files-2-Lectures_Chapter_2

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Published on July 31, 2014

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Chapter 2 Learning from the History of Management Thought : Chapter 2 Learning from the History of Management Thought MGT 301 PowerPoint Presentation: Learning from the History of Management Thought Learning Goals Describe the three branches of the traditional viewpoint of management: 2. Explain the behavioral viewpoint’s contribution to management Bureaucratic, Scientific, and Administrative PowerPoint Presentation: Learning Goals (cont’d) 3. Describe how managers can use systems and quantitative techniques to improve employee performance 4. State the two major components of the contingency viewpoint 5. Explain the impact of the need for quality on management practices PowerPoint Presentation: Traditional Viewpoint Goals: Efficiency Consistency Administrative Management Bureaucratic Management Scientific Management PowerPoint Presentation: History of Management Thought Traditional Viewpoint Behavioral Viewpoint Systems Viewpoint Contingency Viewpoint Quality Viewpoint 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 PowerPoint Presentation: Bureaucratic Management Max Weber PowerPoint Presentation: Bureaucratic Management Use of rules, hierarchy, a clear division of labor, and detailed procedures to guide employees’ behaviors Seven characteristics Rules— formal guidelines for the behavior of employees on the job Impersonality —employees are evaluated according to rules and objective data Division of Labor —splitting work into specialized positions Caliper Technologies Corporation (adapted from Figure 2.2): Caliper Technologies Corporation (adapted from Figure 2.2) PowerPoint Presentation: Bureaucratic Management (cont'd) Hierarchical Structure— ranks jobs according to the amount of authority in each job Authority— who has the right to make decisions of varying importance at different organizational levels Traditional authority Charismatic authority Rational, legal authority Lifelong Career Commitment— both the employee and the organization view themselves committed to each other over the working life of the employee Rationality— the use of the most efficient means available to accomplish a goal PowerPoint Presentation: “Each job has a policy manual detailing the rules that a person needs to follow to ensure efficiency. Drivers are told to walk to a customer’s door at a brisk pace of 3 feet per second, carrying the package in the right hand and clipboard in the left. They should knock on the door so as not to lose valuable seconds searching for a doorbell.” Michael Eskew Chairman and CEO, UPS Snapshot PowerPoint Presentation: LOW MIDRANGE HIGH DreamWorks Sony IRS R&D Thinktank 7-11 McDonalds MP3 PepsiCo State Motor Vehicle Registration Bureaucratic Continuum PowerPoint Presentation: Potential Benefits of Bureaucracy Efficiency Consistency Functions best when routine tasks are performed Performance based on objective criteria Most effective when Large amounts of standard information have to be processed The needs of the customer are known and are unlikely to change The technology is routine and stable (e.g., mass production) The organization has to coordinate the activities of employees in order to deliver a standardized service/product to the customer PowerPoint Presentation: Potential Costs of Bureaucracy Rigid rules and red tape Protection of authority Slow decision making Incompatible with changing technology Incompatible with 21 st century workers’ values for freedom and participative management PowerPoint Presentation: Scientific Management Frederick W. Taylor The father of Scientific Management – the 1st Efficiency Expert. A philosophy and set of management practices that are based on fact and observation, not on guesswork PowerPoint Presentation: Scientific Management Believed increased productivity depended on finding ways to make workers more efficient Used time-and-motion studies to analyze work flows, supervisory techniques, and worker fatigue Used functional foremanship , a division of labor that assigned eight foremen to each work area Assumed workers motivated by money $$ Taylor’s Work? : • He was interested in machines -- apprenticeship in industry: Midvale Steel • Shocked by how inefficient his fellow workers were • timed workers with stopwatches • break down job into parts, make parts efficient • figure out how to hire the right worker for the job • give the worker appropriate training Taylor’s Work? Taylor’s Work? Contd. : • introduced incentive pay plans (workers were assumed to be motivated only by money). • Believed would lead to cooperation--management and worker • Studied design of shovels and introduced a better design at Bethlehem Steel Works, reducing the number of people shoveling from 500 to 140 Taylor’s Work? Contd. PowerPoint Presentation: Scientific Management The Gilbreths Frank Gilbreth used motion pictures to analyze workers’ motions Lillian Gilbreth championed protecting workers from unsafe working conditions Henry Gantt Focused on control systems for production scheduling (Gantt Chart) PowerPoint Presentation: Frank and Lillian Gilbreth refined Taylor’s methods and suggested 1. Breaking down each action into individual components. 