Fed Subsistence & AK Natives - 10.9MB

Information about Fed Subsistence & AK Natives - 10.9MB

Published on December 10, 2009

Author: flower_y7

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Alaska native people and subsistence : Alaska native people and subsistence Yulia Kern A341 Alaska History, Fall 2009 What is “Subsistence”? : What is “Subsistence”? “SUBSISTENCE” refers to the hunting, fishing, and gathering activities which traditionally constituted the economic base of life for Alaska's Native peoples Subsistence is a way of life for Alaska Natives that is vital to the preservation of communities, Tribal cultures, and economies (Langdon & Worl, 1981; Wolfe & Elanna, 1984) Importance of Subsistence to Alaska Native People : Importance of Subsistence to Alaska Native People For Alaska Natives, subsistence resources have great nutritional, economical, cultural, and spiritual importance in the lives of rural Alaskans Subsistence defines what it means to be Alaska Native — to live in harmony with nature, and to survive off the resources of the land and sea (Thornton, 2001; US Senate Committee Hearing 2002) Subsistence Facts : Subsistence Facts Rural Alaskan residents harvest ~44 million pounds of fish & wildlife for food, the replacement value of which is $220,000,000 Subsistence is a major source of employment and sustenance for families in rural Alaska; subsistence participants work to feed and clothe their families Wild foods supply 1/3 of the caloric requirements of rural Alaskans (Alaska Dept. of Fish & Game, 1999) Subsistence Facts (continued) : Subsistence Facts (continued) One in every five Alaskans lives in a rural area: ~125,000 people in more than 250 communities Most rural settlements are off the road network and are comprised of fewer than 500 people, the majority made up of Native villages In a state where approximately 15% of the population is Alaska Native, nearly half of all rural Alaskans are Alaska Native (ADF&G, 1999) Subsistence Facts (continued) : Subsistence Facts (continued) Of subsistence foods taken by rural Alaskans: 60% = fish 20% = land mammals 14% = marine mammals 6% = birds, shellfish, plants, and berries (Wolfe & Bosworth, 1994) Commercial fisheries take ~2 billion pounds, or 97% of the total weight of fish and wildlife harvested in Alaska Sport fishing and hunting = 1% of the total harvest Rural subsistence = 45 million pounds, or just 2.2% (ADF&G, 1999) Subsistence Facts (continued) : Subsistence Facts (continued) Subsistence species include: Chinook, silver, sockeye, pink, & chum salmon, steelhead trout, grayling, northern pike, whitefish, sheefish Halibut, herring, rockfish, cod Crabs, clams, mussels, chitons, shrimp, seaweeds Moose, caribou, deer, Dall sheep, mtn goat, musk ox Arctic hare, beaver, porcupine Fox, lynx, wolf, coyote, bear Berries, leaves, & roots Grouse, ptarmigan, ducks, geese, seabirds & their eggs Walrus, beluga & bowhead whales, harbor & spotted seals (Wolfe & Bosworth, 1994; ADF&G, 1999) Federal Subsistence Laws : Federal Subsistence Laws The Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act of 1980 (ANILCA) is the Federal law that protects subsistence rights (US Fish & Wildlife Service, 1988; Greenbaum and Kessler, 1998) Title VIII of ANILCA mandates that all rural Alaska residents have a priority for use of fish & wildlife on Federal lands (over other users) (Shaw, 2005; National Park Service, 2005) ANILCA Title VIII : ANILCA Title VIII All residents of communities designated as rural by Federal managers are eligible for the subsistence priority (United Fishermen of Alaska, 2002) The “Alaska Native” priority in Title VIII was changed to a “rural resident” priority due to concerns about racial prejudice (Borneman, 2002) ANILCA Title VIII (continued) : ANILCA Title VIII (continued) The rural resident subsistence preference supersedes uses by commercial harvesters & sport fishers/hunters, and by urban/non-rural residents (Buklis, 2002) The Federal Subsistence Management Program : The Federal Subsistence Management Program The Federal Subsistence Board (FSB) makes decisions about regulations for subsistence on Alaska’s Federal lands (Federal Subsistence Board, 1992) 5 Federal agency Alaska Regional Directors, plus 1 citizen Chair, comprise the 6-member FSB Alaska Native Mike Fleagle, FSB Chair Federal Subsistence Regional Advisory Councils : Federal Subsistence Regional Advisory Councils RAC’s provide