field to flour

Information about field to flour

Published on October 4, 2007

Author: Roxie

Source: authorstream.com

Content

Prepared by: Sharon P. Davis, Family & Consumer Sciences Kansas Wheat Commission www.kswheat.com :  Prepared by: Sharon P. Davis, Family & Consumer Sciences Kansas Wheat Commission www.kswheat.com Baking Science… Field to Flour Food Grains:  Food Grains All beginnings are difficult. Aristotle Art: “Wheat” Thomas Hart Benton. 1967. Nat’l Museum of American Art. Washington, D.C. Long before there were loaves…:  Long before there were loaves… There had to be agriculture— Over 10,000 years ago Neolithic People began cultivating (not just gathering) good tasting wild grasses… Food Grains…:  Food Grains… …became the base of life. Q: What are the “food grains” that fuel people worldwide? Where did those grains begin? Wheat… West Asia/Iraq, Southeast Turkey Rice… Asia Corn (maize)… Americas (north, south, central) Barley… Europe Oats… Scotland/Ireland Rye… Northern Europe Sorghum… Africa More at: Exploring Kansas Crops Kansas Agriculture in the Classroom. 2002 Download @ www.kswheat.com Someone discovered…:  Someone discovered… …goat grass (Aegilops tauschii) Get a map! Find the Tigris & Euphrates River Valley “The Fertile Crescent”— Syria, Turkey, Iraq, Iran Photo: Kansas State University, Wheat Genetic Research Center. Learn more: www.wgrc.ksu.edu …And, the science of wheat breeding began:  …And, the science of wheat breeding began 1. Natural crosses or hybrids became early wheat goat grass X einkorn (28 chromosomes) 2. Humans select grains that taste good, grow well, and then cultivate them; more crosses occur 3. Goat grass (Aegilops tauschii) (14 chromosomes) X Emmer (Triticum dicoccum) (28 chromosomes) Bread wheat (42 chromosomes) Ex: Goat grass provides glutenin, essential for elastic bread dough 10,000 years of Wheat :  10,000 years of Wheat 10,000 years ago—early farmers gathered & grew goat grass and einkorn, the parents of wheat. 4,700 years ago—Chinese grew wheat 2,500 B.C.—Fifth dynasty Egyptians baked bread with emmer wheat 85 B.C.—Water mills are first used in Asia Minor 1086—The Doomesday Book, England, lists 5,624 mills in England 1180—Windmills mentioned in France, England and Syria 10,000 years of Wheat-cont.:  10,000 years of Wheat-cont. 1600’s—American Colonists mix native maize (corn) with wheat and rye flour for “Third Bread” to make imported wheat flour go further 1777—Wheat first grown in U.S. as hobby crop 1785—Oliver Evans invents first automated roller flour mill in U.S. 1874—Russian Mennonites introduce Turkey Red wheat in Kansas (hard red winter wheat) 1990s—Kansas begins increasing production of hard white winter wheat Today--There are over 30,000 varieties of wheat—it is the favorite cereal grain in the world. 8,000 years of bread:  8,000 years of bread 8,000 years ago—Swiss lake dwellers baked flat “cakes” on hot stones 2,000 B.C.—Egyptians discover yeast; bread fed Hebrew slaves building pyramids 300 B.C.—Romans create quantity flour mills; bakers highly regarded 200 B.C.—Romans open bakery stores—bake for 20,000 people daily 100 A.D.—First baking school in Rome 610 A.D.—Romans and Monks in southern France credited with first pretzel. Leftover dough shaped as “pretiolas,” a reward for children learning prayers 1240—Bread used as plates (trenchers), napkins, containers, oven mitts... food 1762—French 4th Earl of Sandwich, John Montagu, creates the sandwich while gambling 8,000 years of bread-cont.:  8,000 years of bread-cont. 1800– Baking soda becomes available; lumps of “sourdough” starters carried by pioneers and prospectors settling the Western U.S. 1850—White House installs first range, but no heat control in oven 1857—Louis Pasteur discovers yeast is what makes dough rise 1859—Baking powder becomes available 1868—Yeast grown and harvested for first time by James Gaff and Fleischmann brothers 1925—Sliced bread introduced in stores. 1942—Dry yeast is developed; helps feed soldiers in the WWII 1980s—Table top bread machines introduced to American homes Today, healthy people still get 55% of their calories from carbohydrates Wheat is NOT just Wheat:  Wheat is NOT just Wheat Today, thousands of wheat varieties are organized by class. Classes are formed based on: --Growing season (winter or spring) --Bran color (red or white) --Kernel hardness (hard or soft) There are six classes: Hard Red Spring Hard Red Winter Wheat Hard White Wheat Soft White Wheat Soft Red Winter Durum Wheat Classes of U.S. Wheat:  Classes of U.S. Wheat What Wheat for What Products?:  What Wheat for What Products? Kernel hardness is just one way to tell how