Fichner Rathus CH09

Information about Fichner Rathus CH09

Published on February 11, 2008

Author: Donato

Source: authorstream.com

Content

Chapter 9:  Chapter 9 Sculpture Sculpture:  Sculpture Sculpture is the art of carving, casting, modeling, or assembling materials into three-dimensional figures or forms. Relief sculptures Bas-relief High-relief Free-standing sculptures Subtractive and Additive Types of Sculpture :  Subtractive and Additive Types of Sculpture  In a subtractive process (such as carving), unwanted material is removed.   In a additive process of modeling, casting, and constructing, material is added, assembled, or built up to reach its final form. Subtractive and Additive Types of Sculpture:  Subtractive and Additive Types of Sculpture Carving In carving, the sculptor begins with a block of material and cuts portions of it away until the desired form is created. The material chosen—stone, wood, ivory—strongly influences the mechanics of the carving process and determines the type of creation that will emerge. Subtractive and Additive Types of Sculpture:  Subtractive and Additive Types of Sculpture Modeling In modeling, a pliable material (such as clay or wax) is shaped into a three-dimensional form. The artist may manipulate the material by hand and use a variety of tools. Subtractive and Additive Types of Sculpture:  Subtractive and Additive Types of Sculpture Casting In the casting process, a liquid material is poured into a mold.  The liquid hardens into the shape of the mold and is then removed. The mold is like a photographic negative, but one of form and not of color. The interior surfaces of the mold carry the reversed impressions of the model’s exterior. Subtractive and Additive Types of Sculpture:  Subtractive and Additive Types of Sculpture The Lost-Wax Technique In this technique, an original model is usually sculpted from clay. A mold of it is made, usually from sectioned plaster or flexible gelatin. Molten wax is then brushed or poured into the mold to make a hollow wax model. After the wax hardens, the mold is removed; the wax model stands as a hollow replica of the clay. The hollow wax model is placed upside down in a container; wax rods called gates are connected to it. Subtractive and Additive Types of Sculpture:  Subtractive and Additive Types of Sculpture The Lost-Wax Technique Then a sandy mixture of silica, clay, and plaster is poured into and around the wax model, filling the shell and the container. The mixture hardens into a fire-resistant mold, or investiture. The investiture is turned over and placed in a kiln. As the investiture becomes heated, the wax turns molten once more and runs out. (This stage provides the process its name.) Subtractive and Additive Types of Sculpture:  Subtractive and Additive Types of Sculpture The Lost-Wax Technique The investiture is turned over again while it is still hot. Molten bronze is poured in. As the metal flows into the mold, air escapes through the gates so that no air pockets are left within. The bronze is given time to harden. Then the investiture and core are removed, leaving the bronze sculpture with strange projections where the molten metal had flowed up through the gates as it filled the mold. Subtractive and Additive Types of Sculpture :  Subtractive and Additive Types of Sculpture The Lost-Wax Technique The projections are removed. The surface of the bronze is burnished or treated chemically to take on the texture and color desired by the sculptor. Subtractive and Additive Types of Sculpture:  Subtractive and Additive Types of Sculpture Casting of Human Models Human models leave impressions of parts of their bodies in quick-drying plaster casts, with the surfaces molded and kneaded by the artist’s hand as they sit. These sections are then assembled and adjusted into whole figures. Types of Materials:  Types of Materials Stone Sculpture Stone is an extremely hard, durable material that may be carved, scraped, drilled, and polished. The durability that makes stone so appropriate for monuments and statues that are meant to communicate with future generations also makes working with stone a tedious process. The hand tools used with stone—such as the chisel, mallet, and rasp—have not changed much over the