a way for rural users to be involved in decisions about subsistence The FSB must give deference to RAC recommendations, & the FSB can only reject these under certain conditions Title VIII established Subsistence Regional Advisory Councils (RAC’s), comprised of local residents from each of Alaska’s different areas (Federal Subsistence Board, 1992) Conflicts Over Subsistence in Alaska : Conflicts Over Subsistence in Alaska The issue of subsistence has been very controversial in Alaska, pitting Natives, rural residents, subsistence users, and the Federal government against non-Natives, urban dwellers, sport/commercial harvesters, and the State government (Haycox, 2002; Ross, 2000) Most Alaska citizens agree that rural residents should have the subsistence priority, but efforts to change the State Constitution (to recognize the rural preference) have been blocked by a small group of legislators (Norris, 2002) Conflicts Between the State of Alaska and the Federal Government Over Subsistence : Conflicts Between the State of Alaska and the Federal Government Over Subsistence The State of Alaska cannot comply with ANILCA Title VIII, because the State Constitution does not allow for a rural subsistence preference (Norris, 2005) In 1999, Federal subsistence authority was expanded to include many additional miles of streams & rivers, acres of lakes, and the fish species within these waters (Buklis, 2002) Under State law, all Alaska residents have equal access to subsistence resources In 1990, the U.S. government had to assume subsistence management responsibilities on Federal lands (Haycox, 2002) Alaska Natives’ Subsistence Concerns : Alaska Natives’ Subsistence Concerns As Alaska’s population grows, more demands from non-subsistence users are placed on its wild resources Politically-motivated, economically-driven allocation decisions have favored commercial & sport interests over subsistence users (Ross, 2000; Alaska Bar, 2006) Alaska Native Concerns About Federal Subsistence Management : Alaska Native Concerns About Federal Subsistence Management Native people have witnessed an erosion of subsistence rights that were guaranteed by Federal law (Alaska Bar, 2006) Federal managers have made a number of key decisions that have not supported Alaska Natives, nor the intent of ANILCA Title VIII (Alaska Bar, 2006) The Native Village of Saxman lost their long-standing rural status & subsistence priority because of a 2007 Federal Subsistence Board decision (Federal Subsistence Board, 2007) A New Hope for Alaska Natives? : A New Hope for Alaska Natives? At the 2009 Alaska Federation of Natives Convention, Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar told delegates that the Federal Subsistence Management program “was broken” (Hopkins, 2009) Salazar announced that there would be a review of Federal subsistence management, and that a new program would be in place in early 2010 Subsistence & The Future For Alaska Natives : Subsistence & The Future For Alaska Natives If Alaska Natives are able to continue their subsistence traditions, these people may be able to keep alive their ancient cultures for generations to come Slide 19: Thank you very much for your time & attention! Bibliography : Bibliography Alaska Bar. “A Broken System -- The Federal Subsistence Board, The Office of Subsistence Management, and the Weakening of the Regional Advisory Councils: A Briefing Paper for the Alaska Federation of Natives Forum October 25, 2006”. AlaskaBar.org website, https://www.alaskabar.org/SectionMeetingHandouts/AlaskaNativeLaw/AFN%20A%20Broken%20System%20Subsistence%20Forum.pdf, 2 pages (accessed November 29, 2009) Alaska Department of Fish and Game. Alaska Subsistence Fisheries 1999 Annual Report. Juneau: Alaska Department of Fish and Game, 2001. 36 pages. (Source of many subsistence statistics)   Borneman, Walter R. Alaska: Saga of a Bold Land. New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 2002. 