Experiential Learning Programme on Applied Hi-Tech Horticulture

Information about Experiential Learning Programme on Applied Hi-Tech Horticulture

Published on January 20, 2019

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1. It is with a sense of great pleasure, I, Sanjib Kumar Parida (01A/13), am presenting this report of Experiential Learning Programme of Student Ready Programme 2016-17. I feel honoured to offer my sincere gratitude to all those people who have helped in completing this programme of “STUDENT’S READY” under which comes our Experiential Learning Programme. I am extremely thankful to Dr. L.M. Garnayak sir , Dean,College of Agriculture and Vice Chancellor, OUAT for undertaking such a programme in the course curriculum due to which I have got a chance to gain a lot of practical based knowledge and experiences which will help me in the long run. Expressing my deep gratitude to our Manager Dr. G.S Sahu sir ,Dr. S.N Dash sir,Dr. S.K Palai sir & Managing Director Dr.D.K Dash sir, for their proper guidance during ELP time period and for providing us theoretical knowledge prior to Experiential Learning programme . I would also like to thank the supporting professors as our Coordinaters of the Student Ready programme. They immensely help us to remove all the obstacles throughout the programme. Last, but not the least, I would also like to thank my beloved friends who accompanied me in my tasks even during odd hours and made me keep up the enthusiasm regarding my tasks. Date: 22/05/17 Sanjib Kumar Parida Place: Bhubaneswar 01A/13

2. ORISSA UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE & TECHNOLOGY College of Agriculture, Bhubaneshwar - 751003 CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the report entitled “Experiential Learning Programme (ELP)”prepared and submitted under the Student Ready Programme 2016-17 by 20 Student ELP Group, is actually based on the day to day works under our guidance and supervision. All sorts of help and sources of information availed during this programme have been duly acknowledged. Dr. G.S Sahu Dr. S.N Dash Dr. S.K Palai Dr. D.K Dash Managers - ELP Managing Director–ELP

3. ELP 2016-17 CONTENTS SL.NO CHAPTERS PAGE NO. 1. Introduction 1 2. ELP 2-3 3. Orientation programme 4-5 4. Market Survey 6 5. Activities That Were Done During ELP & Skill Learnt 7-27 A. Raising of Vegetable Seedlings in Protrays (Brinjal & Chili ) 7-8 B. Raising of Vegetable Seedling in Polybags (Cucmber, Bitter Gourd, Ridge Gourd & Pumpkin) 8-9 C. Planting of Cutting of Pointed Gourd in Polybags 10 D. Preparation of Full Grown Vegetables in Nursery Bed (Brinjal ,Chilli & Pudina) 11-15 E. Grafting of Fruit Plant (Mango) 15-24 F. Raising of Papaya Seedling in Polybags 25-26 G. Raising of Summer Ornamentals Annuals in Polybags & Pots 27 6. Other activites learnt during ELP 27-64 A. Nursery Bed Preparation 27-28 B. Seed Treatment 29 C. Sowing of Seeds in Nursery Bed 29-30 D. Weed Management in Nursery Bed 30-31

4. ELP 2016-17 E. Fungal & Bacterial Wilting in Nursery Bed 31 F. Pest & Disease Management 31-32 G. Control Insect Pest in Nursery Bed 33-34 H. Control of Snails in Nursery Bed 34-35 I. Control of Sucking Pest, Mite & Borer 35-39 J. Damping Off 39-40 K. Use of Neem Oil & NSKE 40-43 L. Safety in Spraying & Spray Solution Preparation 43 M. Types of Traps Used in Commercial Nursery 43-45 N. Drenching 45 O. Watering 46 P. Foliar Spraying 46 Q. Hardening of Seedling 46-47 R. Seedling Dip 48 S. Poision Bating 48 T. Formalin Treatment 48-49 U. Soil Solarization 49-50 V. Method of Propagation 50-64 i. Ornamental Trees 50-52 ii. Ornamental Shrubs & Climbers 52-55 iii. House Plants 55-56

5. ELP 2016-17 iv. Seasonals 56 v. Cuttings 57 vi. Commercial Flower Crops 58-62 W. Media Preparation 62 X. Potting & Repotting 62-63 Y. Care & Management of Potted Plants 64 7. SWOC Analysis of ELP 65 8. Visit to Deras (Floriculture ) 66-68 9. Visit to Deras (Vegetable ) 68-69 10. Visit to Deras ( Fruit ) 69 11. Visit to M S Nursery 70 12. Visit to Bamanda Biotek 70-71 13. Economics 14. Experience gained during ELP 72 15. Feedback 73 16. Conclusion 74

6. ELP 2016-17 Page 1 INTRODUCTION “Everything else may wait but not AGRICULTURE” -Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru Agricultural Education is an important tool and technique in ensuring gradual increase in agricultural productivity, sustainability in production, environmental and ecological security, profitability, technical feasibility, job security and equity in distribution. In India, ICAR 5 th deans committee (2016) recommended the Student Ready Programme for imparting quality, practical and production oriented education for agriculture degree programme. It is an appropriate model to create high quality human resources for sustainable extension services. The ELP (Experiential Learning Programme) is conducted every year in the 8th semester .The main objective of the programme is to learn the Entreprenuership Development skill among the students. This programme helps a lot in enhancing the required skill & practical knowledge to become a successful entrepreneur. This includes planning, budgeting, and marketing of planting materials of horticultural crops. It has been most important for us as it has generated interest among us to develop entrepreneur skill to set up our own enterprises with providing employment opportunities for others. This programme make us practically acquaints with different methods of raising of planting materials which include raising of vegetables seedling, grafting in fruits; cutting and potting of ornamental plants and flowers.

7. ELP 2016-17 Page 2 EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING PROGRAMME (ELPs) What is ELP ? Experiential learning programme is a Programme with the specific objective of learning by hands-on participation, by trying, making errors, and gradually narrowing the margin between failure and success. Scope of ELP ( Hi-Tech Horticulture ) :  Hi-tech Horticulture is now widely employed for the profitable commercial production of horticultural products.  Hi-tech Horticulture encompasses Micro-irrigation & Fertigation, Greenhouse Cultivation, Organic Farming & Bio-fertilizer, High Density Planting, Plug Tray Nursery Raising Technology, Dwarfing root-stock, Biological interventions (Conventional & Non-conventional tools), Hybrids & improved varieties, Mulching, Soil-solarisation, Integrated Nutrient Management (INM) and Good Agricultural Practices (GAP).  It is well established in all advanced countries as an industry, but in India, it has yet to find its right place. Hi-tech Horticulture also includes scientific and hi-tech propagation and handling of fruits, vegetables, flowers, ornamental plants, medicinal and aromatic plants, etc.  Odisha mostly depends on neighboring states for flower and planting materials of horticultural crops.  Flowers worth Rs 5 lakh are procured daily from states like West Bengal, Karnataka, Maharastra, etc. Planting materials are mostly procured from states like West Bengal, Chhatisgarh, Andhra Pradesh, etc.

