Published on September 12, 2007
Fallacy Journal: Fallacy Journal Learning Team B: Kathleen Aiple, Randall Bannister, Richard Gough, Ryan Wisehunt University of Phoenix PHL 251 Mr. Pete Intengutt December 4, 2003 One of the Best I have seen. No reference slide showing all citations. Word selection and spelling. 95/100 1. Non Sequitir Fallacy: 1. Non Sequitir Fallacy Wheaties brand cereal has been advertised as the 'Breakfast of Champions' for many years. This advertisement campaign has worked well for the company in that it drives the fallacy that if you eat Wheaties, you will become a champion. This would be a non sequitir fallacy because the fact is, if you eat Wheaties, you may actually become a healthier person but not necessarily a champion. Reference: Wheaties Advertisement. Wheaties on the Web. Retrieved December 2, 2003 from the World Wide Web: http://www.wheaties.com/. 2. Division Fallacy: 2. Division Fallacy The fallacy that Lisa Marie Presley is a good performer is a division fallacy. Because Elvis Presley was one of the greatest performers ever, Lisa Marie has prospered from her father’s reputation, not necessarily on her talents alone. Without her father’s reputation, Lisa Marie may have been simply another somewhat talented musician that never made the big time. There is a little doubt that she has received more opportunities in the music business than other musicians. References: Elvis Presley Photograph. (2003). Music Finder on Yahoo!. Yahoo! Inc. on the Web. Retrieved November 15, 2003 from the World Wide Web: http://musicfinder.yahoo.com/artist/photos/1800038875/446619. Lisa Presley Photograph. (2003). Music Finder on Yahoo!. Yahoo! Inc. on the Web. Retrieved November 15, 2003 from the World Wide Web: http://musicfinder.yahoo.com/artist/photos/1800354972 3. Hasty Generalization Fallacy: 3. Hasty Generalization Fallacy It is common to hear many jokes about lawyers being criminals, dishonest and other negative adjectives. This is a hasty generalization of lawyers because it cannot be supported effectively. The fallacy, in most cases, is founded on a biased opinion of the person making the statement about lawyers. Highly Skilled Professionals 'I hear you lost your court case. Did your lawyer give you bad advice?' 'No. He charged me for it.' There are two kinds of lawyers -- those who know the law and those who know the judge. Arguing with a lawyer is like mud wrestling with a pig: after a while you realize that the pig is at home in the mud. Lawyers and computers have both been proliferating since 1970. Unfortunately, lawyers, unlike computers, have not gotten twice as efficient and half as expensive every 18 months. Reference: Larson, A. (1998-2003) . Highly Skilled Professionals. ExpertLaw on the Web. Retrieved November 15, 2003 from the World Wide Web: www.expertlaw.com 4. Appeal to Emotion Fallacy: 4. Appeal to Emotion Fallacy Sen. Edward Kennedy, D-Mass., said it will dump seniors 'in the cold arms of the HMOs. 'It didn't have to be this way,' Kennedy said. Appeal to Emotion: Senator Kennedy is appealing to emotion rather than arguing based merely on logical reason. Reference: Associated Press. (2003). Congress passes Medicare overhaul. MSNBC News on the Web. Retrieved November 25, 2003 from the World Wide Web: http://www.msnbc.com/news/992373.asp 5. False Dilemma Fallacy: 5. False Dilemma Fallacy 'Mr. Heatley, who returned to his native England this spring when his visa ran out, is one of thousands of foreign workers in line to become Americans who have run up against bureaucratic roadblocks. 'For as much as the States talk about equal opportunity and the American Dream, the reality is quite different,' he said in a telephone interview from London. The visa program that allowed Mr. Heatley to work in the United States is under attack because it forces thousands of qualified workers to leave the country each year. A diverse collection of foreign workers' groups, corporations and American labor groups is calling for an overhaul of the system…' *Reference on the next slide… 5. False Dilemma Fallacy continued…: 5. False Dilemma Fallacy continued… '…The history of U.S. immigration is littered with personal stories like Mr.Heatley's – people whose lives were caught in the political and economic tides that shaped the policies of who's allowed in and who isn't. The current controversy adds a unique dimension. Never before has one industry – in this case the high-tech field that's driving the nation's prosperity – molded the debate because of its need for skilled workers…' (read the rest of the story on the reference link below) False Dilemma: Many immigrants are complaining more strict with immigration laws. If they do not like it, then they should not escape to come here to America! They think America is full of freedom. They have to go through red tape to get here. Reference: Bajaj, V. (2000, August 6). Green Card, Red Tape: Visa Program Under Fire For Labor Drain. The Immigrant Support News on the Web. Retrieved December 4, 2003 from the World Wide Web: http://www.isn.org/news/20000807132139.html. 6. Appeal to Tradition Fallacy continued…: 6. Appeal to Tradition Fallacy continued… Delivery people at various Domino's pizza outlets in and around Washington claim that they have learned to anticipate big news baking at the White House or the Pentagon by the upsurge in takeout orders. Phones usually start ringing some 72 hours before an official announcement. 'We know,' says one pizza runner. 