2. Find better ways to perform the action. 3. Reorganize each action to be more efficient. Problems associated with Scientific Management Managers often gave attention only to increasing output They did not allow workers to share in the benefits of increased output. Specialized jobs became very boring & dull. Workers ended up distrusting Scientific Management. Henry L. Gantt: Henry L. Gantt How to increase worker’s efficiency? “The essential difference between the best system of today and those of the past are the manner in which the tasks are scheduled , and the manner in which their performance is rewarded ” Scheduling Innovation Gantt Chart – scheduling summary of work Rewarding Innovation Bonus in addition to the piece rate if they exceeded their daily production quota On time = Bonus, Good Performance = Reward PowerPoint Presentation: Insights from Scientific Management Many companies have used scientific management principles to improve efficiency, employee selection and training Scientific management failed to recognize the social needs of workers and the importance of working conditions and job satisfaction PowerPoint Presentation: David Berbauer CEO, Walgreens “Walgreens is constantly pushing to drive costs down. It pioneered the application of satellite communications and computer technology and linked these to increase store efficiency. By using tried-and-proven management concepts, each of its 6,100 stores [is] able to process around 280 prescriptions a day and beat Wal-Mart by 27 cents and CVS by 94 cents on each prescription.” Snapshot PowerPoint Presentation: Administrative Management: Overview Focuses on the manager and basic managerial functions of planning, organizing, controlling and leading Unity of Command Principle: an employee should report to only one manager Authority Principle: managers have the right to give orders to get things done Fayol’s Principles of Effective Management: Fayol’s Principles of Effective Management Division of Work: allows for job specialization. Work should be divided among individuals and groups. Authority and Responsibility Authority right to give orders Responsibility involves being answerable Whoever assumes authority assumes responsibility Discipline Common efforts of workers. Penalties Unity of Command Employees should have only one boss. PowerPoint Presentation: Unity of Direction A single plan of action to guide the organization. Subordination of individual interests to the general interests of organization Remuneration An equitable uniform payment system that motivates contributes to organizational success. Centralization The degree to which authority rests at the top of the organization. Scalar Chain Chainlike authority scale. Most vs. least authority PowerPoint Presentation: Order The arrangement of employees where they will be of the most value to the organization and to provide career opportunities. Equity The provision of justice and the fair and impartial treatment of all employees. Stability of Tenure of Personnel Long-term employment is important for the development of skills that improve the organization’s performance. Subordination of Individual Interest to the Common Interest The interest of the organization takes precedence over that of the individual employee. PowerPoint Presentation: Initiative The fostering of creativity and innovation by encouraging employees to act on their own. Esprit de corps Harmony, general good feeling among employees, shared enthusiasm, foster devotion to the common cause (organization). PowerPoint Presentation: Behavioral Viewpoint: Overview Focuses on dealing effectively with the human aspects of organizations Started in the 1930’s Emphasis on working conditions Workers wanted respect Workers formed unions to bargain with management PowerPoint Presentation: Mary Parker Follett’s Contributions Managers need to communicate with workers Workers should participate in solving problems Managers need to establish good working relationships with employees Goal: Improve Coordination PowerPoint Presentation: “Managers need to have a common touch and to be a team leader and not a drill sergeant. When their people shine, they shine.” Vickie Yoke, Senior Vice President, Alcatel Snapshot PowerPoint Presentation: Chester Barnard’s Contributions