8. ELP 2016-17 Page 3  So, there is more scope for student undergoing ELP to learn Hi-Tech Horticulture, develop skill for production flowers/planting materials in business mode as there is a good market in the state.  Students will not face problem in marketing of their produce and earn money which will increase the shelf confidence in students. Objectives of ELP ( Hi-Tech Horticulture ) :  Refinement of student’s acquired knowledge and understanding on commercial production of QPM through hi-tech horticulture  Capacity building for designing and development of ecologically sustainable and economically profitable agri-business model(s) on hi-tech horticulture  Learning the art and science of production and managerial skills under protected environment  Becoming a prospective entrepreneur for employment generation

9. ELP 2016-17 Page 4 ORIENTATION PROGRAMME The way in which our ELP programme was synchronised we were firstly acquaintwith the various practical aspects which will be carryout during this programme. Before going tothe field there was an orientation programme in the seminar hall, department of horticulture on from 16 st February 2017. The moto of this programme was to aware the students about the works which should be done during the whole semester. All the students of our group, all the faculty members of department were present in this programme. The programme was conducted by the CEO of horticulture module (Applied Hi-tech Horticulture), Dr. D.K Dash sir ;Prof. & Head GS Sahoo sir, SN Das sir, SK Palai sir. During this whole period we were able to learn about planning, budgeting, book keeping and marketingalong with the first-hand knowledge about the practical experience. All the faculty members of department of horticulture helped us to understand and to practice all the exercise regarding this programme. During this programme we were20 students assigned to horticulture module. The following students are- Sl Name of the student Admission No. 1. Sanjib kumar Parida 01A/13 2. Jyotirmayee Kar 06A/13 3. Manoj kumarMallik 08A/13 4. Susmita Kiro 12A/13 5. Dibya Ranjan Majhi 18A/13

10. ELP 2016-17 Page 5 6. Smaraki Pradhan 22A/13 7. Barial Kisku 23A/13 8. Anil Kumar. Mishra 25A/13 9. Minati Majhi 25A/12 10. Pruthiraj Mahanandia 42A/13 11. Nihar Chandra Das 47A/13 12. Lipilipsa Priyadarshini 55A/13 13. Itishree Behera 56A/13 14. Subrat Kumar. Sethi 59A/13 15. Subarnna K.H Padhan 66A/13 16. Rupan Dash 117A/13 17. Gyanaprakash Bishi 123A/13 18. Avijit Nanda 132A/13 19. Anil Kumar Dalabehera 153A/13 20. Prachi Pattanaik 178A/13 We are really thankful to our college and a department especially Dept. of Horiculture. For arranging this orientation programme which build confidence among us to carry out the programme.

11. ELP 2016-17 Page 6 MARKET SURVEY A Market Survey is a kind of survey which contains the information regarding the overall market situation of a product of a group of products or service. It reflects the market condition of a product or service in terms of its price, demand, supply, volume of transactions, market structure trend and so on. This type of report is prepared mainly on agricultural items to help the concern parties. Definition of market report, Meaning of market report, Business market report discuses below here- What is Market Survey ? A Survey containing the information on demand, supply, price, and quantity, quality of a product or service in a particular area or place during a particular time period is called a Market Survey. In fact it is a statement about any market item which reveals its overall market situation. Market Servey Report on Vegetable Marketing By Farmers : Our ELP group consisting of 20 students was assigned to servey different markets in Bhubaneswar I.e. 1. Potato, onion, garlic, colocasia, dioscoria, zinger(wholesale) 2. Flower marketing in Bhubaneswar 3. Fruit marketing in Bhubaneswar 4. Vegetable marketing in Bhubaneswar (wholesale/retail) 5. Vegetable marketing in Bhubaneswar (farmers) Our group was divided into 5 sub groups and our group members are 1. Avijit Nanda (132A/13) 2. Sanjib Kumar Parida,( 01A/13) 3. Pruthiraj Mahanandia. (42A/13)  We were assigned for the collection of data from the farmers who sale vegetable in Bhubaneswar markets.  We took one week to collect different data from 20 farmers from No1 market, No4 market, siripur market and sundarpada market. Those collected datas are attached below.

12. ELP 2016-17 Page 7 ACTIVITIES THAT WERE DONE During elp ..... A. RAISING OF VEGETABLE SEEDLINGS IN PROTRAYS (BRINJAL & CHILI ) Pro-Tray / Seedling Tray Nursery :  This method provides healthy and uniform growth of the seedlings.  Protray are the plug(cells) trays of 2-3" depth with drainage holes.Each tray is having 105 holes.  Initially the cells are filled with pot mixture generally coco pit, then sow the seed in protrays @1- 2 brinjal and chilli seeds per cell and cover with media.  Irrigated immediately and drenched with trichoderma(fnh pathonil 1) 5grms/lit to avoid seed born diseases like damping off, seeding rot.  Trays are watered thoroughly every day. Portrays are covered with newspaper. Newspaper are removed when germination is noticed. Transplanting :  The seedling for crops like tomato, brinjal, chillies cabbage, capsicum cauliflower etc., have to be raised in protrays and then transplanted in pots/bag/containers.  These seeds take 30-35 days to be eligible for transplantation. Advantages of pro tray :  Helps in proper germination.  Provide independent area for each sees to germinates.  Reduce the seedling mortality rates.  Root development is better.  Root damage is minimum or nill.  No transplantation shock. Material Used :- 1. Portrays (100 no) 2. Coco peat (6 block) 3. Vermicompost (6 kg)

13. ELP 2016-17 Page 8 4. Polythene sheet. Seeds Used :- Brinjal -Tarini (seminis) ,Chilli- 1. VNR-305 2. Kuchinda. PROCEDURE : - 1. Take a large polythene sheet and spread over the ground. 2. At first Cocopeat soaked in water for disintegration , after soaking of block 5kg block it will became 25kg. 3. 1kg vermicompost added to cocopeat both are mixed thoroughly . 4. After prepairing the media , fill up the media inti the portrays . 5. Take second portray put over it on first portray and press it gently. 6. Remove the second tray and level the first tray ahain by filling it. 7. Sow one seed in one hole and slightly press the seed into the media and cover it. 8. Watering with rosecane lightly. 9. Stack 10no of tray by giving some physical support between trays and cap with polythene sheet. 10. Remove the polythene after 3days and arrange them separately over polythene sheet. 11. After 1 week the seed germinates. 12. On 10th and 15th days foliar spray is given with ( 15:15:15) or (19:19:19) @ 3gm / lit. 13. On 21 to 25 days seedlings are ready for selling. B. RAISING OF VEGETABLE SEEDLING IN POLYBAGS (CUCMBER, BITTER GOURD, RIDGE GOURD & PUMPKIN)  First pot mixture were prepared with 5:1 ratio mixture of soil and FYM and di ammonium phosphate.  Then poly bag are taken and filled properly with pot mitxure leaving 2-3 cm from the top.  Then cucurbits seeds like bitter gourd ,ridge gourd,cucumber are firmly pressed into the polybag using our fingers.  Then polybags are left as such and watered every day.

14. ELP 2016-17 Page 9  After 10 -12 days sprouting started emerging .  After 15-20 days the seedlings were ready for sell. MATERIALS USED : 1. Polybag 2. Soil mixture- soil+FYM+DAP 3. Seeds 4. Polyethene sheet 5. Rosecane C U C U M B E R P U M P K I N BITTERGOURD RIDGEGOURD VARIETIES USED Prithvi, Aditya Guamal (sathi agro seed) Prithvi seed (kalahi ) Hybrid-nano S a t p u t i a No. of packets used 9 5 0 s e e d s / 25 g pckt(2 packet) 1 p a c k t 300 seed/25 g packet (3packtused) 1 p c k t No.of polybag done 9 5 0 5 0 900- kalahi variety 50-nano hybrid 5 0 No.of successful polybag 5 5 0 2 5 720 –kalah i 5 0 n a n o 4 0 Date of sowing 1 5 . 3 . 1 7 2 3 . 3 . 1 7 1 5 . 3 . 1 7 3 1 . 3 . 1 7 Date of germination 2 0 . 3 . 1 7 2 9 . 3 . 1 7 2 1 . 3 . 1 7 7 . 4 . 1 7 PROCEDURE : Prepare soil mixture by mixing soil+ FYM+ DAP. Mix them well. Fill these mixture in polybag properly. Silver polyethene sheet was spread on the ground.Then the polybag were arranged in these sheet in 10x5 blockes.Then seeds were pressed into the soil not very deeply with the forefinger, one seed per polybag.Water the polybags immediately after putting the seed. Then watering is done regularly.