much protein will be in a wheat, and therefore how much will be in the flour. Hard wheat= medium to higher protein flour stronger gluten strength Soft wheat= lower protein flour weaker gluten strength Wheat Utilization:  Wheat Utilization Blending of wheats is done to achieve the best flour for an end-product use. Where’s the Flour?:  Where’s the Flour? Whole grain flour contains all grain parts Refined, enriched flours are made from the endosperm only Endosperm (83% of kernel) Energy for plant growth Carbohydrates; protein for people Bran layers (14.5% of kernel) Protects seed Fiber, B-vitamins; minerals Germ (2.5% of kernel) Nourishes seed Antioxidants, Vitamin E, B-vitamins Learn more at: www.wheatfoods.org www.namamillers.org Flour Milling Today:  Flour Milling Today Mennel Milling Courtesy of www.namamillers.org Milling is Science Flour is NOT Just Flour:  Milling is Science Flour is NOT Just Flour Flour is the main, and most important ingredient in baked goods. Millers work with bakers to produce the right flour for the baker’s products, equipment, environment, and cost factors Flour is responsible for: Structure--holding and expanding with leavening gases Texture Binding all ingredients Flavor Nutrition Flour cannot be exactly the same every year due to weather factors. Many factors affect flour’s quality :  Many factors affect flour’s quality The wheat’s environment. climate/weather; soil type & fertility The wheat variety grown. Each variety has different protein quality & quantity, starches and enzymes. The wheat’s milling quality. Kernel structure, ease of milling, screenings loss, starch damage, flour yield, flour granulation, grinding power How Flour is Milled:  How Flour is Milled Milling Steps:  Milling Steps Wheat roller mills… Clean Temper (moisture added) Remove bran Remove germ (at right) Extract flour from endosperm Further separate, sift …to produce flour More at: www.namamillers.org Slide21:  Filling flour bags at mill. More at: www.namamillers.org Hard Wheat Flours:  Hard Wheat Flours About 75 lbs of white flour comes from 100 lbs. of wheat The flour comes from the wheat’s endosperm (see Kernel diagram) The extracted white flour is then separated into grades. Grades of hard wheat flour are called: Straight grade flour (100% of the flour separation) Patent flour (70 - 80% of separation) Second clear flour = the 20-30% left Short patent flour (60% of separation) First clear flour = the 40% left High gluten flour (comes from high protein wheat = 60% of separation) Lean more: From Wheat to Flour. www.namamillers.org or www.wheatfoods.org Soft Wheat Flours:  Soft Wheat Flours Pastry flour Made from 100% of the soft wheat flour separation Soft red or white wheats used Flour Protein = 8-9% Cake flour 60 to 70% of the separation of soft red wheat chlorine used to bleach for better cakes Flour Protein =7-8% Pie flour Unbleached pastry flour made preferably from soft white wheat Flour Protein=7-9% Whole wheat pastry flour Milled from soft white or red wheat—white wheat lends a lighter color and flavor Flour Protein = 7-9% Unbleached vs. Bleached Flour:  Unbleached vs. Bleached Flour Freshly milled (“green”) flour will not produce consistently good quality baked goods. Flour naturally ages or oxidizes if stored 8 to 12 weeks. Oxidation improves baking quality, producing finer textured, whiter products. Unbleached vs. Bleached Flour-cont.:  Unbleached vs. Bleached Flour-cont. “Bleached” flour: Food technologists have developed FDA approved chemical bleaching and maturing agents to improve baking qualities and speed oxidation. “Unbleached” flour: no maturing agents are added. Bread flour is generally unbleached; all purpose flour may be either. Enriched bleached or unbleached have equal nutritional value Self-Rising Flour:  Self-Rising Flour Early 1900’s American “convenience mix” for home bakers All-purpose flour with baking powder and salt added. Best for biscuits, some muffins, pancakes or waffles If substituting for all-purpose, omit the baking soda or powder and salt called for in the recipe. Not recommended for yeast breads. Substitution: 1 cup flour + 1 ½ tsp. baking powder + ½ tsp. salt Why is Flour Enriched?:  Why is Flour Enriched? In milling white flour, the bran and germ are left behind…and many nutrients. Enriching flour means… thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, iron and folate are added back into the flour at levels equal to or higher than they naturally occur in wheat. Flour may be fortified with calcium (a nutrient NOT naturally high in wheat) Why is Some Flour “malted?”:  Why is Some Flour “malted?” Malted barley flour is milled