centuries. Types of Materials:  Types of Materials Wood Sculpture Wood, like stone, may be carved, scraped, drilled, and polished. But unlike stone, wood may also be permanently molded and bent. Also like stone, wood varies in hardness and grain, but it is more readily carved that stone. Types of Materials:  Types of Materials Clay Sculpture Clay is more pliable than stone or wood. But because clay has little strength, it is often not considered a permanent material, even though an armature may be used to prevent clay figures from sagging. In ceramics, clay is fired in a kiln at high temperatures so that it becomes hardened and nonporous. Types of Materials:  Types of Materials Metal Sculpture Metals can be cast, extruded, forged, stamped, drilled, filed, burnished, welded, riveted, and soldered. Modern and Contemporary Materials and Methods:  Modern and Contemporary Materials and Methods  Constructed Sculpture In constructed sculpture, the artist builds or constructs the sculpture from materials such as cardboard, celluloid, translucent plastic, sheet metal, or wire. Modern and Contemporary Materials and Methods:  Modern and Contemporary Materials and Methods Assemblage Assemblage is a form of constructed sculpture in which preexisting (or found) objects, recognizable in form, are integrated by the sculptor into novel combinations that take on a life and meaning of their own. Modern and Contemporary Materials and Methods:  Modern and Contemporary Materials and Methods Readymades This technique depends on the attitude that found objects (or readymades)—such as bottle racks and urinals—could be literally elevated as works of art by being placed on pedestals—literally or figuratively. Modern and Contemporary Materials and Methods:  Modern and Contemporary Materials and Methods Mixed Media In mixed media constructions and assemblages, sculptors use materials and ready-made or found objects that are not normally the elements of a work of art. Modern and Contemporary Materials and Methods:  Modern and Contemporary Materials and Methods Kinetic Sculpture Kinetic sculptures actually move. Movement may be caused by the wind, magnetic fields, jets of water, electric motors, variations in the intensity of light, or the active manipulation of the observer. Modern and Contemporary Materials and Methods:  Modern and Contemporary Materials and Methods Light Sculpture Using artificial light in his composition, the artist working in this technique is concerned with the physical and psychological effects of color and with the creation of visual illusions. Modern and Contemporary Materials and Methods:  Modern and Contemporary Materials and Methods Earthworks In earthworks (or Land Art), large amounts of earth or land are shaped into a sculpture. Modern and Contemporary Materials and Methods:  Modern and Contemporary Materials and Methods A Portfolio of More Recent Sculpture Body parts and body by-products might be featured in a sculpture. Modern and Contemporary Materials and Methods:  Modern and Contemporary Materials and Methods A Portfolio of More Recent Sculpture A 600-pound cube of chocolate might be the medium, and the sculptor’s teeth might be the sculptural tools. Modern and Contemporary Materials and Methods:  Modern and Contemporary Materials and Methods A Portfolio of More Recent Sculpture And Styrofoam might be dented with the point of a pencil, indented with the pressure of a thumb, and bitten to form an impression. Discussion Questions:  Discussion Questions Do you consider a constructed sculpture a “work of art” as you consider a carving, casting, or modeling? Explain your reasons. What characteristics distinguish relief and freestanding sculpture? How does each use space? Which do you prefer? Why? Do you associate any disadvantages of earthworks on the scale of Smithson’s Spiral Jetty? Related Websites:  Related Websites Artchive: Edgar Degas http://www.artchive.com/artchive/D/degas.html Artcyclopedia: George Segal http://www.artcyclopedia.com/artists/segal_george.html Louise Bourgeois http://www.artandculture.com/arts/artist?artistId=8 Auguste Rodin Museum http://www.rodinmuseum.org/ Robert Smithson http://www.robertsmithson.com/ Artcyclopedia: Kiki Smith http://www.artcyclopedia.com/artists/smith_kiki.html