15. ELP 2016-17 Page 10 C. PLANTING OF CUTTING OF POINTED GOURD IN POLYBAGS MATERIALS USED : 1. Polybag 2. Soil mixture- soil+FYM+DAP 3. Sand  We have done nearly 250 Pointed gourd cuttings in Polybags and the Successful Cutting is 200 no. CULTIVATION, PROPAGATION OF POINTED GOURD  Well drained sandy or sandy loam soils are required for the fertility.  These are propagated by vine cutting and root suckers.  Seed propagation is avoided due to poor germination and in ability to determine the sex of the plant.  Fresh vines with 8-10 nodes are per cutting are suitable for field planting.  Cutting should be partially or fully defoliated to check transpiration.  Plant plant distance 1.5-2m×1.5-2m.  A female : Male ratio of 9:1 is optimum for ensuring maximum fruit set.  Bower system requires 8000 cuttings/ha with a spacing of 1.5×1m plant to plant.

16. ELP 2016-17 Page 11 D. PREPARATION OF FULL GROWN VEGETABLES IN NURSERY BED (BRINJAL ,CHILLI & PUDINA) VEGETABLES FOR NURSERY RAISING Some vegetable require special care during their early growth period. There are some vegetables with very small sized seeds. These are first sown in the nursery for better care and to combat with the time for field preparation and about one month of seedlings are transplanted in the main field.These vegetables are – Tomato,Brinjal,Chilli,Onion,Capsicum,Cauliflower,Cabbage,Knol-Khol,Chinese cabbage, Brussel's sprout, Endive, Chicory, Celery, Kale etc. VEGETABLE NURSERY RAISING Success of any production system depends on the kind of seed we are sowing.,it is true with seedlings. Healthy seedlings grown in a well managed nursery will decide the yield and consequently the profit. Importance of vegetable nursery raising:- 1. It is convenient to look after the tender seedlings. 2. Eliminates the problem of emergence in difficult soils. 3. Weed control becomes easy. 4. Shorter cropping cycle therefore can get earlier planting and harvesting. 5. Reduced field management costs. 6. More uniform crop stand. 7. Higher yield possible. 8. More optimal use of expensive hybrid seeds. Factors to be considered for vegetable nursery raising :- 1. Location of the nursery. 2. Well exposed to the sun but protected against severe heat. 3. Near the water source. 4. Continuous supply of good water. 5. The seed bed should be kept moist not continually wet.

17. ELP 2016-17 Page 12 6. Soil should have a large quantity of organic matter. 7. Soil texture should have neither too course nor too fine. 8. Sufficiently porous and extremely aerated. RAISING OF BRINJAL SEEDLINGS IN NURSERY BED For growing of brinjal & Chili seedlings in nursery 10 out of 20 students from us were engaged in 10 different plots. We followed the following steps, 1. Bed preparation-: 1st of all on 1.3.2017 we prepared the bed. Each of us were provided with an area of 2sq metre. The bed was ploughed and levelled properly. The height of the bed was about 15 cm. Then straight furrow lines were drawn leaving 5 cm from row to row. Then we put well sieved or powdered compost in the row. 2. Seed treatment-: Before sowing the seeds seed treatment was done to avoid seed borne diseases with [email protected]/kg of seed. We did the dry treatment by taking seed and chemical in a polythene and mixed it well. 3. Sowing of seeds in nursery bed-: We sowed the seeds in the furrows prepared before keeping 2-3 cm gap between seed to seed. The seeds were of tarini veriety of seminis company which were hybrid in nature. After sowing the seeds were covered with powered compost. 4. Watering-: After sowing the seeds we watered the by the help of rosecane. Even though we had done seed treatment the 1st watering we did with [email protected]/lit. We used to water the bed twice a day regularly. 5. Weeding-: After sowing the seeds every day we did weeding before watering. The brinjal seedlings were ready on the 21th day afer sowing and they were transplanted into polybags for sale.

18. ELP 2016-17 Page 13 RAISING VEGETABLE SEEDLING OF CHHILI IN NURSERY METERIALS USED :  Well Drained Soil  Chilli Seed  Well Decomposed Fym  Implements  Lining Scale/Tape  Rose Cane For Watering Varities :- ( Utkal Abha,Utkal rashmi,Kuchinda ) PROCEDURE OF PLOT PREPARATION :-  Basically 2m to 1m long and Width respectively nursery bed are prefered for easy to management of weeding,watering,drenching of soluble fertiliser along with control of disease and pest.  1st, fine tillage is done in nursery bed then after add well decomposed fym and mix well.then after well treated seed are swoning in nursery bed in a line menner,the distance between two row of sowing is max 7cm and the deep of sowing is 1cm.  After sowing a fine layer of Fym is spread over the nursery bed for cover the seed.then slight watering is done. DISEASE IN NURSERY BED :-  Basically in nursery bed damping off desease are seen..  For control the disease differrent type of chemical used  ex:- [email protected]/lit,[email protected]/lit,mancozeb etc... Seed No of seed sowing Germination Rate in % Time take in germination Time taken for seedling preparation Watering interval Chilli 10000 98 6-7days 15-25Day 24 hour

19. ELP 2016-17 Page 14 PEST IN CHILLI NURSERY :-  The thrips mainly attack in chilli nursery bed.  For control this type of insect different type of chemical used  ex:-imidachloprid 17.8%@3ml/10lit,Dimethoate 30%@1ml/lit,Fipronil 5%@1.5ml/lit are used. PREPARATION OF MINT Mint is a beautiful herb that has one of the most recognizable aroma. A perennial that grows in nearly any condition. Mint can be used in everywhere for both gardening and landscape purposes. Find a suitable place:  Mint thrives in plenty of sunlight. However it does not like dry conditions, making partial shade a necessity. An ideal location would be facing towards north wall.  While tolerant of most growing situation, optimum soil and placement will yield the best results.  Choose a moist, well drained location. Preaparation of the soil:  The best soil for mint is well dug, fertile and well drained. Water logged soil will yield a less beautiful plant.  These preparations make the best growing but mint will thrive in any situations. Planting a growing mint:  Mint seeds can be started indoors and transplanted into the garden, or seeds can be sown directly into the soil in the spring.  Place the plant into prepared area when planting. Place seedlings about 1 foot apart or thin seedling once the seeds have sprouted.  Fertilization is usually unnecessary unless the soil is unusually poor. Steps for care and maintenance:  Remove leaves as needed for harvesting. The leaves are most flavourable when the spikes are in full bloom.

20. ELP 2016-17 Page 15  Remove leaves from the top of the plant while raising the seedling. It will encourage new growth further down the stem.  Leaves can generally be harvested at 6 months out of the year when growing outside, or year round when grows indoors in containers. Additional tips:  The main problem with mint plants is rust –orange spots often on the underside of the leaves.  Mint leaves can be dried , but it often results in lak of flavor.  Mint can be used to relieve upset stomachs and headaches. e. Grafting of Fruit Plant (Mango) GRAFTING : Grafting and budding are horticultural techniques used to join parts from two or more plants so that they appear to grow as a single plant. In grafting, the upper part (scion) of one plant grows on the root system (rootstock) of another plant. In the budding process, a bud is taken from one plant and grown on another. Rootstock : A rootstock is part of a plant, often an underground part, from which new above- ground growth can be produced.In grafting, it refers to a plant, sometimes just a stump, which already has an established, healthy root system, onto which a cutting or a bud from another plant is grafted. Scion : A detached living portion of a plant (such as a bud or shoot) joined to a stock in grafting and usually supplying solely aerial parts to a graft.

