extended release tablet ppt

Information about extended release tablet ppt

Published on July 15, 2014

Author: mpharm2012

Source: authorstream.com

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Extended Release oral dosage forms:  E xtended Release oral dosage forms Varsha Singh Pharmaceutics 12DE1S0317 PowerPoint Presentation:  INTRODUCTION MATERIALS USED IN FORMULATION EXTENDED RELEASE TECHNOLOGY FOR ORAL DOSAGE FORM DRUG CANDIDATES FOR EXTENDED RELEASE PRODUCTS ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES EVALUATION CONCLUSION INTRODUCTION:  INTRODUCTION Drug products designed to reduce the frequency of dosing by modifying the rate of drug absorption have been available for many years. Early modified-release products were often intramuscular/subcutaneous injections of suspensions of insoluble drug complexes, e.g. procaine penicillin, protamine zinc insulin, insulin zinc suspensions or injections of the drug in oil, e.g. fluphenazine decanoate . Advances in technology have resulted in novel oral modified-release dosage forms. PowerPoint Presentation: Many terms are used to describe modified-release products including extended-release, prolonged-release, controlled-release, controlled-delivery, slow-release and sustained-release. These preparations, by definition, have a reduced rate of release of active substance. In general, these terms are interchangeable. Extended release tablet are Designed to release their medication in controlled manner, at pre-determined rate, duration and location in the body to achieve and maintain optimum therapeutic blood levels of drug PowerPoint Presentation: Extended release drug delivery technology can provide: Smooth plasma levels of drug over longer periods of time, Reduce dosing frequency and Improve the patient compliance.  MATERIALS USED IN FORMULATION:   MATERIALS USED IN FORMULATION Drug and polymers. Polymers are chains of covalently bound monomers. They are used throughout the pharmaceutical industry and in relation to oral drug delivery systems they are used as carriers for the drug. Polymers are used as a backbone in conventional and controlled release formulations PowerPoint Presentation: . For extended release formulations the polymers need to have certain characteristics to control and maintain the rigidity of the matrix over a prolonged period. There are a large number of polymers that are used in sustained release drug delivery. Examples of a mechanism of drug release from a polymer: Hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC) EXTENDED RELEASE TECHNOLOGY FOR ORAL DOSAGE FORMS :  EXTENDED RELEASE TECHNOLOGY FOR ORAL DOSAGE FORMS The rate of drug release from solid dosage forms may be modified by the technologies, which in general are based on ( a ) Modifying drug dissolution by controlling access of biologic fluids to the drug through the use of barrier coatings; ( b ) Controlling drug diffusion rates from dosage forms; and ( c ) Chemical reaction or interaction between the drug substance or its pharmaceutical barrier and site-specific biologic fluids. PowerPoint Presentation: COATED BEADS,GRANULES,AND MICROSPHERES MULTI TABLET MICRO ENCAPSULATED DRUG EMBEDDING DRUG IN SLOW ERODING OR HYDROPHILIC MATRIX SYSTEM EMBEDDING DRUG IN INERT PLASTIC MATRIX PowerPoint Presentation: COMPLEX FORMATION ION EXCHANGE RESIN OSMOTIC PUMP REPEAT ACTION TABLETS DRUG CANDIDATES FOR EXTENDED-RELEASE PRODUCTS: :  DRUG CANDIDATES FOR EXTENDED-RELEASE PRODUCTS : They exhibit neither very slow nor very fast rates of absorption and excretion. Drugs that act by affecting enzyme systems may be longer acting than indicated by their quantitative half-lives because of residual effects and recovery of the diminished bio system. They are uniformly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract Good aqueous solubility and maintain adequate residence time in the gastrointestinal tract. PowerPoint Presentation: The most widely used measure of the margin of a drug’s safety is its therapeutic index, that is, the median toxic dose divided by the median effective dose. For very potent drugs, the therapeutic index may be narrow or very small. They are used in the treatment of chronic rather than acute conditions. Drugs for acute conditions require greater adjustment of the dosage by the physician than that provided by extended-release products. PowerPoint Presentation: Drugs that are not inherently long lasting require multiple daily dosing to achieve the desired therapeutic effects. Multiple daily dosing is often inconvenient and can result in missed doses, made-up doses and patient non-compliant with therapeutic regimen. Extended release tablets or capsules are commonly taken only once or twice daily compared with the conventional dosing of 2 to 4 times daily ADVANTAGES OF EXTENDED RELEASE TABLETS : :  ADVANTAGES OF EXTENDED RELEASE TABLETS : Extended-release products offer 3 potential benefits: Sustained blood levels Attenuation of adverse effects Improved patient compliance DISADVANTAGES: :  DISADVANTAGES: Extended-release products contain a higher drug load and thus any loss of integrity of the release characteristics of the dosage form has potential problems Modified-release products should never be crushed or chewed as the slow-release characteristics may be lost and toxicity may result. This is particularly important in patients unable to swallow whole tablets, a problem commonly affecting the elderly. PowerPoint Presentation: The larger size of extended-release products may cause difficulties in ingestion or transit through the gut. These problems may result in some drugs, e.g. Slow-K, causing local tissue damage in patients who have a pathological or drug-induced reduction in gut motility. EVALUATION OF TABLETS: : EVALUATION OF TABLETS: Uniformity of weight : Water content (By KF method) In vitro drug release studies Assay Related substances Stability studies Other evaluation tests are appeareance , Hardness, Friability, Thickness CONCLUSION: : CONCLUSION: Most modified release products are orally administered tablet or capsules in contrast to conventional (immediate release) forms, modified -release products provide either delayed release or extended release of drug. Most delayed-release products are enteric-coated tablets or capsules designed to pass through the stomach unaltered, later to release their medication within the intestinal tract., enteric coatings are used either to protect a substance from destruction by gastric fluids or to reduce stomach distress caused by irritating drugs REFERENCES:  REFERENCES Ansel’s pharmaceutical dosage forms Opie LH, Messerli FH. Nifedipine and mortality: grave defects in the dossier. Circulation. Schall R, Muller FR, Muller FO, Luus HG. Bioequivalence of controlled-release calcium antagonists. Clinical Pharmacokinetics Thank you:  Thank you Varsha Singh pharmaceutics St.Mary's’ s college of pharmacy secunderabad

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