Related presentations


Other presentations created by Donato

The Rise of Dictators
20. 04. 2008
0 views

The Rise of Dictators

csharp
21. 02. 2008
0 views

csharp

Conference Brochure web
10. 01. 2008
0 views

Conference Brochure web

P17 Biljakovic
11. 01. 2008
0 views

P17 Biljakovic

10 02 ed406a
12. 01. 2008
0 views

10 02 ed406a

Physical descriptions Bible
13. 01. 2008
0 views

Physical descriptions Bible

4 Mining
14. 01. 2008
0 views

4 Mining

Role of Race and Ethnicity
14. 01. 2008
0 views

Role of Race and Ethnicity

main stream school as a deaf
14. 01. 2008
0 views

main stream school as a deaf

InfantWellness
15. 01. 2008
0 views

InfantWellness

434 L18 Marine Pollution 07
15. 01. 2008
0 views

434 L18 Marine Pollution 07

WinRDBI
16. 01. 2008
0 views

WinRDBI

Alexander von Humboldt fertig
17. 01. 2008
0 views

Alexander von Humboldt fertig

Mesa Teen Dating Violence65466
17. 01. 2008
0 views

Mesa Teen Dating Violence65466

water LCHS
17. 01. 2008
0 views

water LCHS

galileo new
17. 01. 2008
0 views

galileo new

Colonies Powerpoint
19. 01. 2008
0 views

Colonies Powerpoint

OSTP Lewis
21. 01. 2008
0 views

OSTP Lewis

pptEarlyBCNewspapers
21. 01. 2008
0 views

pptEarlyBCNewspapers

SumerOL
22. 01. 2008
0 views

SumerOL

Whole Show Welch 2007
23. 01. 2008
0 views

Whole Show Welch 2007

JC NIH INRIA160407ppt
05. 02. 2008
0 views

JC NIH INRIA160407ppt

Wedding Presentation email
05. 02. 2008
0 views

Wedding Presentation email

InfoSec120804 web 2
04. 02. 2008
0 views

InfoSec120804 web 2

The Civil War Era
12. 02. 2008
0 views

The Civil War Era

Psychotherapy
28. 01. 2008
0 views

Psychotherapy

energysecurity
06. 02. 2008
0 views

energysecurity

david35
07. 02. 2008
0 views

david35

wipo smes ge 07 www 81572
12. 02. 2008
0 views

wipo smes ge 07 www 81572

rpc dae
09. 01. 2008
0 views

rpc dae

Klein
09. 01. 2008
0 views

Klein

Android Idea
25. 02. 2008
0 views

Android Idea

Peds Asthma
28. 02. 2008
0 views

Peds Asthma

Cubism
03. 03. 2008
0 views

Cubism

ppt00022
04. 02. 2008
0 views

ppt00022

George Mucibabici Deloitte
07. 03. 2008
0 views

George Mucibabici Deloitte

African Culture
10. 01. 2008
0 views

African Culture

04 TransmissionMedia
24. 03. 2008
0 views

04 TransmissionMedia

Performance Driven Government
31. 03. 2008
0 views

Performance Driven Government

i20083241155
14. 04. 2008
0 views

i20083241155

Israel Paralympics
16. 04. 2008
0 views

Israel Paralympics

MDiazGELSS2003
17. 01. 2008
0 views

MDiazGELSS2003

Skarb sport reng
22. 04. 2008
0 views

Skarb sport reng

H105l
14. 01. 2008
0 views

H105l

f7
07. 02. 2008
0 views

f7

Hood Canal CD Final 25Jan08 1
24. 04. 2008
0 views

Hood Canal CD Final 25Jan08 1

US Fed Indian Policy
11. 03. 2008
0 views

US Fed Indian Policy

Introduccion al Fast Track
06. 05. 2008
0 views

Introduccion al Fast Track

CHINA ROHS SEMI CONWEST redick
07. 05. 2008
0 views

CHINA ROHS SEMI CONWEST redick

obrien
08. 05. 2008
0 views

obrien

GMO EU Bans
08. 05. 2008
0 views

GMO EU Bans

audvotpowpoint
30. 04. 2008
0 views

audvotpowpoint

Abo dar3 hav mots
07. 02. 2008
0 views

Abo dar3 hav mots

vpbusiness 2004
11. 02. 2008
0 views

vpbusiness 2004

Beauty
08. 03. 2008
0 views

Beauty

LA STEM pres5
16. 01. 2008
0 views

LA STEM pres5

Polarhide And Roof Heat Edited
25. 01. 2008
0 views

Polarhide And Roof Heat Edited

Games2
22. 01. 2008
0 views

Games2

tvp urg
17. 01. 2008
0 views

tvp urg

wombwithaview
08. 01. 2008
0 views

wombwithaview

Proposal slides
08. 04. 2008
0 views

Proposal slides

corporate partnership
22. 01. 2008
0 views

corporate partnership

POA June 2006
10. 01. 2008
0 views

POA June 2006

LifeShapes 1
29. 01. 2008
0 views

LifeShapes 1

Clavel
22. 01. 2008
0 views

Clavel