21. ELP 2016-17 Page 16 How Callus Formation Takes Place?  Formation of callus tissue is the outcome of cell division and cell expansion of the cells of explant.  During the formation of callus tissue, the explant loses its original characteristics. So under the influence of exogenously supplied hormone.  The explant is triggered off a growth sequence in which cell enlargement and cell division predominate to form an unorganised mass of cells.  Depending upon the types of explant viz. leaf, stem segment, root segment etc. either enlargement in size or the swelling followed by rupture of tissue within few days of inoculation take place.  Some endogenous growth substances oozes out through the injured tissue at cut end and stimulates the cell division which is simultaneously induced by the exogenously supplied growth hormones.  Auxin is required for growth and cytokinin is required for cell division.  Exogenous application of auxin and cytokinin induces callus in various plant species. .  Other hormones, such as brassinosteroids or abscisic acid, also induce callus and in some species may substitute auxin or cytokinin in callus formation.  However, auxin and cytokinin have been by far the most extensively used and studied hormones in the context of callus formation and subsequent organ regeneration. Incompatibility in Grafting :  The inability of two different plants to do so when grafted together as often defined as ‘incompatibility; or graft.  Incompatibility:The distinction between a compatible and incompatible graft union is not clear cut. On one hands, stocks and scions of closely related plats unite readily and grows as one plant. On the other hands stocks and scions of unrelated plants grafted together are likely to fail completely in union. Much graft combination lie between these extremes viz, compatible to incompatible and therefore the characterization of incompatibility is not distinct.

22. ELP 2016-17 Page 17  Incapability may be classified as ‘ Translocated Incompatibility’ and ‘Localized incompatibility ‘.This type involves phloem degeneration and development of a brown line or necrotic area in the bark.  The second type vig. ‘Localized incompatibility’ includes those combination in which incompatibly reaction apparently depends upon actual contact between stock and scion.  In some cases, the stock scion combination grows in an apparently normal fashion for varying periods of times perhaps for many years and them difficulties arises. This is called as delayed incompatibility. CONDITION FOR SUCCESS OF GRAFTING :  For successful grafting to take place, the tissues of both the stock and scion plants must be placed in contact with each other.  Both tissues must be kept alive till the graft has taken, which takes a few weeks.  While successful grafting only requires that a close connection takes place between the two tissues, many graft joints are often weakened because the tissues of the two distinct plants, such as wood may not fuse.  Budding is also a process that consists of in-grafting the bud of a plant into another plant. This method is frequently used as a technique for grafting fruit trees, but can also be used for many other kinds of trees and plants.  T- budding is another common style. With this method, a T-shaped slit is made in the stock plant, and the knife flexed from side to side in the lower slit to loosen up the bark. Scion wood is chosen from young and growing shoots. Usually, buds at the tip of the shoot are discarded, and only 2-4 buds are taken for use.  Then, an oval of the main stem is sliced off, including the bud, and is slipped into the T on the rootstock, before it can dry out. A winding of rubber band or other material that will hold it until sealed holds the joined bud and rootstock.

23. ELP 2016-17 Page 18 PROPER CARE OF GRAFT SITE :  After grafting, it is important to nurse the grafted plant back to health for a period of time.  Various grafting tapes and waxes are used to protect the scion and stock from excessive water lost.  Furthermore, depending on the type of graft, twine or string is used to add structural support to the grafting site.  Sometimes it is necessary to prune the site, as the rootstock may produce shoots that inhibit the growth of the scion DWARFING ROOTSTOCK :  Fruit trees vary in how large they become when fully grown. Apples, pears, and cherries can range in size from large standard types to dwarf types that are not much bigger than shrubs.  Dwarf types are widely available for most varieties of apple and sweet cherry, but not for pear.  Dwarf types do not yet exist for peach, plum or apricot.  The dwarfing trait does not occur in the variety, but in the rootstock to which it is grafted. This is because they are not “true-to-type” when grown from seed.  This is true of seeds from other fruit trees, as well. In order to propagate trees of a particular variety, one must start with cuttings or buds of that same variety.  Rootstocks serve as the root system of the tree. Prior to grafting, they start out as complete trees with a root system and a single stem.  Bud grafting is usually done in summer when leaf buds on new shoots can be sliced off the stem and inserted under the bark of the rootstock. The grafted bud joins to the rootstock over the next several weeks.  They should be held upright with a stake or trellis so that the roots do not break and for the tree to remain upright. Semi-dwarf trees do not need staking.

24. ELP 2016-17 Page 19 MOTHER BLOCK : The plantation of mother plants is an important work for developing a nursery. The mother plants must be true to the type and true to the variety. The plants should be properly labelled. Collection of exotic type of mother plants is a continuous process or job. The mother plants may be maintained properly for their vigorous growth; otherwise number of propagated plants will get reduced. USE OF GRAFTING PLUG (PAPSI CAP) : It will greatly enhance the success rate by covering the newly completed graft with a small plastic bag and tying it at the bottom to enable a build-up of heat and humidity. You do not require further covering in a shaded greenhouse but, if the grafted plants are in the sun, place a small, brown paper bag over the plastic bag to prevent excessive heat build-up. RAISING OF ROOTSTOCK :  A rootstock is a part of plant, often an underground part from which new above ground growth can be produced.  The rootstock is selected for its interaction with the soil, providing the roots & the stem to support the new plant, obtaining the necessary soil minerals & water and also resistant to pests & diseases.  Mango is commercially propagated by epicotyl ( stone grafting ) & softwood grafting. Grafting involves-  Raising of rootstock  Selection of scion  Grafting & after care of grafts. Raising :  First collect healthy stones in season & wash them thoroughly with water to remove the floating ones.  Dip them in soln of 40% BHC &Fytolan in 10 litres of water for 5 minutes.  Incorporate FYM @ 3tonnes / 1000 m2 in the soil thoroughly.  Prepare raised bed of 15cm height & 1cm width.

25. ELP 2016-17 Page 20  Cover the bed with soil.  Sow the treated stones in the soil.  Soil & FYM should be 1:1 ratio.  Irrigation should be done properly.  After 15-30 days stones will emerge out &the germinate. Seed sprouts with good girth of epicotyl region & which will have developed tender leaves is suitable for stone ( epicotyl grafting). Selection Of Rootstock and Scion : Rootstock-  Collect fresh stones in the season and put them in water to remove the floating ones.  Wash sunken stones thoroughly, dip them in solution containing 40 g each of BHC 40% and Fytolan in 10 litres of water, for 5 minutes. Incorporate FYM (@3.0 tonnes/1000 m2) in to the soil thoroughly for preparing beds for sowing the stones.  Prepare raised bed of 15 cm height and 1m width of convenient length. Sow the treated stones in a single layer and cove them with thin layer of soil and FYM mixed in 1:1 ratio.  Irrigate the bed regularly. Stones germinate in 15 – 30 days. The seed- sprouts with good girth of epicotyl region and have just developed tender leaves are used as root stock for stone grafting (epicotyl grafting).  After crossing this stage, subsequently, the seedlings can be used for soft wood grafting. Scion :-  Select the tree of scion variety of choice for propagation. Collect healthy, 3-4 months’ old, matured shoots of 15 – 20 cm length which have dormant terminal or side buds on them.  Each shoot forms a scion stick and can be used for grafting. Give two downward slant cuts (4 – 6 cm long) on opposite sides at the lower end of the scion stick to make it wedge shaped.

