feeding

Information about feeding

Published on December 2, 2013

Author: raniashok

Source: authorstream.com

Content

FEEDING: FEEDING Mrs. Rani Ashok Associate Professor of Zoology, Lady Doak College, Madurai – 2 Email: [email protected] DEFINITION: DEFINITION Intake of food and water in organisms FEEDING MECHANISMS: FEEDING MECHANISMS Exhibit relation with the habitat and the type of food an organism takes Structure and function of digestive tract depend on the type of food and feeding mechanism Organisms classified based on type of food taken and utilized ENDOCYTOSIS: ENDOCYTOSIS PINOCYTOSIS PHAGOCYTOSIS PINOCYTOSIS Also called as Cell drinking PHAGOCYTOSIS Also called as Cell eating CLASSIFICATION OF FEEDING: CLASSIFICATION OF FEEDING EVOLUTIONARY ADAPTATIONS FOR FEEDING: EVOLUTIONARY ADAPTATIONS FOR FEEDING SPECIALIZATION IN Mouth parts Beak adaptations in birds Claws and other appendages Change in body colour enabling camoflauge Change in digestive system MECHANISM FOR DEALING WITH PARTICULATE FOOD OR SMALL PARTICLES: MECHANISM FOR DEALING WITH PARTICULATE FOOD OR SMALL PARTICLES Occurs in less motile or sluggish and non-motile and sedentary forms Eg . Diatoms, Flagellates, Ciliates, Sarcodines , Planktons, Bacteria, Sponges, Coelenterates, Helminthes MECHANISM FOR DEALING WITH PARTICULATE FOOD OR SMALL PARTICLES: MECHANISM FOR DEALING WITH PARTICULATE FOOD OR SMALL PARTICLES Feeding mechanisms MECHANISM FOR DEALING WITH PARTICULATE FOOD OR SMALL PARTICLES: MECHANISM FOR DEALING WITH PARTICULATE FOOD OR SMALL PARTICLES PSEUDOPODIAL FEEDING Characteristic of rhizopods like Amoeba Devoid of oral opening Ingest food at any point of their body During engulfing psuedopodia are thrown on either side of the food particle and food is engulfed by phagocytosis and also water by pinocytosis Intracellular digestion takes place Eg . Amoeba ; nutritive cells of coelenterates; white blood cells; Kupfer cells MECHANISM FOR DEALING WITH PARTICULATE FOOD OR SMALL PARTICLES: MECHANISM FOR DEALING WITH PARTICULATE FOOD OR SMALL PARTICLES FILTER FEEDING Filters food using the filters present in the mouth Feeds on microscopic algae etc. Eg . Flamingo; krill MECHANISM FOR DEALING WITH PARTICULATE FOOD OR SMALL PARTICLES: MECHANISM FOR DEALING WITH PARTICULATE FOOD OR SMALL PARTICLES CILIARY FEEDING Beating of cilia produces respiratory and feeding currents of water It directs the food into mouth Eg . Paramecium MECHANISM FOR DEALING WITH PARTICULATE FOOD OR SMALL PARTICLES: MECHANISM FOR DEALING WITH PARTICULATE FOOD OR SMALL PARTICLES FLAGELLAR FEEDING Beating of flagella produces respiratory and feeding currents of water It directs the food into mouth Eg . Euglena, Poriferans , nutritive cells of Coelenterates MECHANISM FOR DEALING WITH PARTICULATE FOOD OR SMALL PARTICLES: MECHANISM FOR DEALING WITH PARTICULATE FOOD OR SMALL PARTICLES TENTACULAR FEEDING Collect food by trapping method rather than current method Tentacles carry cnidoblasts (which contains poisonous substances) or suclers that paralyze the prey Tentacles move the paralyzed prey to mouth Eg . Hydra, jelly fish, Portugese -man-of-war, octopus MECHANISM FOR DEALING WITH PARTICULATE FOOD OR SMALL PARTICLES: MECHANISM FOR DEALING WITH PARTICULATE FOOD OR SMALL PARTICLES SETOSE FEEDING Bristle like structures are present for this purpose Crustaceans create water current and direct the food particle to the mouth Copepods produce currents by internal vibrations Eg . Prawn, Copepod MECHANISM FOR DEALING WITH PARTICULATE FOOD OR SMALL PARTICLES: MECHANISM FOR DEALING WITH PARTICULATE FOOD OR SMALL PARTICLES MUCOID FEEDING Also known as DEPOSIT FEEDING Common among burrowing animals Mucous sheets secreted by the animals filters the food and eaten by the animal at regular intervals Eg . Neries , Chaetopterus MECHANISM FOR DEALING WITH