'Absolutely. Pentagon orders doubled up the night before the Panama attack; same thing happened before the Grenada invasion.' Last Wednesday, he adds, 'we got a lot of orders, starting around midnight. We figured something was up.' This time the news arrived quickly: Iraq's surprise invasion of Kuwait. The pizza index indicates military action is imminent in Persian Gulf, a Domino's delivery official said Tuesday. Continued… *Reference shown at end of the 'Appeal to Tradition Fallacy'… 6. Appeal to Tradition Fallacy continued…: 6. Appeal to Tradition Fallacy continued… Record numbers of late-night pizza have been delivered this week to the White House, Pentagon and State Department, said Frank Meeks, owner of several Washington-area Domino's outlets. Similar order patterns came immediately before the invasions of Panama and Grenada, Meeks said. The increase on pizza orders at key government buildings after 10 p.m. is 'very unusual,' Meeks said. 'I don't think they're sitting around watching Redskins reruns.' The previous record for Pentagon deliveries came the night President Ferdinand Marcos and his wife fled the Philippines, according to Meeks. 'Crusty D.C. Veteran Says War is Near', Chicago Tribune, 1/16/91 Continued… *Reference shown at end of the 'Appeal to Tradition Fallacy' slide… 6. Appeal to Tradition Fallacy continued…: 6. Appeal to Tradition Fallacy continued… It has also appeared in the Los Angeles Times, the Chicago Tribune, the Boston Globe, Wired, the Roanoke Times, and probably quite a few other papers via the wire services. It has done at least two tours of duty in rec.humor[6,7], appeared in comp.risks, appeared on ClariNet[6,7], and is cited in several Web pages[9, 10]. While it appears to have its heyday in 1991, I have found cites of it as recently as December 1995. One of the more interesting cites I found is this: From The OPSEC Indicator, Fall 1991: PIZZA INTELLIGENCE: AN UPDATE continued on next slide… *Reference shown at end of the 'Appeal to Tradition Fallacy' slide… 6. Appeal to Tradition Fallacy continued…: 6. Appeal to Tradition Fallacy continued… The CIA, by contrast, learned its OPSEC lesson: There were only two orders, and they were quickly cancelled.[9,10] I have not been able to track down 'The OPSEC Indicator'. It does not appear to be a military journal. While there is an OPSEC professional organization, its publication is called the 'OPS Journal'. As I found two identical cites on the Web, I suspect that the 'OPSEC Indicator' may be an instance of email lore propagated through rec.humor much like the more popular 'Darwin Awards'. After looking into this potentially important issue of OPSEC (operations security in milspeak), I haven't found anything that justifies the decisive 'F' it is tagged with in the FAQ. Here's what I was able to determine: To be continued on next slide… *Reference shown at end of the 'Appeal to Tradition Fallacy' slide… 6. Appeal to Tradition Fallacy continued…: 6. Appeal to Tradition Fallacy continued… T. Government institutions, including the Pentagon, do order Domino's Pizza and other delivered food. T. The Pentagon has two cafeterias and five snack bars. Tb. Only the snacks bars are open round the clock in the Pentagon. T. Over 21,000 people work in the Pentagon. T. The choice of restaurants that deliver food in late night D.C. is limited. T. Frank Meeks owns over forty Domino's Pizza franchises in the D.C. area.[1,2,3,5] T. Frank Meeks claims that pizza orders from government institutions go up during a crisis.[1,2,3,5] Continued… *Reference at end of the 'Appeal to Tradition Fallacy' slide… 6. Appeal to Tradition Fallacy continued…: 6. Appeal to Tradition Fallacy continued… Since the AFU Seekrit Kabal lacks the power to subpoena Domino's Pizza sales receipts (for now), I can't see any good way to determine the voracity of Mr. Meeks' claims. If I was a betting man, I'd put my money on Frank Meeks as the originator of this particular urban factoid, intent on earning his 15 minutes of fame and some free ink for Domino's. Given the above, I propose that the FAQ be amended to: Fb. You can tell if a big op. is happening at US gov't by level of pizza orders. or if we're feeling generous: U. You can tell if a big op. is happening at US gov't by level of pizza orders. or if we're feeling really, really generous: P. You can tell if a big op. is happening at US gov't by level of pizza orders *Reference shown at end of the 'Appeal to Tradition Fallacy' slide… 6. Appeal to Tradition Fallacy continued…: 6. Appeal to Tradition Fallacy continued… Reference: Anonymous (April, 1994) Pentagon Pizza delivery story. Retrieved December 1, 2003. http://www.urbanlegends.com/politics/pentagon_pizza.html This follows an appeal to tradition fallacy. I say this because it uses the Gulf wars long hours at the pentagon as a basis for belief. During the war, there were long hours put in and numerous pizzas ordered for delivery. So, any long hours at the pentagon that result in late night pizza orders has to mean another conflict elsewhere. 