fertility

Information about fertility

Published on January 3, 2008

Author: Christian

Source: authorstream.com

Content

Incompatibility and cytoplasmic male sterility:  Incompatibility and cytoplasmic male sterility Chapter 7. Will my cultivar set seeds? Who will be the father? Controlling fertilization:  Controlling fertilization Incompatibility Male sterility Genetic (nuclear) male sterility (MS) Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) Apomixis Interspecific hybridization Time of pollen shed Self-Incompatibility (SI):  Self-Incompatibility (SI) Compatible pollination pollen grains adhere to stigma, hydrate and germinate pollen tube penetrates stigma and grows down the style, fertilization of the ovule Self-incompatibility Related pollen does not fertilize eggcell: lack of germination, reduced pollen tube growth, blocked fertilisation Self-incompatibility systems:  Self-incompatibility systems Gametophytic SI the pollen phenotype is determined by its own haploid genotype Solanaceae, Papaveraceae, Rosaceae, Poaceae, Triticae Sporophytic SI the pollen phenotype is determined by the genotype of the pollen parent Brassicaceae, Asteraceae Gametophytic SI in the Solanaceae :  Gametophytic SI in the Solanaceae Tobacco (Nicotiana), Petunia, tomato (Lycopersicon) Inheritance as a single locus (S) with multiple alleles (S1, S2, S3,…) Molecular studies: At least two tigthly linked loci Stylar S gene product has ribonuclease activity (S-RNase) Pollen S gene product is unknown Degradation of RNA in pollen Gametophytic SI in the grass family (Poaceae):  Gametophytic SI in the grass family (Poaceae) Inherited as two unlinked loci (S and Z) Both are multi-allelic (S1, S2, S3,… and Z1, Z2, Z3 …) Both S and Z in the pollen must match S and Z in the pistil to get incompatibility Hypothesis: at least two tigthly linked genes in each locus Gene products and mechanism unknown Sporophytic SI in the Brassicaceae:  Sporophytic SI in the Brassicaceae Inherited as a single locus (S) with multiple alleles (S1, S2, S3…) S locus consisting of 3 genes S locus glycoprotein (SLG) in stigma S locus receptor kinase (SRK) in stigma S locus cysteine-rich gene (SCR) in anthers Block in pollen hydration and germination Pollen tube growth in Brassica:  Pollen tube growth in Brassica a) S8S8 stigma, S52S60 pollen b) S9S9 stigma, S52S60 pollen c) S8S8 stigma, S8 pollen d) S9S9 stigma, S52S60/transgene S8 pollen e) S8S8 stigma, S9 pollen f) S9S9 stigma, S9 pollen Shiba et al. (2001) Plant Physiol. 125:2095 Self-incompatibility in Plant Breeding:  Self-incompatibility in Plant Breeding Avoid inbreeding depression in varieties of cross-pollinating species Avoid self-fertilization in hybrid seed production When no efficient CMS system is available Pseudo self-fertility Seed set not comletely blocked Self-fertility alleles Weak SI alleles Male sterility, nuclear genes:  Male sterility, nuclear genes MsMs and Msms plants are male fertile msms plants are male sterile A pure msms population can not be produced Why? Because msms plants can not be self-pollinated Pollinate with Msms plants and remove male fertile plants from the offspring Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS):  Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) Controlled by mitochondrial genes Maternally inherited Used for hybrid production in many crops Onion, carrot, cabbage Corn, sorghum, pearl millet, sunflower, sugar beets Mutations or foreign cytoplasms Ogura cytoplasm in Brassica from radish CMS in onion:  CMS in onion Allium galanthum CMS male sterile umbel Restorer genes:  Restorer genes Nuclear genes (Rf) can restore male fertility (One locus restorer system) CMS, rfrf is male sterile CMS, Rfrf is male fertile CMS, RfRf is male fertile N, rfrf is male fertile N, Rfrf is male fertile N, RfRf is male fertile Flower phenotypes in carrot:  Flower phenotypes in carrot a) Normal (N-cytoplasm, restored CMS plants) b) Brown anther CMS (Sa) c) Petaloid CMS (Sp) Fertility restoration in maize:  Fertility restoration in maize From Roger Wise’ research lab. http://www1.iastate.edu/~imagefpc/Subpages/research.html Simple hybrid with cms and restoration:  Simple hybrid with cms and restoration Maintainer line (B-line) N, rfrf Large amounts of CMS line x CMS line (A-line) CMS, rfrf Male line (C-line) N and RfRf Fertile F1 hybrid CMS, Rfrf Breeding hybrid carrots:  Breeding hybrid carrots Controlling fertilization:  Controlling fertilization Self-incompatibility (SI) Homomorphic incompatibility Gametophytic Sporophytic Heteromorphic incompatibility (Primula) Male sterility Genetic (nuclear) male sterility (MS) Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) Gm male-sterility Gametocides Chemicals to kill pollen Apomixis:  Apomixis Seeds without fertilisation Pollination may or may not be needed to from viable seed (fertilisation of central nucleous) Obligate and facultitative apomicts Detrmined by genes in the plants Several mechanisms of function Clone cultivars by seeds but It is hard to make new crosses Kentucky bluegrass, Citrus

