final Renewable energy sources

Information about final Renewable energy sources

Published on January 17, 2008

Author: Paolina

Source: authorstream.com

Content

Renewable energy sources:  Renewable energy sources Slide2:  Estimates of depletable energy resources in the U.S. Numbers = how long it would last if all energy came from one source Resource recoverable recoverable and hoped for Coal 125 1300 Petroleum 5 50? Natural gas 5 50? Oil shale 0 2500 Conventional reactors 3 15 Breeder reactors 115 750 Fusion 106 to 109 Geothermal surface 0.2 60 deep rock 0 600 Slide3:  Estimates of renewable energy Numbers = proportion of current U.S. energy needs that could be supplied for an indefinite period. Tidal energy 0.1 Organic Waste 0.1 Photosynthesis 0.23 Hydropower 0.14 Wind Power 5 Solar radiation 740 Slide4:  Geothermal Heat near surface of the earth = geysers, volcanoes, hot springs Slide5:  Use heat to make steam to turn turbine for electrical generation Note: deep hot waters are corrosive to best to inject clean water in a closed system and bring it back to the surface as steam. Slide6:  In U.S., much done on public land = cheap Very little potential in east and mid west Slide7:  World wide distribution of volcanos, hot springs, etc. Japan, Iceland,New Zealand big users of geothermal. Slide9:  Although hot areas near surface are limited, the earth is hot everywhere if you go down far enough. Slide10:  Bright idea!? – drill deep enough to find heat. Since rock is a poor conductor of heat, set off a big bomb to crack the rock and allow heat to move – then pump down water to make steam. Slide12:  Hydropower = dams Not much used in world, why?? Slide13:  Norway, Zambia, Ghana big users Slide15:  Most unused hydropower in U.S. = Alaska, In World = Canada, Russia Problems with hydroelectric:  Problems with hydroelectric Location = unused rivers are in extreme north or low population areas Competition with recreational uses (U.S.) and environmental concerns Hard to build dams in populated river valleys Siltation of dams – limited life. Slide17:  Tidal Power In areas of large tides Anywhere – build offshore dam Slide18:  Highest tides in the world = Bay of Fundy 16 meters = 48+ feet! Slide19:  Tidal power anywhere No dam – but a turbine. Problems: Corrosion Navigation Appearance Amount of energy available is low Best tides are near poles – away from people. Slide20:  Wind Power = wijnd farms Banning Pass Slide21:  Best wind location = Aleutian Islands, why no wind development there? Slide22:  Best U.S. localities Midwest, mountains And coastal areas. Slide24:  Netherlands = coastal development Slide25:  England = off shore Wind energy problems :  Wind energy problems Location – near population center Bird migration – Visual Must be coupled with other sources of electricity. (intermittent supply) Slide28:  Solar farm = big solar plants Slide31:  At focal point = heat liquid – steam to turn turbine ‘hard’ vs ‘soft’ energy paths:  ‘hard’ vs ‘soft’ energy paths Hard = Big plants Centralized production Soft = Decentralized units per household Slide35:  Energy efficient house; wind power on roof. Solar panels for heat and electricity. Slide36:  Solar electricity generation Slide37:  Solar water heating solar air heating Solar house problems:  Solar house problems The Los Angeles air = smog Retrofitting- very expensive Hard for big hotels, Walmarts, etc. Solar house economics:  Solar house economics Add $16,000 to price of house Pay back - $1500 per year in energy costs 15 years to break even Federal tax incentive; 40% of investment can be written off. Discontinued in 1986 City of Claremont – solar energy ordinance. 60% of hot water – solar Exceptions for equivalent savings of energy = Colleges approach. Why not trust solar? Slide41:  Electrical generation Switch from petroleum to coal and natural gas Why has hydroelectric declined? When did nuclear go up? Slide42:  Note: drop in fusion, fission – why? drop in renewables, increase in fossil fuels.

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