7. Common Belief Fallacy: 7. Common Belief Fallacy 'Rosie, While I agree with you that in a case like this, the character of the accuser should be questioned. However, that questioning, in my mind is to help determine the truth behind the charges. I am curious about this: You wrote - 'I hate to say it, because I do not think that what MJ is being accused of is right, but I do think that the character of every person that testifies against him should be in question.' Why do you 'hate to say it'? If you believe it is wrong than you should not hate to say it. What have you heard that makes you feel it is wrong? I am curious because I realize he is not convicted yet but I find it very difficult to believe, based on his past history, that the story is incorrect.' Common Belief: This statement is a fallacy because it is based on past history and a common belief that Michael Jackson was guilty of a crime in the past. Though he was not actually convicted of anything and never faced criminal charges, but instead settled a civil suit. *Reference on the next slide… 8. Contrary to Fact Hypothesis Fallacy: 8. Contrary to Fact Hypothesis Fallacy *Contrary to Fact Hypothesis: This statement is fallacy because the assumption that the story will prove to be correct is based on an unreasonable degree of certainty since there has never been anything proven. 'Rosie, While I agree with you that in a case like this, the character of the accuser should be questioned. However, that questioning, in my mind is to help determine the truth behind the charges. I am curious about this: You wrote - 'I hate to say it, because I do not think that what MJ is being accused of is right... but I do think that the character of every person that testifies against him should be in question.' Why do you 'hate to say it'? If you believe it is wrong than you should not hate to say it. What have you heard that makes you feel it is wrong? I am curious because I realize he is not convicted yet but I find it very difficult to believe, based on his past history, that the story is incorrect.' Reference: At least one member of the PHL 251 class has expressed opinion to other class member (R. Gough, personal communication, November 24, 2003). 9. Appeal to Authority Fallacy: 9. Appeal to Authority Fallacy Claim: People have been killed by cyanide-laced ATM deposit envelopes. Status: False. Example: [Collected on the Internet, 1999] 'Please read: Whenever you go to an automatic teller machine to make deposits, make sure you don't lick the deposit envelopes. A customer died after licking an envelope at a teller machine at Yonge andamp; Eglinton. According to the police, Dr. Elliot at the Women's college hospital found traces of cyanide in the lady's mouth and digestive system and police traced the fatal poison to the glue on the envelope she deposited that… *Reference shown at end of the 'Appeal to Authority Fallacy' slide… 9. Appeal to Authority Fallacy continued…: 9. Appeal to Authority Fallacy continued… …day. They then did an inspection of other envelopes from other teller machines in the area and found six more. The glue is described as colourless and odourless. They suspect some sickco is targeting this particular bank and has been putting the envelopes beside machines at different locations. A spokesperson from the bank said their hands are tied unless they take away the deposit function from all machines. So watch out, and please forward this message to the people you care about . . . Thanks Kimberly Clarkson' *Reference shown at end of the 'Appeal to Authority Fallacy' slide… 9. Appeal to Authority Fallacy continued…: 9. Appeal to Authority Fallacy continued… Crime unit, Department for Public Health, 416-563-9905 Origins: Just when you thought danger couldn't possibly be lurking anywhere else, up pops a warning about poison-saturated deposit envelopes. The above warning began circulating on the Internet in June 1999. It's just as false as the strychnine on payphones scare, another 1999 hoax about dangerous substances deliberately left on public machines. There are no such envelopes, and there hasn't been any such death. When asked about the e-mailed warning, Sunnybrook and Women's College Health and Sciences Centre said it is not connected with the note and has no Dr. Elliot on staff. 'It's a hoax,' said Kathleen Harte, manager of communications for Toronto Public Health. 'We have no such person on staff. The public health department doesn't have a crime unit. There is no death to our knowledge that occurred. If somebody had died of cyanide poisoning we would have heard about this.' *Reference shown on the end of the 'Appeal to Authority Fallacy' slide… 9. Appeal to Authority Fallacy continued…: 9. Appeal to Authority Fallacy continued… The Canadian Bankers Association said it doubts anyone took the e-mailed warning seriously. 'I think people are smarter than that,' said CBA spokesman Bliss Baker. I think the CBA is charming in its naivete. In July 1999, the original text of this bit of scarelore was altered to indicate the poisoning had taken place at a Bank of America ATM and that the letter writer had just heard about this 'at 3:45 p.m. on KDIA radio station.' This version is every bit as false as the previous one. Barbara 'may I have the envelope please?' Mikkelson Last updated: 23 August 1999 *Reference shown at the end of the 'Appeal to Authority Fallacy' slide… 9. Appeal to Authority Fallacy continued…: 9. Appeal to Authority Fallacy continued… This is an appeal to authority fallacy. It relies on our belief that since it quotes law enforcement officials and is signed by one that it has to be true. Reference: Anonymous. (April, 1999). Cyanide-laced ATM deposit envelopes. Retrieved December 1, 2003 from the World Wide Web: http://www.snopes.com/horrors/poison/envelope.htm. 10. Amphiboly Fallacy: 10. Amphiboly Fallacy 'Helicopter Powered By Human Flies' Amphiboly Fallacy: This headline has a misplaced modifier. Presumably, the headline writer meant: 'Human-powered helicopter flies.' Reference: Leno, J. (1990). More Headlines: Real but Ridiculous Samplings from America's Newspapers . (p. 56). Warner Books.