26. ELP 2016-17 Page 21 Curing and Training of Scion :  Curing period of scion on success of graft union and growth of grafts and effect of age of rootstock on success and growth of softwood grafting.  Among the three grafting methods under study, epicotyl grafting recorded the highest per cent of graft success (48.08%) as compared to softwood grafting (35.55%) and approach grafting (9.17%).  With regard to scion curing, 10 days old cured scion registered significantly the maximum per cent of graft success (37.75%).  The minimum number (17.99) of days taken for bud sprouting was in case of epicotyl grafting, among the various methods tried.  Whereas, among the interaction effect, least number of days (17.50) was recorded with epicotyl grafting with ten days old cured scion.  Growth parameters like number of leaves, number of buds, number of branches, length and girth of shoot were the maximum in scions cured for ten days.  The least mortality (32.20%) was recorded in epicotyl grafting with ten days old cured scion TIME OF GRAFTING : Only attempt grafting when the rootstocks are vigorous and the buds on the scion wood are swollen. Best results are obtained during warm, humid weather - usually from January until the end of April. You can be successful at other times of the year by artificially increasing the temperature and humidity. Day temperatures of 25-30 °C and nights of 18-21 °C are ideal. It is usually difficult to obtain quantities of suitable bud wood between flowering and fruit harvest. MAINTENANCE OF GRAFTING PLANT : Keep the grafted plants under hot humid conditions under shade for about 15 – 20 days, till the sprouting of the buds on the scion. Regularly water the grafts depending on the weather conditions. Periodically, remove the side shoots growing on the rootstock below the graft joint.

27. ELP 2016-17 Page 22 TYPES OF GRAFTING : Veneer Grafting : Veneer grafting, or inlay grafting, is a method used for stocks larger than three centimeters in diameter. The scion is recommended to be about as thick as a pencil. Clefts are made of the same size as the scion on the side of the branch, not on top. The scion end is shaped as a wedge, inserted, and wrapped with tape to the scaffolding branches to give it more strength. Wegde or Cleft Grafting : Cleft grafting is a grafting technique which allows the union of a rootstock limb that is much larger in size than the scion piece.Cleft grafting is conducted in late winter when both the rootstock and the scion are in a dormant condition. Best Tecnique for grafting of Mango is Cleft grafting ,because it achieves a high percentage of successful ‘takes’. Inarching : Inarching, in-rch′ing, n. a method of grafting by uniting, without separating from the original stem. inarching orgrafting by approach, in which the cion remains attached to the parent plant until union takes place. It is usually propagated by grafts, or by layering or inarching, rather than by seed. Approach Graft : An approach graft is a very easy graft to make in the right specialty situations. It happens naturally in the wild when two branches rub against each other and eventually seal together. In the garden or greenhouse, you use it to join one whole living plant to another. Side Grafting : Definition of side graft. : a plant graft in which the scion is inserted into the side of the stock and the aerial head of the stock permitted to grow until union is established between stock and scion — see peg graft.

28. ELP 2016-17 Page 23 GRAFTING TECHNIQUE : The most suitable height for grafting is about 20-30 cm above ground level. At this point, the rootstock should be straight, at least pencil thickness and have green bark. If the bark is old, brown or corky, avoid the area. Retain the leaves on the stock below the point of grafting. A wide range of graft types can be used on mangoes, but the two most common are the whip and the cleft or wedge graft. The whip graft is used widely by nursery operators and other highly experienced operators, while the wedge graft is used by most other grafters. Both grafts are quite easy to do. After a little experience, and if you perform certain basic steps, you will achieve a high percentage of successful 'takes'. COVERING THE GRAFT : You will greatly enhance your success rate by covering the newly completed graft with a small plastic bag and tying it at the bottom to enable a build-up of heat and humidity. You do not require further covering in a shaded greenhouse but, if the grafted plants are in the sun, place a small, brown paper bag over the plastic bag to prevent excessive heat build-up. REMOVAL OF BAGS AND GRAFTING TAPE : Remove the plastic bag and paper bag from the graft once it has grown 1-2 cm. This may take 2 to 4 weeks. The new shoot growth is very brittle so handle the plant carefully.Remove the tying tape after the first flush growth has matured. If left on too long (several months), the tape may restrict growth by becoming too tight in the graft area. The time taken to tape removal will be 2-4 months. The trees can be planted in the field at this stage. HYGIENE : We need to maintain a high level of hygiene at all times. Periodically dip grafting knives into methylated spirits to sterilise them. You should also spray the stocks and dip the scion wood in a 0.2 per cent mancozeb fungicide.

29. ELP 2016-17 Page 24 AFTER CARE OF GRAFTING  Keep the grafted plants under hot humid conditions under shade for about 15 – 20 days, till the sprouting of the buds on the scion.Regularly water the grafts depending on the weather conditions.  It will remove the side shoots growing on the rootstock below the graft joint.  Then Remove the polythene strip used for tying the graft joint, after three months to avoid girdling of the stem.  Protect the grafts from leaf eating insects and shoot borers by spraying the grafts with Nuvacron 2ml / l of water, in the nursery.  After six months shift the grafts to other place or just lift the grafts and keep them in the place once in a month to prevent them from striking roots in to the ground below. Elite varieties of Mango : The soil & climate of Odisha is very much congenial for Mango cultivation. More than 300 mango varieties exist in Odisha. Commercial varieties Local varieties Banganpalli Silapua Dasehari Kadalia Charatpur Kalbansi Totapuri Bhelua Amrapalli Anandsagar ArkaNeelkura Mitha Langra Bombay Green Reuse of Used Rootstocks : Subsequently after crossing this stage, the rootstocks can be used for soft wood grafting.

30. ELP 2016-17 Page 25 F. RAISING OF PAPAYA SEEDLING IN POLYBAGS MEDIA PREPARATION FOR POLYBAG : For polybag media preparation or Soil mixture ratio that is to be filled is SAND:FYM::2:1 respectively. i.e. sand= 2 sacs, fym=1 sacs, chloropyriphos=50gm. Gynodioecious Lines of Papaya : 1) Pusa Majesty-  A gynodioecious line tolerant to viral diseases & Root knot nematode.  Variety is suitable for papain production & is ccomparable to CO-2 for papain yield.  Fruits are medium sized & weighs around 1- 1.5 kg, round in shape & has better keeping quality. 2) Pusa Delicious-  Gynodioecious line with medium tall plants yielding fruits after 8 months of planting & has good quality fruits (10-13 degree Brix)  Fruits are medium sized(1-2 kg), deep orange fruit having excellent flavour.  It is a table purpose variety. Collection Of Seed And Seed Extraction In Gynodioceous Line : In isolation or controlled condition less quantity of papaya seed is produced. Gynodioceous line produce less seed then dioceousline.Ripened fruits are cut longitudinally,fresh seeds are put into water for 2-4hr . The sacotesta removed by rubbing with ash and finally washed in running water. Then dry in shade till moisture content is8-9%. After drying, seeds to be cleaned properly,the immature seeds and other foreign material to be taken out. VIABILITY OF PAPAYA SEED : Viability of papaya seed is for 1 yr i.e short period viability. So storage of this seed is required. They are neither orthodox nor recalcitrant in its viability and

31. ELP 2016-17 Page 26 germinability. Though some method adopted they give less success and the which succeed are not uniform after germination. MAINTENANCE OF PAPAYA SEED :  Papaya seed can be kept in refrigerator at 5 0 C in sealed moisture proof package or in air tight bottles , polythene bags and sealed packets.  Seeds to be packed according to its known variety and stored separately. Papaya Varieties : 1) Coorg Honey Dew- Also known as Mahabindu& is cultivated for table as well as processing purpose. Variety bears greenish yellow oblong fruit. 2) Pusa Dwarf- Delicious var.with dwarf plant & medium sized fruit (1-2 kg oval fruit) 3) Pusa Giant- Vigorous, sturdy& tolerant to strong wind. Dioecious cultivar. 4) CO-1 . Selection from cultivar done by TNAU,Coimbatore. Dwarf in habit & produces first fruit within 60-75 cm from ground level. Fruit is medium sized. 5) CO- 2,- Selection purified from ACRI,Coimbatore 6) IIHR39 & IIHR 54 : Developed at IIHR. Medium sized fruits with high TSS (14.5 degree Brix). Better shelf life. 7) Solo- Table purpose variety : With small deep pink pulp having fruit. Excellent for kitchen garden. 8) Raveli- Variety from Bihar & popular in South India.

