heat up target Paint a spot on the target Measure temperature of painted spot touching with a D or DX Aim IRt/c at bare target Adjust GAIN in input device until IRt/c matches temperature at step 2. If there is not enough GAIN to calibrate, Smart IRt/c technology is necessary. Reflective Shields Can Reduce Errors Caused by Ambient Heat Sources : Reflective Shields Can Reduce Errors Caused by Ambient Heat Sources Slide26: DEMONSTRATION OF SAME IRt/c on target with different emissivities at the same temperature Explain the hot spot? This can of suds is ice cold straight out of the fridge. When scanned with an infrared camera you would expect the entire image to be relatively even in temperature and to appear "cold" in relation to the background. Can you explain the apparent "hot" spot in the center of the can. Hint: it's not a fingerprint!: Explain the hot spot? This can of suds is ice cold straight out of the fridge. When scanned with an infrared camera you would expect the entire image to be relatively even in temperature and to appear "cold" in relation to the background. Can you explain the apparent "hot" spot in the center of the can. Hint: it's not a fingerprint! Slide28: Live image reveals truth. The curtain is lifted and the truth revealed. The paint on the outside of the can has been scratched off in a small area. The bare aluminum has a different emissivity than the painted aluminum. THE IRt/c: THE IRt/c THE WORLD’S ONLY SELF POWERED INFRARED THERMOCOUPLE Slide30: The IRt/c Bunch! Optical Alignment: Optical Alignment Target must be larger than spot size Must have non-obstructed view Inaccurate temperature readings will result if: Target is too small compared to spot Spot overlaps target Sensor is “knocked” or misaligned Field of View: Field of View The ratio of distance between target and sensor to the spot size. Example: Distance between sensor and target = 5”, Spot size is 1” diameter, the field of view is 5:1. Field of View: Field of View Slide34: EFFECTS OF SPOT SIZE ON TEMPERATURE READINGS IRt/c Principles of Operation: IRt/c Principles of Operation IRt/c OUTPUT: IRt/c OUTPUT Output emulates that of a standard t/c (J,K, etc.) within a specified temperature range The output is a mV output signal The signal is predictable and very repeatable The units are calibrated on real world, gray body targets and ambient conditions for the highest accuracy mV output tables for all precalibrated IRt/c’s are available so the end user can increase accuracy and expand linear range STANDARD RANGES: STANDARD RANGES PRECALIBRATED MODEL RANGE 50F/10C 0-85F (-18-30C) 80F/27C 32-120F (0-50C) 140F/60C 70-190F (20-90C) 180F/90C 140-220F (60-105C) 240F/120C 180-250F (80-120C) 280F/140C 240-330F (115-165C) 340F/170C 280-370F (140-190C) 440F/220C 320-500F (160-260C) IRt/c-J-80F Signal Output: IRt/c-J-80F Signal Output -1.00 -0.50 0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 0 20 40 60 80 100 F mV Temperature Type J thermocouple IRt/c K type t/c: K type t/c IRt/c-K-80F vs K t/c: IRt/c-K-80F vs K t/c Programmable Input Devices Incorporating the IRt/c Polynomials: Programmable Input Devices Incorporating the IRt/c Polynomials Numerous OEM customers in custom controls, computer interfaces, & programmable transmitters The purpose is to condition the IRt/c signal and make it easy to work with from a user standpoint Increases the range of most IRt/c’s so that the any IRt/c can be used over a wide range (~ -50 –1200F) Slide42: Measuring targets at temperatures outside the IRt/c’s linear range Ambient temperature limits by model: Ambient temperature limits by model IRt/c.01 and IRt/c.03:-45 to 160° F (70°C) IRt/c, IRt/c.1X, IRt/c.3X, IRt/c.SV: -45 to 180°F (85C) IRt/c, IRt/c.1X, IRt/c.3X up to 750°F (450°C) with CJK-1 air cooling jacket, up to 1000 °F (540 °C) with water cooling. IRt/c.3X,: -45 to 240 °F (115 °C) with built in air purge, up to 750 °F (450 °C) with CJK-2 air cooling jacket IRt/c.5, IRt/c.10, and all adjustable models: -45 to 400 °F (200 °C) with built in air purge SELECTING A PRE-CALIBRATED IRt/c: SELECTING A PRE-CALIBRATED IRt/c ORDERING INFORMATION: (MODEL) - (THERMOCOUPLE TYPE) - (PRECALIBRATED TEMPERATURE RANGE) Select IRt/c Model, based on field of view Select thermocouple type desired Select temperature range desired Example: IRt/c.3X-K-80F/27C Adjustable model IRt/c’s: Adjustable model IRt/c’s Allow the user to calibrate to match a conventional t/c in whatever temperature range is desired The ranges are -50 to 5000F and can cover limited linear ranges, see Tech Note 70 Difficult optics can be obtained, such as slotted spot sizes and 100:1 FOV’s Higher temperature ranges can be