Related presentations


Other presentations created by Christian

Email Security
07. 10. 2007
0 views

Email Security

adobe satyam customer preso v5
29. 09. 2007
0 views

adobe satyam customer preso v5

Marui
09. 10. 2007
0 views

Marui

qw6p15500g20r7m
10. 10. 2007
0 views

qw6p15500g20r7m

Russia Country Presentation
11. 10. 2007
0 views

Russia Country Presentation

Lequeux
12. 10. 2007
0 views

Lequeux

Daisuke Hiratsuka
12. 10. 2007
0 views

Daisuke Hiratsuka

Introduction 1
15. 10. 2007
0 views

Introduction 1

vollhardt
15. 10. 2007
0 views

vollhardt

Vodovatov
27. 09. 2007
0 views

Vodovatov

sample lecture
16. 10. 2007
0 views

sample lecture

hinduism
04. 12. 2007
0 views

hinduism

WNV and equines slides
21. 10. 2007
0 views

WNV and equines slides

addis Abeba
23. 10. 2007
0 views

addis Abeba

mexico 2006 Kadri
24. 10. 2007
0 views

mexico 2006 Kadri

Google AdWords Intro
16. 11. 2007
0 views

Google AdWords Intro

Graft Healing and Return to Play
19. 11. 2007
0 views

Graft Healing and Return to Play

Drama Methods And Education
23. 11. 2007
0 views

Drama Methods And Education

M Kar S Taban CMTEA2005
26. 11. 2007
0 views

M Kar S Taban CMTEA2005

Ch26
13. 10. 2007
0 views

Ch26

BNJ UAI 20030808
29. 10. 2007
0 views

BNJ UAI 20030808

MVA
02. 11. 2007
0 views

MVA

ftl
12. 10. 2007
0 views

ftl

Cause Effect
20. 02. 2008
0 views

Cause Effect

functfam
24. 02. 2008
0 views

functfam

RegionalHazeConsulta tion081407
03. 10. 2007
0 views

RegionalHazeConsulta tion081407

78097 55
02. 10. 2007
0 views

78097 55

vitamin and mineral
04. 03. 2008
0 views

vitamin and mineral

Garfield Engaging At Risk
10. 03. 2008
0 views

Garfield Engaging At Risk

ESA DAvanzo NEON Education1
03. 01. 2008
0 views

ESA DAvanzo NEON Education1

metaphor creativity
18. 03. 2008
0 views

metaphor creativity

The USA
10. 04. 2008
0 views

The USA

551 CH15Lecture
13. 04. 2008
0 views

551 CH15Lecture

235 Reallocation
14. 04. 2008
0 views

235 Reallocation

FuturePriceProposal
16. 04. 2008
0 views

FuturePriceProposal

HBPM presentation QCC
17. 04. 2008
0 views

HBPM presentation QCC

Keynes
18. 04. 2008
0 views

Keynes

71170 pp7
22. 04. 2008
0 views

71170 pp7

VisitBelgium
16. 03. 2008
0 views

VisitBelgium

nts present 2007 english
01. 10. 2007
0 views

nts present 2007 english

SanjivShah
28. 04. 2008
0 views

SanjivShah

hou
24. 02. 2008
0 views

hou

harris 43
07. 05. 2008
0 views

harris 43

Gosbeelides
02. 05. 2008
0 views

Gosbeelides

Hellen Gill
02. 05. 2008
0 views

Hellen Gill

keys
10. 10. 2007
0 views

keys

slac tour 2006
15. 10. 2007
0 views

slac tour 2006

Reg8reportAtlanta
17. 10. 2007
0 views

Reg8reportAtlanta

ppp estrategia fundacion arias
22. 10. 2007
0 views

ppp estrategia fundacion arias

IHY Turkey poster
23. 11. 2007
0 views

IHY Turkey poster

BTW2007 web
15. 10. 2007
0 views

BTW2007 web

castro situacion CR
22. 10. 2007
0 views

castro situacion CR

17th Lecture
10. 10. 2007
0 views

17th Lecture

Guy
23. 10. 2007
0 views

Guy

17661
25. 10. 2007
0 views

17661

D301 Patel
29. 10. 2007
0 views

D301 Patel

Insolvency Presentation
19. 10. 2007
0 views

Insolvency Presentation

ARIntro
23. 10. 2007
0 views

ARIntro

tillman
12. 03. 2008
0 views

tillman

RTV 350 Ch5
08. 10. 2007
0 views

RTV 350 Ch5

Franco cavallo
15. 10. 2007
0 views

Franco cavallo

12 1 5
24. 03. 2008
0 views

12 1 5