32. ELP 2016-17 Page 27 G. RAISING OF SUMMER ORNAMENTALS ANNUALS IN POLYBAGS & POTS SL NO Name of the ornamental crop No of Quality Produce No of Success Quality produced 01 AlamadaScottii 502 335 02 Jasmine 144 120 03 Drocena 282 235 04 Alamandacathertica 10 10 05 Philodendron 60 50 06 Duranta 86 58 07 Furcraea 180 150 08 Aglonema 7 7 09 Ploemete 17 17 10 Zinnia 30 30 11 Balsam 50 50 12 Sunflower 30 30 13 Gailllardia 30 30 Total 1,428 1,121 other Activities learnt during elp A. NURSERY BED PREPARATION  Bed preparation facilitates the ease in the cultivation operations like sowing and transplanting and later in the intercultural operations.  The width of a bed should not be more 120cm and the length 150cm or more.This width facilitates weeding and watering without trampling the bed.  The bed is kept raised about 15 cm high so as to provide proper drainage of excess water and the level of the bed surface is also made slightly raised in

33. ELP 2016-17 Page 28 the centre with a little slope on the two sides.Interspace between two plots should be around 45cm.  The soil should be properly pulverised, free of weeds, pebbles, stones.Sandy loam soil is mostly preferred for good drainage.  The seed bed is levelled with a plank / plate.Two baskets of decomposed compost should be incorporated.Leaving 5cm from row to row draw straight line and put well sieved or powedered compost on the row.  The bed shouldn’t prepared under shade otherwise seedlings will be lanky and establishment will be poor. It shouldn’t be near to a big tree like Guava,Cashew,Bael,Mango,Drumstick,Jackfruit etc. MULCHES : Plastic : Plastic mulches are commonly used in many high-income, wide-row vegetable crops, such as capsicums, tomatoes and melons. As well as effectively suppressing weed growth within the row, they also conserve water, warm the soil, and (if reflective) deter aphids. Disadvantages include expense and problems disposing of the mulch after use, however bio degradable mulches being trialled may reduce the disposal problem. Weed control is still required in the inter-row and headland areas, and possibly in the plant hole in the plastic. Some weeds, such as nutgrass, will grow though the mulch. Weed matting is available and commonly used in nursery areas. It is thicker and more durable than the standard plastic mulch used in the field. Paper : A degradable paper mulch is available, though it is more expensive than conventional plastic mulch. It is bulkier than plastic and less flexible, making alterations to mulch laying equipment necessary. The paper will last for one crop in most soil and climatic conditions before breaking down. Organic : Organic mulches, such as straw or sawdust, can also be used and are favoured by home gardeners. They are less suited to mechanical application and harder to handle than plastic, but have the advantage of being environmentally bio- degradable. Some organic mulches, such as sawdust, will tie up soil nitrogen, requiring the application of additional fertiliser. Some weeds will grow through the

34. ELP 2016-17 Page 29 mulch, as these mulches do not provide a continuous physical barrier like the plastic does. B. SEED TREATMENT Seed treatment is a process of application of chemicals or protectants ( with Fungicidal, Insecticidal, Bactericidal or Nematicidal properties) to seeds that prevent the carriage of pathogens in or on the seeds. Objectives of seed Treatment - 1. To control soil borne diseases particularly damping off in nursery beds. Soil are treated with fungicide like Captan, Thiram, Carbendazim, Vitavax power etc @ 2g/Kg. (these are not phytotoxic.) 2. To have convenience in sowing :- Difficulties are encountered in sowing small seeds of some crops like chillies. 3. To have quick germination. 4. To protect seeds against Insect pest. 5. To induce earliness. 6. To break dormancy. Methods of seed treatment - 1.Dry Treatment :- Take a polybag. Put seeds and seed treating chemicals. Mix it well. 2. Wet Treatment:- Take seeds, seed treating chemicals and less water so that all seeds can merge. Mix it well. Dry it under shade for (20-25) mins and then sow It. C. SOWING OF SEEDS IN NURSERY BED Surface of the bed should be prepared well mixed with well decomposed FYM or Compost and leveled by using a wooden plank. Straight lines are drawn at a spacing of 10 cm to a depth of 1-2 cm. Seeds are sown in the lines and covered with sand or fine soil or powdered FYM. Line sowing of seeds facilitates easy weeding, and removal of disease infected seedlings. Depth of sowing determines the rate of emergence. If it is too shallow the seeds come up and dry out early. If it is too

35. ELP 2016-17 Page 30 deep, the seedling emergence is much delayed. So, a thumb rule is followed. Sow the seeds approximately at a depth of 3-4 times the diameter of the seed. Season of Sowing : In general, vegetable seeds are sown in there district seasons. 1. Brinjal - May -June and Dec-Jan . 2. Tomato - May-June,Nov-Dec and Feb- March. 3. Chillies - Jan-Feb,June-July,Sept-Oct. 4. Bellary onion - May-June and Jan-Feb. 5. Cabbage and cauliflower - Jan.-Feb and July-Aug., Sept.-Oct. for hills . Aug.-Nov. for plains. After sowing the seeds, the bed is covered with paddy straw and watered by using a rose can so as to avoid packing of the soil and washing away of seeds. Watering should be done twice daily till the seeds germinate.  The straw cover should be removed after germination and watering once a day will be sufficient.  A week before transplanting, the seedlings should be exposed to full sunlight and the number of watering should be reduced so that the seedlings become hardy to bear the shock of transplanting in the main field D. WEED MANAGEMENT IN NURSERY BED Weed management can make up a significant proportion of pre-harvest variable costs in vegetable production. Chemical options for managing weeds in vegetable crops are diminishing and there are no simple, quick-fix solutions. Economic and environmental considerations mean we must adopt more integrated, long-term approaches to weed management in vegetable production. Consider the following factors in integrating the most appropriate methods to provide effective weed management. Cultural Methods : Cultural methods include good management practices generally used in crop

36. ELP 2016-17 Page 31 production. Crop rotations, hygiene, crop health maintenance and correct pest identification are all included. Heat Treatment : Flaming, steam or hot water treatments are knockdown options for organic farmers. Soil solarisation may also be used, but these alternatives are all expensive. Herbicide Application : Pre emergence herbicides can also be sprayed soon after seed sowing to control the weeds. Stomp @ 3 ml/litre of water should be sprayed on the nursery beds after the seed sowing and seed covering with mixture of FYM. soil and sand. e. FUNGAL & BACTERIAL WILTING IN NURSERY BED Fungal wilt- By fusariumspp. Symptoms-wilting,chlorosis,necrosis,premature leaf drop,browning of vascular system,stunting,damping off. Controls-  Use of disease resistant varieties,Seed treatment,Cleaned,good drainage.  Removal of infected leaf & plant materials,Crop rotation.  Apllication of fungicide like mancozeb or copper oxychloride. Bacterial wilt- By Eriwiniaspp,Ralstonia spp. Symptoms-  Leaves first appear dull green,wilt during day &recover at night.  Leaves eventually yellow & brown at margin,completely wither & die, if infected part stem cut, then bacterial ooze comes out. Controls-  Use disease resistant varieties.  Crop rotation. Seed treatment.  Removal of infected leaves & plant materials.