obtained Wide linear ranges can be obtained with programmable input devices HiE and LoE models available for high and low emissivity targets Ordering Adjustable Models: Ordering Adjustable Models Select the model for temperature range, spot size, and target surface material. MODEL - T/C TYPE - (HiE or LoE), example: IRt/c.10A - K - LoE Adjustable model IRt/c’s are also available, precalibrated from Exergen with NIST traceability for quick multiple sensor installations IRt/c.20A: IRt/c.20A CALIBRATING ADJUSTABLES: CALIBRATING ADJUSTABLES Connect air purge if ambient >180F, at least 5 psig required. Install IRt/c, align to view target, bring target to operating temperature, connect leads to readout Measure target temperature with D or DX. Remove setscrew and turn calibration screw to match D or DX. Note: For final adjustments, OFFSETS in the readout device can be used. If the unit is not calibrating, a different model may be required. IRt/c Accessories: IRt/c Accessories Inline transmitters Mounting Brackets Air pump kits Connector Kits WHAT INFORMATION IS NEEDED FROM ENDUSER TO SELECT IRt/c MODELS?: WHAT INFORMATION IS NEEDED FROM ENDUSER TO SELECT IRt/c MODELS? TARGET SIZE DISTANCE BETWEEN SENSOR AND TARGET SURFACE MATERIAL OF THE TARGET THERMOCOUPLE OUTPUT DESIRED TARGET’S TEMPERATURE RANGE AMBIENT TEMPERATURE RANGE WHERE SENSOR IS MOUNTED IS THERE DUST OR DIRT IN THE AIR? WHAT IS THE INPUT DEVICE? IRt/c Inherent Characteristics: IRt/c Inherent Characteristics Self powered - no external power required Emulates a thermocouple within 2% at range close to its calibration point Calibrated on real world (greybody) targets, emissivity ~ 0.9 Intrinsically safe Small size, simple, rugged, low cost Fast response time ( 80-120 msec) Real World Performance Accuracy: Ambient temperature changes and ambient reflections compensated for in linear range IRt/c vs. Conventional IR: IRt/c vs. Conventional IR Troubleshooting: Troubleshooting Installation Tips: Installation Tips Always use low leakage current input devices, < 10 nA is recommended Sufficient OFFSET and GAIN adjustments are required in input devices to calibrate for leakage current and emissivity Wire like any conventional t/c (RED is always negative) Use air purged units for dirty and/or high ambient environments Best accuracy when the IRt/c is installed perpendicular and as close to the target as possible, with the spot size smaller than target Use shielded units in high electrical noise areas Potential Errors Caused By Ambient Temperature Effects: Potential Errors Caused By Ambient Temperature Effects If the ambient temperature of a control installation changes significantly, there are several sources of potential inaccuracies that can be minimized by attention to installation details Reflective errors – When the IRt/c is the same temperature as ambient sources, the design will compensate for reflected errors and maintain accuracy. If the radiant energy is too hot for an uncooled IRt/c, reflective errors can be minimized by avoiding viewing angles in which the surface can reflect a hot source. Leakage current effects – For installations in which the readout generates large amounts of leakage current, there is potential inaccuracy due to small shifts in IRt/c impedance with ambient temperature. Always select the input devices with the lowest leakage current available. What to look for when testing: What to look for when testing OPEN CIRCUIT – Impedance > 15 kohms indicates a broken wire and open circuit detection will detect it NO RESPONSE TO THERMAL RADIATION – Sensor is shorted, and will only read ambient temperature SENSOR READS LOW – Either the lens is dirty or the sensor has a gas leak. Common Pitfalls: Common Pitfalls Behaves like a conventional t/c over wide range Spot size is too large Sensor is not aligned correctly Lens is dirty Ambient temperature limit exceeded Emissivity of target changes during the process Induced noise/RFI Input devices with high leakage current will measure high at ambient, and need offsets Summary: Summary The IRt/c has subtle features that make a significant improvement over conventional IR In place calibration is always recommended due to uncertainties in emissivity and ambient temperature For OEM and multiple same use applications, the same model IRt/c can be substituted without the necessity of recalibration With the IRt/c’s specified useable linear range per model, the user is not lead into believing the measurement is accurate over wide temperature ranges SMART IRt/c: FEATURES: PATENTED TECHNOLOGY – LONG TERM ACCURACY Linear output of 0-5VDC, 0-10VDC, 4-20mA, RS232 Automatic emissivity shift