People should continuously communicate and cooperate with one another Acceptance theory of authority holds that employees have free wills and, thus, choose whether to follow management’s orders. Employees will follow orders if they: Understand what is required Believe the orders are consistent with organization goals See positive benefits to themselves in carrying out the orders The Hawthorne Studies: The Hawthorne Studies Studies of how characteristics of the work setting affected worker fatigue and performance at the Hawthorne Works of the Western Electric Company from 1924-1932. Worker productivity was measured at various levels of light illumination. Researchers found that regardless of whether the light levels were raised or lowered, worker productivity increased. The Hawthorne Studies: The Hawthorne Studies The Relay Assembly Test Room Experiments Working conditions and productivity The Bank Wiring Observation Room Experiment Analyze the social relationships in a work group The Hawthorne Studies Lessons from the Hawthrone Studies Behavioral Viewpoint: Employees are motivated by social needs and association with others Employees’ performance is more a result of peer pressure than management’s incentives and rules Managers need to involve subordinates in coordinating their work to improve efficiency Employees want to participate in decisions that affect them Lessons from the Hawthrone Studies Behavioral Viewpoint PowerPoint Presentation: Snapshot “Teamwork is one of the most beautiful experiences in life. Teamwork is our core value and a primary way that the Container Store enriches the quality of employees’ work life.” Kip Tindell, President, The Container Store Systems Viewpoint: Systems Concepts: System: an association of interrelated and interdependent parts Systems viewpoint : an approach to solving problems by diagnosing them within a framework of transformation processes, outputs, and feedback Systems Viewpoint: Systems Concepts Basic Systems View of Organizations: Inputs Human, physical, financial, and information resources Transformation Process Outputs Products and services Feedback Loops Basic Systems View of Organizations System Types: Closed system: limits its interactions with the environment (e.g., stamping department in GM assembly plant) Open system: interacts with the external environment (e.g., marketing department) System Types Quantitative Techniques: Mathematical models are used to simulate changes Computers are essential Primary focus is on decision making Alternatives are based on economic criteria Quantitative Techniques PowerPoint Presentation: Lead to creation of blogs Enables managers to simulate conditions Emphasis on objective criteria for decision making Focus on planning Quantitative Techniques The Contingency Approach: The Contingency Approach What managers do in practice depends on a given set of circumstances – a situation. PowerPoint Presentation: Contingency Viewpoint: Overview Management practices should be consistent with the requirements of the external environment, the technology used to make a product or provide a service, and capabilities of the people who work for the organization Uses concepts of the traditional, behavioral and system viewpoints Contingency Variables: External environment— stable or changing Technology— simple or complex People— ways they are similar and different from each other Contingency Variables Contingency Viewpoint: Draws on Other Viewpoints, As Necessary: Behavioral Viewpoint How managers influence others; Informal group Cooperation among employees Employee’s social needs Systems Viewpoint How the parts fit together. Inputs Transformations Outputs Traditional Viewpoint What managers do: Plan Organize Lead Control Contingency Viewpoint Managers’ use of other viewpoints to solve problems involving: External environment Technology Individuals Contingency Viewpoint: Draws on Other Viewpoints, As Necessary PowerPoint Presentation: Quality Viewpoint: Overview Quality: how well a product or service does what it is supposed to do—how closely and reliably it satisfies the specifications to which it is built or provided Total Quality Management (TQM): a philosophy that makes quality values the driving force behind leadership, design, planning, and improvement initiatives Quality Control Process: Inputs or raw materials Operations Outputs Measuring by variable or a product’s characteristics Measuring by attribute or a product’s acceptable/ unacceptable characteristics Statistical process control Quality of a process (e.g., sigma) Quality Control Process Learning from the Quality Viewpoint: Lower Costs and Higher Market Share Decreased Product Liability Quality Positive Company Image Learning from the Quality Viewpoint

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