37. ELP 2016-17 Page 32  Application of [email protected]/15lit.Plantomycin @ 10gm/10lit. F. PEST & DISEASE MANAGEMENT PESTS : There are two types of pests, which normally attack the nursery plants. 1. Sucking pests – Aphids, white flies, thrips etc. 2. Biting (or) chewing pests – Beetles, grasshoppers, leaf eating caterpillars etc. Apart from causing damage to the seedlings, the sucking pests also act as vectors for transmitting some of the viral diseases even in the nursery stage itself. Eg. 1. Aphids spread mosaic disease in chillies 2. Thrips act as vector for leaf curl virus disease in chillies and spotted wilt virus disease in tomato. CONTROL : 1.Application of systemic insecticides like Methyl demeton or Dimethoate @ one ml per litre of water by using a hand operated sprayer. 2.Application of carbofuran @ 10g/sq.m 10 days before pulling of seedlings will also control the sucking pests in the nursery and at the early stages in the main field. 3.Application of chloropyriphos @2ml/lit for control of leaf eating caterpillar and white ant. DISEASES : Damping off (Pythium spp., Phytophthora spp., Rizoctonia spp.) Seedlings of tomato, chillies, brinjal, cabbage, and cauliflower are highly affected by this disease. Water logging with poor drainage leads to infection. The disease affects the seedlings in two way. (1) Affected seeds get decayed inside the soil resulting in failure of germination. (2) After germination, the fungi attack the seedlings in the collar region. The tissues will become soft and succulent. In advanced stages, the seedlings become lodged and get decayed. CONTROL : 1. Raising seedlings in raised beds with good drainage facility reduces the infection.

38. ELP 2016-17 Page 33 2. Addition of organic matter improve the soil texture and soil aeration. 3. Avoiding thick sowing of seeds in beds. 4. Periodical changing of nursery sites. 5. Treating the seeds with captan, thirm @ 2g or carbendazim @ one g/kg or Trichodama viride @ 4g of seeds before sowing can reduce the infection. 6. Drenching the nursery bed once or twice with bordeaux mixture 1% or copper oxychloride 0.3% can also reduce the infection. NEMATODES : Root knot and lesion nematodes commonly infect the seedlings. Before sowing the seeds, carbofuran @ 10 g/sq.m should be incorporated in the soil and watered regularly. ANTS: Application of Lindane 1.3% dust at the rate of 100 g/bed on all sides to protect the seeds from ants. g. Control Insect Pest in Nursery Bed In the nursey mainly sucking pests,leaf minor ,leaf eating caterpillar,borers found in the nursery seedlings. 1. Sucking Pest:-  Apply Neem oil [email protected]/lit.  Soil application of [email protected]/2 sqm.  Spray [email protected]/1lit.  [email protected]/1lit.  Imidacloropid @3ml/15ml.  For white fly-Acephate @2g/1lit. 2.Leaf eating caterpillar & Borer:-  Apply Chloropyriphos o Triazophos 2ml/1lit. o Quianal[phos  [email protected]/1lit.

39. ELP 2016-17 Page 34 3.White Ant-  Apply Chloropyriphos 1.5 %WP –dusting  Chloropyriphos 20EC @2ml/1lit 4.Mite-  Apply omite  Phosmite o Simba @1.5-2ml/1lit o Magister 5.Leaf Minor-  Apply 4%Neem seed kernel extract  Monocrotophos  Metasystox1.5ml/1lit. h. Control of Snails in Nursery Bed Introduce predator like garden snail,gartersanke. Lay down grits,sand which will crush eggshell & cut the body surface of snail Set of a snail trap i.e a beer pan. Some repellent like Copper wire,Vaseline.Apply methiocarb or methyldehyde. Foliar disease & control in nursery bed:- 1.Damping off- Fungal & soil born disease. By pythium,Pellicularia,Fusarium,Rhizoctonia spp. Pre emergence-Rotting of gewrminated seedlings. Damping off Post emergence-Drying after fully emergence. Symptoms-  Water soaked regions at the point where seedlings touches the ground.Narrowing,shrinking seedling at that point.

40. ELP 2016-17 Page 35  Toppling of seedling.Rotting followed by drying. Causes  Unjudicious Watering.  Dense Population.  Use Of Diseased Seeds. Control Measures :  Seed treatment with Captan,Thiram,vitavax @2g/1kg of seed.  Spray with Carbendazim(50%WP)@[email protected]/10lit at 7-10 days interval. I. Control of Sucking Pest, Mite & Borer Mega Pests Managing Sucking Pests Sucking pests include thrips, whiteflies, aphids, mites and bugs. The feeding activity of sucking pests can damage plant buds, leaves and vegetable fruit directly. Calendar-based spray programs to control these pests are expensive, and often ineffective due to insecticide resistance amongst the pest populations. This fact sheet summarises the information you’ll need to sustainably manage the sucking pests in your crops and outlines a capsicum grower’s personal experience in adopting Integrated Crop Protection (ICP) and achieving success in managing western flower thrips (WFT) and tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV).ICP (also referred to as Integrated Pest Management(IPM)) considers the production system as a whole,including all pests, soil and plant health. ICP tips for managing sucking pests  Read the fact sheet:mega pests-The basics of protecting your crop.  Know the potential threats and pests you are targeting.  Know which beneficial insect (natural or introduced)relevant to your cropping system.  Maintain through site sanitation-remove and destroy weed ,infested plants and crop debries.  Use clean transplant.  Monitor regularly. early detection increase chance of success.  Avoid crops of different ages in close proximity.

41. ELP 2016-17 Page 36  Understand soft treatment option and how to achieve maximum coverage.  Use chemical insecticide when only necessary and do not rely on them.  Understand resistance management and rotating chemical groups.  Don’t keep treating with something that is not working. Controlling of Sucking Pest- Mites:- Tomato russet mite Aculops lycopersici (Al)1, bean spider mite Tetranychus ludeni (Tl)2, two-spotted (spider) mite T. urticae (Tu)3, broad mite Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Pl)4 Importance: Al is a major and frequent pest while Tl and Tu are occasional pests. Pl is mainly a pest of capsicum. Crops: Tomato, capsicum, chilli, egg plant Other hosts: Beans, carrots, cucurbits, lettuce, potatoes, sweet corn. Management: Use windbreaks and minimise dust-creating activities—infestations are favoured by dusty conditions (e.g. adjacent to dirt roads or tracks in fields). Reduce humidity by using adequate plant spacing, orientating plantings to the prevailing wind and maintain appropriate watering practices—Pl prefers warm (25 °C) and humid (80–90% relative humidity)conditions. Visually monitor seedlings and crops at least weekly for signs of damage. • Work in unaffected areas first, and wash hands and contaminated clothing regularly. • Minimise use of broad-spectrum insecticides to encourage natural colonisation by predatory mites, which can reduce pest mite populations . Use miticides if pest pressure becomes too high; however, mites can be difficult to control by chemical means because of resistance, and pest mite populations rapidly increase or are ‘induced’ after applications of pyrethroids that kill predatory mites in the crop. THRIPS:- Management:  Manage weeds in and around crop to reduce alternative thrips breeding areas.  Use thrips exclusion screening in seedling nurseries or for protective cropping structures.