PARTICULATE FOOD OR SMALL PARTICLES: MECHANISM FOR DEALING WITH PARTICULATE FOOD OR SMALL PARTICLES SUCTORIAL FEEDING Seen mainly in parasites Ingest food in liquid state Blood sucking organisms secrete anti- coagulin substance like hirudin , lamphredin Eg . Mosquito, leech, lamphrey MECHANISM FOR DEALING WITH MASSIVE FOOD OR LARGE PARTICLES OR MACROPHAGOUS FEEDERS: MECHANISM FOR DEALING WITH MASSIVE FOOD OR LARGE PARTICLES OR MACROPHAGOUS FEEDERS Most higher organisms feed upon large masses and therefore have a choice for both food and habitat Animals develop specialized organs for seizing, scraping, boring, mastigation etc. MECHANISM FOR DEALING WITH MASSIVE FOOD OR LARGE PARTICLES OR MACROPHAGOUS FEEDERS: MECHANISM FOR DEALING WITH MASSIVE FOOD OR LARGE PARTICLES OR MACROPHAGOUS FEEDERS Feeding mechanisms MECHANISM FOR DEALING WITH MASSIVE FOOD OR LARGE PARTICLES OR MACROPHAGOUS FEEDERS: MECHANISM FOR DEALING WITH MASSIVE FOOD OR LARGE PARTICLES OR MACROPHAGOUS FEEDERS SWALLOWING FOOD MASSES Mud dwellers and mud eaters Mud ingested is sent along with faeces Eg . Earthworm, Arenicola , Upogebia MECHANISM FOR DEALING WITH MASSIVE FOOD OR LARGE PARTICLES OR MACROPHAGOUS FEEDERS: MECHANISM FOR DEALING WITH MASSIVE FOOD OR LARGE PARTICLES OR MACROPHAGOUS FEEDERS SCRAPING Done by scrapping organs such as blade-like structures, radula etc. Eg . Radula of Pila and Teredo , Aristotle’s lantern of echinoderms MECHANISM FOR DEALING WITH MASSIVE FOOD OR LARGE PARTICLES OR MACROPHAGOUS FEEDERS: MECHANISM FOR DEALING WITH MASSIVE FOOD OR LARGE PARTICLES OR MACROPHAGOUS FEEDERS BORING Bore through surfaces by boring organs like jaws Eg . termites MECHANISM FOR DEALING WITH MASSIVE FOOD OR LARGE PARTICLES OR MACROPHAGOUS FEEDERS: MECHANISM FOR DEALING WITH MASSIVE FOOD OR LARGE PARTICLES OR MACROPHAGOUS FEEDERS SEIZING THE PREY – for seizing only Have specialized structures for seizing the prey by paralysis etc. Eg . Tentacles of coelenterates, Neries and polychaetes MECHANISM FOR DEALING WITH MASSIVE FOOD OR LARGE PARTICLES OR MACROPHAGOUS FEEDERS: MECHANISM FOR DEALING WITH MASSIVE FOOD OR LARGE PARTICLES OR MACROPHAGOUS FEEDERS SEIZING THE PREY – for seizing and masticating Mouth parts are modified for seizing and masticating Eg . Toothed jaws of vertebrates, radula of gastropods, mouth parts of cockroach and scorpion MECHANISM FOR DEALING WITH MASSIVE FOOD OR LARGE PARTICLES OR MACROPHAGOUS FEEDERS: MECHANISM FOR DEALING WITH MASSIVE FOOD OR LARGE PARTICLES OR MACROPHAGOUS FEEDERS SEIZING THE PREY – for seizing followed by external digestion Seize the prey with cephalic appendages and carry out some external digestion Eg . Cephalopods, carnivorous gastropods, spiders, starfish MECHANISM FOR DEALING WITH TAKING IN FLUIDS/ SOFT TISSUES: MECHANISM FOR DEALING WITH TAKING IN FLUIDS/ SOFT TISSUES Lower aquatic animals take liquid food Liquid food is obtained by absorption through body surface or structural adaptations which enables sucking MECHANISM FOR DEALING WITH TAKING IN FLUIDS/ SOFT TISSUES: MECHANISM FOR DEALING WITH TAKING IN FLUIDS/ SOFT TISSUES Feeding mechanisms MECHANISM FOR DEALING WITH TAKING IN FLUIDS/ SOFT TISSUES: MECHANISM FOR DEALING WITH TAKING IN FLUIDS/ SOFT TISSUES ABSORPTION THROUGH BODY SURFACE Intestinal parasites which feed upon liquid food are called osmotrophs Amoeba, Paramecium and Euglena absorb organic matters dissolved in water through body surface Eg . Cestodes , Amoeba MECHANISM FOR DEALING WITH TAKING IN FLUIDS/ SOFT TISSUES: MECHANISM FOR DEALING WITH TAKING IN FLUIDS/ SOFT TISSUES SUCKING Suck through definitive parts or organs of the body Anatomical and physiological modifications are observed Have specialized organs for piercing and sucking Eg . Mosquito, bugs, lamprey PowerPoint Presentation: THANK YOU

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