compensation Through holes for secure mounting Heavy duty casting for thermal and mechanical stability Super efficient air purge guarantees permanent accuracy Automatic ambient reflection error compensation Standard model is 3:1 (1:1, 10:1, and 50:1 also available) Electronic drift is eliminated SMART IRt/c NEW! Plug & Play! Smart IRt/c Operation: Smart IRt/c Operation TypicalIRt/c Applications: Typical IRt/c Applications Agriculture Asphalt Automotive Coatings Food Drying Electric Power Flame Detection Furnace Gas Glass Hazardous Materials Ice Laminating Machine tools Medical Equipment Metals Oven Control Packaging Paint Curing Plastics Printing Semiconductor Soldering Thermoforming Webs Slide62: IRt/c’s in action! AGRICULTURE FOOD PRINTING Microscanner D and DX Series: Microscanner D and DX Series Calibration tool for installing IRt/c’s Inspection of product temperature for QC Research, high precision thermal diagnostics. Production, checking and adjusting thermal parameters Quality Control, insuring products meet temperature specifications at every process step Energy Conservation, find energy loss in order to save it Reflective cup provides true emissivity-free, and reflection-free NIST TRACEABLE temperature measurements Operation of the D and DX: Operation of the D and DX NIST Traceable temperature readings when making contact on targets of emissivity >0.8 Non contact thermal scanner with 1:1 FOV MIN, MAX, and SCAN modes available MICROSCANNER E SERIES - Electrical Inspection: MICROSCANNER E SERIES - Electrical Inspection Scan hot spots with automatic “fire” Small size, fits in the palm of your hand Speed (20 panels scanned, compared to one with IR gun) Safety (optics provides scanning from safe distances) Operation of the Micro E: Operation of the Micro E Zero out at ambient Aim and shoot at target Note degree C rise above ambient SnakeEyeThermal Switch: SnakeEye Thermal Switch Photocell-Like Non-Contact Thermal Inspection 100% Inspection of Hot Melt Adhesive Applied to Product Stainless steel housing Air purge for cleaning Straight view and side view versions High and low speed (up to 1500 ft/min.) Two outputs (LTE – Leading and Trailing Edge) FEATURES APPLICATIONS Hot melt detection (Beer cartons, diaper lines, cereal boxes, etc.) Thermal Switching (safety seal lines for aspirin bottles, thermal signatures on heated labels, hot food product on assembly line) Operation of the SnakeEye: Operation of the SnakeEye Install sensor as close to the target as possible Connect to PLC as follows: Red - 12-24VDC Black – GND Green – Leading edge input White – Trailing edge input Calibration – With samples of the material present, turn the sensitivity adjustment screw clockwise slowly until red and green LED’s start to flash on & off. Leading edge Trailing edge Red – Hot transition Green – Cold transition Power ON FACTORY EXPERTS AT YOUR SERVICE!: FACTORY EXPERTS AT YOUR SERVICE! CALL 617-923-9900 x238 or x205, for in house technical support available from 8 – 5 EST. www.exergen.com has Tech Notes, product specs, and more. “Factory experts at your service” data sheets can be faxed to 617-923-9911 Let’s play : Let’s play $100 QUESTION: $100 QUESTION Invisible light called INFRARED means: Slide73: $200 QUESTION At thermal equilibrium the energy an object absorbs equals its: Slide74: $500 QUESTION Emissivity is defined as the ratio between an object’s: Slide75: $1,000 QUESTION If the target size is 1” and the sensor can be mounted 7” away which field of view is required? $2,000 QUESTION: $2,000 QUESTION Which alignment will give the most accurate reading? A B C Slide77: $4,000 QUESTION If you are measuring a target that’s 100F with an IRt/c wired to a non programmable temperature controller which model IRt/c will measure with the highest accuracy? Slide78: $8,000 QUESTION If you are controlling a process that’s 0-600F with a programmable controller which model IRt/c can be used? Slide79: $16,000 QUESTION Customer wants 0-5VDC linear output from 0 – 250 C, what is the best selection? Slide80: $32,000 QUESTION Which of the following is not true when installing IRt/c’s? Slide81: $64,000 QUESTION The ambient temperature is 220F, which model IRt/c is best suited? Slide82: $125,000 QUESTION When troubleshooting IRt/c’s there is an open circuit when the impedance is this? Slide83: $250,000 QUESTION The Smart IRt/c has this advantage over the IRt/c? Slide84: $500,000 QUESTION The SnakeEye is wired just like what? Slide85: ONE MILLION DOLLAR QUESTION Who is the world leader in non contact temperature measurement? The End….: The End…. CONGRATULATIONS, YOU ARE ON YOUR WAY TO BECOMING A MILLIONAIRE DISTRIBUTOR!