42. ELP 2016-17 Page 37  Monitor thrips numbers with yellow or blue sticky traps, or by tapping flowers over white paper or a tray.  Note that high predator numbers should control pest thrips.  Use insecticides if necessary but care should be taken as the overuse of insecticides has increased the problem in the past, probably by killing predators.  Note that Fo is highly resistant to most insecticides. Remove plants that show virus signs and destroy crops after harvest to reduce virus transmission within the crop or to neighbouring crops. APHIDS:- Management:  Note that beneficial insects can usually keep populations under control unless they are sprayed out with broad-spectrum insecticides.  Note that in moist conditions, insect-attacking fungi can quickly reduce aphid populations.  Use insecticides if aphids are causing significant damage or if there is a high incidence of aphid-vectored virus present. Where possible, choose selective chemistries (e.g. primicarb or pymetrozine) to minimise harm to predators of aphids and other pests. LEAF HOPPER:- Management:  Not commonly a problem. Use insecticides if pest numbers become  high or phytoplasma disease is present, but this may cause population flares in mites, thrips or whiteflies. WHITEFLIES:- Management:  If whitefly are a major pest, the area must not contain whitefly host crops or weeds for at least 2 months each year, otherwise populations become too high to manage effectively.  Use whitefly exclusion screening in seedling nurseries or for protective cropping structures.  Monitor whitefly numbers with yellow or blue sticky traps, or visually on undersides of leaves.  Control whiteflies by releasing commercially reared beneficials such as Encarsia formosa within protective cropping structures.  Note that high predator numbers can control pest whitefly.

43. ELP 2016-17 Page 38  Use insecticides if necessary but care should be taken as the overuse of insecticides has increased the problem in the past, probably by killing predators.  Note that some Bta populations are highly resistant to insecticides.  Remove plants that show virus signs and destroy crops after harvest to reduce virus transmission within the crop or to neighbouring crops. MEALYBUGS:- Management:  Destroy infested plants by burning or burying to prevent infestations spreading.  Spray water with a high-pressure hose to help kill the crawlers and dislodge the adults.  Use of systemic insecticides is effective but not usually needed BORER:- Management:  Use resistant varieties of plants.  Monitor moth activity using light and pheromone traps.  Visually monitor stems, leaves, flower buds and fruit for eggs, larvae, beneficial activity and feeding damage.  Use foliar and systemic insecticides if necessary to control severe infestations, and time applications for egg hatch and first-instar larvae. Where possible, choose selective chemistries such as Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) to minimise harm to lepidopteran and other pest predators.  In small plantings, physically remove eggs and larvae. Promptly eliminate eggplant stubble from old plantings to prevent movement or carryover of borer to new crops, or from season to season. Thrips Insecticide Dose Imidacloprid 17.8% SL 3.0 ML/10 lit Dimethoate 30% EC 1.0 ml/lit Emamectin benzoate 5% SG 4g/10lit Ethion 50% EC 2.0ML/LIT Fipronil 5% SC 1.5 ML/LIT Oxydemeton-Methyl 25% EC 1.0 ml/lit Phosalone 35% EC 2.0 ML/LIT USE OF INSECTICIDE FOR THE CONTROL OF THRIPS,MITE AND BORER

44. ELP 2016-17 Page 39 Spinosad 45%SC 3.2 ML/10 LIT Thiacloprid 21.7 %SC 6.0ML/10 LIT Insecticide Mite Dose Buprofezin 25 %Sc 8.0 Ml/10 Lit Chlorfenapyr 10 % Sc 1.5 Ml/Lit Diafenthiuron 50 % Wp 8.0 G/10 Lit Dimethoate 30 %Ec 1.0 Ml/Lit Ethion 50 % Ec 2.0 Ml/Lit Fenazaquin 10 % Ec 2.0 Ml/Lit Fenpyroximate 5% Ec 1.0 Ml/Lit Hexythiazox 5.45 %Ec 8.0 Ml/10 Lit Milbemectin 1% Ec 6.5 Ml/10 Lit Oxydemeton-Methyl 25 % Ec 2.0 Ml/Lit Phosalone 35% Ec 1.3 Ml/Lit Propargite 57% Ec 2.5 Ml/Lit Quinalphos 25% Ec 1.5 Ml/Lit Spiromesifen 22.9 % Sc Insecticide Borer Dose Azadirachtin 1.0% Ec (10000 Ppm) 3.0 Ml/Lit Azadirachtin 0.03 % Wsp(300 Ppm) 5.0 G/Lit Chlorpyrifos 20 % Ec 1.0 Ml/Lit Dimethoate 30 % Ec 7.0 Ml/10 Lit Emamectin Benjoate 5% Sg 4 G/10 Lit Flubendiamide 20 Wdg 7.5 G/10 Lit Phosalone 35% Ec 1.5 Ml/Lit Quinalphos 25% Ec 1.5 Ml/Lit Thiodicarb 75% Wp 2.0 G/Lit Thiometon 25% Ec 1.0 Ml/Lit Trichlorofon 50% Ec 1.0 Ml/Lit Triazophos 40% Ec 2.5 Ml/Lit J. Damping Off Portion become constricted due to necrosis of the cortical tissue and the stem is unable to bear the lode of upper portion.the seedlings collapse/topple down on It is a condition in which the tender attacked near the soil line. The affected soil surface. DAMPING OF SEEDLINGS : Species of pythium,Rhizoctonia,Fusarium, are the major cause of damping off vegetable seedling in the nurseries.thease fungi survive in the soil through their sexually produced oospores.when seeds are planted in wet soil at relative high

45. ELP 2016-17 Page 40 temperatures the oospores are germinate and produce zoospore.in presence of moisture these zoospore move and infect the seeds and germinating seedlings causing pre and post emergence damping off. CONTROL MEASURE :  Treat the nursery bed either by soil solarization, formalin solution or formalin dust or fungicides like thiram or captan as discussed earlier.  Treat the seeds as discussed in seed treatment. If the disease appear after the seed emergence drench the nursery beds with 0.1% solution of brassicol or 0.7% captan or thiram after germination.  It will be better to remove and burried the affected seedlings from the beds otherwise spread will be more.  The disease can be controlled to some extent by applying treated sand, soil and FYM mixture up to the level from where the seedlings are falling.  There are different types of chemicals used for control of damping off desease like ,chamomile,cinamon,garlic spray, K. Use of Neem Oil & NSKE

46. ELP 2016-17 Page 41 Neem oil or margosa oil is botanical oil extracted from kernel of neem tree seed by cold pressing or CT cold pressing method or solvent extraction.Among these methods CT cold pressing yield purest neem oil because solvent is not use for extraction. PROPERTIES OF NEEM OIL:- Neem oil or neem seed oil is a brownish yellow colour liquid ,with smell of Garlic .Neem oil is slightly soluble in water and has 6.5 to 7.5 Ph value, it boils at more than 200 degree Celsius and freeze at 13 degree selsius. USE OF NEEM OIL:- For agriculture use :- Neem oil is used to manufacture neem oil insecticide because it contains azadirachtin which effects over600 species of pests including insects,nematodes ,fungi and viruses and is completely safe to non target organisms like beneficial predators,honey bees ,pollinators,fish ,bird,cattle,and human beings. Azadirachtin of neem oil is afamous natural anti-feedent,growth regulatorand ovi- positional repellent for insects,as a major active ingredient which make it a perfect alternative to chemical pesticides. For Pets Use:- Neem oil is used as veterinary medicines for pets and livestock from ancient time. Ozoneem oil is used in various diseases ,precautions, accidental condition,hygiene and wounds as a ingredient of medicines or alone. For Human Medicines:- Neem oil is also used as and in various medicines for human beings .most common utilities are :Birth control, Lice control(in hairs),piles, ulcers, Asthma, skin Disorders, Diarrhea For Cosmetics:- Neem oil is used for preparation of various cosmetic and toiletries.All purpose cream ,hair oils,Tooth paste,bathing soaps,Hair shampoo,face pack,Dog shampoo.

47. ELP 2016-17 Page 42 USE O

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