608 pages. (Excellent book summarizing the subsistence situation in Alaska)   Buklis, Lawrence S. “Subsistence Fisheries Management on Federal Public Lands in Alaska”. Fisheries, Volume 2 Number 27 (2002): 10-18. (Very good technical article on Federal fisheries subsistence management)   Federal Subsistence Board. Subsistence Management for Federal Public Lands in Alaska: Final Environmental Impact Statement Volume I. Anchorage: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1992. (Source document detailing the Federal Subsistence Program structure) Bibliography (continued) : Bibliography (continued) Federal Subsistence Board. Final Rule and Requests For Reconsideration of Decennial review of Rural/Nonrural Determinations by the Federal Subsistence Board. Anchorage: Office of Subsistence Management, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 2007, 154 pages. (Source document that includes information on Saxman’s rural status change) Greenbaum, Sheldon and Carl R. Kessler. Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act As Amended With Case Annotations (revised). United States Department of the Interior, Washington D.C.: Information Interior, Division of Information and Library Services, 1998, 291 pages. (Detailed publication with much information about ANILCA and related Federal laws and court cases) Haycox, Stephen. Alaska: An American Colony. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2002, 372 pages. (Contains brief but concise summary of the subsistence situation in Alaska)   Hopkins, Kyle. “Feds seek to re-shape hunting and fishing rules”. Anchorage Daily News, October 24th, 2009, http://www.adn.com/news/alaska/rural/story/984677.html, 1 page (accessed November 12, 2009). (News article describing the Secretary of Interior’s annoucement at the 2009 AFN Convention)   Langdon, Steve J. and Rosita Worl. Distribution and Exchange of Subsistence Resources in Alaska. Juneau: Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Subsistence, Technical Paper 55, 1981. (Excellent source document about Alaska Native subsistence practices & traditions) Bibliography (continued) : Bibliography (continued) National Park Service. Promises to Keep: Subsistence in Alaska’s National Parks. Anchorage: National Park Service, U.S. Department of Interior, 2007, 6 pages. (Nice pamphlet summarizing the Park Service’s subsistence responsibilities)   Norris, Frank. Alaska Subsistence: A National Park Service Management History. Anchorage: Alaska Support Office, National Park Service, U.S. Department of Interior, 2002, 306 pages. (Great book which contains a lot of detailed information on the history of subsistence & ANILCA) Ross, Ken. Environmental Conflict in Alaska. Boulder: University Press of Colorado, 2000, 382 pages. (Contains an excellent chapter on subsistence that presents good information about the conflicts between Alaskans) Shaw, Monica (ed). The Legacy of ANILCA. Alaska Park Science Volume 4, Issue 2. Anchorage: Alaska Natural History Association, 2005, 51 pages. (Good summary document that discusses ANILCA and Title VIII)   Thornton, Thomas F. Subsistence in Northern Communities: Lessons from Alaska. The Northern Review #23, Summer 2001: 82-102. (Excellent journal article with a great review of Alaska subsistence issues from the Native’s perspectives) Bibliography (continued) : Bibliography (continued) United Fishermen of Alaska. “Subsistence Management Information: Informing Alaskans”, Subsistence Basics UFA website, http://www.subsistmgtinfo.org, 26 pages (accessed November 9, 2009). (Very informative website which contains a lot of good summaries about Federal subsistence history and regulations) U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Subsistence Management and Use: Implementation of Title VIII of ANILCA. Anchorage: Fish and Wildlife Service Report, U.S. Department of Interior, 1988.   U.S. Senate Committee on Indian Affairs Oversight Hearing on Subsistence Hunting and Fishing In the State of Alaska, Alaska Native Subsistence Cultures and Economy, Rosita Worl Ph.D, April 17, 2002, 14 pages. (Dr. Worl’s testimony to the US Senate Committee provides a detailed and excellent Alaska Native perspective on subsistence) Wolfe, Robert J. and Robert G. Bosworth. Subsistence in Alaska: 1994 Update. Juneau: Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Subsistence Division, 1994. (Dr. Wolfe was the former head of the ADF&G Subsistence Division; this publication contains many useful statistics on subsistence) Wolfe, Robert J. and L.J. Elanna. Resource Use and Socioeconomic Systems: Case Studies of Fishing and Hunting in Alaskan Communities. Juneau: Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Subsistence, Technical Paper 61, 1983. (Another excellent publication by Dr. Wolfe – this one contains good details about Alaska Native subsistence traditions in rural villages)

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