from sprouted barley Supplements wheat’s natural enzymes to make better yeast-raised products Malted barley flour is not added to whole wheat flour, all purpose flour or cake flour Ascorbic Acid in Flour:  Ascorbic Acid in Flour High protein flour may have ascorbic acid (Vit. C) added as a maturing agent to produce better volume and crumb structure in the bread The Vit. C is lost in the high heat of baking Ascorbic acid may replace benzoyl peroxide, which is no longer used in bread flour Family Flour :  Family Flour Family flour may be: all purpose, bread, cake, whole wheat, 50/50, pastry or non-wheat flours How much protein? Check the label for where the flour milled—is it milled from “spring” or “winter,” “soft” or “hard” wheat? Whole wheat flour: Is it a “white” bran coat or a “red” bran coat--White whole wheat is a lighter color & sweeter. Red whole wheat is stronger flavored and darker. All these factors make a difference in what foods it will bake the best. Look at the flour chart for help. More at: www.homebaking.org Non-Wheat Baking Ingredients:  Non-Wheat Baking Ingredients Barley—may be pearled (quick or medium), rolled, flour Amaranth, flax, sorghum, quinoa, buckwheat, triticale, brown rice and more can be flour, rolled grain, meal, groats Oatmeal is wholegrain (rolled instant, quick, old-fashioned, steel cut, Scottish); oat flour; groats Corn—degerminated (germ removed and enriched) or wholegrain meal or flour; may be self-rising too Non-Wheat Baking Ingredients-cont.:  Non-Wheat Baking Ingredients-cont. Rye flour or rolled; may be whole grain or not; dark, medium or light Soy flakes, flour (may or may not be defatted), grits, protein isolate Vegetables,beans, legumes, nuts may be ground and flour-like (potato, garbanzo, peas, lentils and more) Visit: www.homebaking.org Links: Bobs Red Mill, King Arthur, Hodgson Mill for a variety of non-wheat flours, meal and more Baking with Non-Wheat Ingredients:  Baking with Non-Wheat Ingredients Non-wheat flour, meal, rolled grains, bran and germ add flavor, texture, nutrient variety, and fiber They must be supported with high-gluten strength wheat flour or added gluten in yeast breads Substitute non-wheat flour or meal at levels totaling 5 to 25% of total flour weight Pre-soak or cook cracked wheat/grains, grits, rolled grains, bulgur Water may need to be added or reduced if using cooked grains Food Labels for Grain Foods:  Food Labels for Grain Foods Look for: Product name, manufacturer, dates Net weight (how much food you get in package) Ingredient List - listed most to least Advertising or influences to buy Nutrition Facts Label: Look at Total Carbohydrates How much are sugars? How much dietary fiber? Health claim(s) (NOT advertising; FDA regulates) —EX: Whole grain claim Must contain 51% or more whole grains by weight Must be low in total fat More about food labels @ www.cfsan.fda.gov/label.html Enriched and Wholegrain Grain Foods are Nutrient-Packed:  Enriched and Wholegrain Grain Foods are Nutrient-Packed Complex carbohydrates Muscle and brain fuel Endurance Energy Soluble and insoluble fiber B vitamins Folic acid Thiamin Riboflavin Niacin Iron Protein Whole grains—even more phytonutrients (antioxidants), minerals and vitamins, dietary fiber Get the FACTS about carbs:  Get the FACTS about carbs We gain weight because… …we eat too many calories, and burn too few. Check it out for yourself—everybody eats differently. Are you too heavy? Calculate your BMI. www.thebeehive.org/health OR www.nhlbisupport.com/bmi Keep a food and exercise record for a couple weeks. Are your extra calories from fat, protein or carbs? Are you eating or drinking too many SUPER servings? Do you “eat” the Dietary Guidelines? www.eatright.org Are you active enough? 30 to 60 minutes (10,000 steps) More about grains, nutrition, milling and baking careers at: :  More about grains, nutrition, milling and baking careers at: American Institute of Baking - www.aibonline.org American Institute of Cancer Research - www.aicr.org Get on the Grain Train - www.usda.gov/cnpp Home Baking Association - www.homebaking.org Kansas State University Ext. Healthful Whole Grains www.oznet,ksu.edu/library/fntr2/MF2560.pdf Kansas State University Agronomy-www.oznet.ksu.edu/fieldday/kids/crops Grain Science-www.oznet.ksu.edu/dp_grsi Kansas Wheat Commission - www.kswheat.com and www.wheatmania.com + many more great links! North American Millers Association - www.namamillers.org Retail Bakers of America - www.rbanet.com The Bell Institute, General Mills www.generalmills.com/wholegrain Wheat Foods Council - www.wheatfoods.org

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