Published on January 7, 2008
Forming a Plan for Good Nutrition: Forming a Plan for Good Nutrition Chapter 6 Objectives: Objectives After completing this chapter, you will be able to do the following: Describe the functions and purposes of the essential nutrients. Discuss ways to apply he Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Explain the role of nutrients that are not classified as essential, such as fiber, phytochemicals, and botanicals, but that are thought to have unique health benefits. Determine your personal RDA for protein, carbohydrates, fat, and saturated fat. Nutrition and Health: Nutrition and Health Scurvy and rickets to diseases of dietary excess and imbalance. Diets high in fat at the expense of foods high in complex carbohydrates, fiber. Diet has contributed to many preventable illnesses and premature death. RDA Examples page 154 Essential Nutrients: Essential Nutrients Six classes of nutrients. Carbohydrates Fat Protein Vitamins Minerals Water Energy Nutrients (Macronutrients) – carbohydrates, fat, protein. Micro nutrients – vitamins and minerals. Non-nutrients – water and fiber. Calories: Calories Food energy expressed in kilocalories amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a gram of water by 1°. Common reference excludes the prefix kilo. Example: A gram of carbohydrates = 4 calories (kilocalories) of energy. Complex carbohydrates as main source of energy. Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates Sugars and starches obtained from plants. Simplest (sugar) – monosaccharide - glucose and fructose Double sugars – disaccharides (pairs chemically linked) - sucrose (table sugar) - lactose (milk sugar) - maltose (malt sugar) Starches – polysaccharides – complex carbohydrates. Starches are the preferred source of carbohydrates. Broken down in the intestine and converted in the lever into glucose. 55% of the calories in your diet should come from carbohydrates. Protein: Protein Different from carbohydrates and fats in that it contains nitrogen as well as carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Unique chemical structures, basic material to from muscles, bones, cartilage, skin, antibodies, some hormones, and all enzymes. Building blocks called amino acids. Fat: Fat Fats are oils, sterols (such as cholesterol), waxes, and other substances that are not water soluble. Essential component of all cells. Help synthesize and repair vital cell transport and absorb fat-soluble vitamins, provide insulation (adipose tissue). Basic Fat Facts: Basic Fat Facts Also called lipids, made by chemically bonding fatty acids to glycerol to form glycerides, (3 hooked, triglyceride). Saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated. Hydrogenated or partially hydrogenated – transfatty acids. Saturated fat – solid at room temperature Unsaturated fat – liquid at room temperature. Olestra Cholesterol Vitamins: Vitamins Are organic compounds (contain carbon) that are necessary in small amounts for good health. Water soluble – B complex and C Fat soluble – A, D, E, and K Antioxidant vitamins Vitamin C Carotenoids Vitamin E Folate, Vitamin B6, Vitamin B12 Vitamin supplements (page 167) Minerals: Minerals Simple, but important nutrients. Sodium, potassium – affect shifts in body fluids Calcium and phosphorus – contribute to the body’s structure Iron – core of hemoglobin Iodine – facilitates production of thyroxine Should be consumed in smaller amounts than amounts of energy nutrients and water. Major minerals or macrominerals – calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, sodium, chloride, and magnesium Trace minerals or microminerals – iron, zinc, and iodine Page 168 Water: Water Next to air, water is the substance most necessary for survival (death results in a few days without water). Makes up 60% of the body’s weight. 75% of brain and muscle tissues: bone tissue and fat tissue are about 20% water. Vital to digestion and metabolism, carries oxygen, regulates body temperature, lubricates joints, removes waste, protects a fetus, assists in respiration, assists in constipation relief, and provides satiety. Some water comes from foods. Plain tap water is the preferred source of fluid. Other Nutrients with Unique Health Benefits: Other Nutrients with Unique Health Benefits Phytochemicals – plant chemicals that exist naturally in all plant foods. Botnicals (phytomedicinals) (Herbs) – plants used medicinally Fiber (roughage) – is a general term that refers to the substances in food that resist digestion. - Soluble Fiber - Insoluble Fiber Putting Nutrition to Work: Putting Nutrition to Work Eat a variety of foods Balance the food you eat with physical activity – maintain or improve your weight. Choose a diet with plenty of grain products, vegetables, and fruits. Choose a diet low in fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol. Choose a diet moderate in sugars. Choose a diet moderate in salt and sodium. If you drink alcoholic beverages, do so in moderation. Other Nutrition Issues of Concern: Other Nutrition Issues of Concern Nutrition and Pregnancy Weight Gain Nutrient Needs Nutrition and Physical Activity: Nutrition and Physical Activity Type of activity and energy source Recommended sources of energy Protein supplement Vitamins and minerals Fatty acids and activity Fluid intake and activity Food Safety: Food Safety Staphylococcus – meats, poultry, egg products, tuna, potato and macaroni salads, and cream-filled pastries. Salmonella – eggs, poultry, meat, dairy products, seafood, and fresh produce. Clostridium botulinum – anaerobic environment, such as, canned goods, and affects low-acid foods like green beans, mushrooms, spinach, olives, and beef. Campylobacter jejuni – raw and undercooked poultry, unpasteurized mile, and untreated water. E. coli O157:H7 – undercooked and raw ground beef, raw mile,lettuce, untreated water, and unpasteurized fruit juices. Listeria monocytogenes – soft cheeses, poultry, fish and raw meats and vegetables. Hepatitis A virus – contaminated fecal material from people who harvest, process, or handle food, including workers on famrs, in food processing plants, and in resaurants. Parasites – trichinella spiralis (pork and wild game) and tapeworms (beef, pork, and fish). Nutrition Strategies and Disease Prevention: Nutrition Strategies and Disease Prevention Heart disease – reduce fat intake to no more than 8% of calories and total fat to no more than 30% increase monosaturated fat to 15%. Hypertension – limit sodium intake to no more tan 2400mg, consume potassium-rich fruits and vegetables, calcium from 2 to 3 servings low-fat dairy products. Diabetes mellitus – same as for heart disease in addition to maintaining desirable weight, restrict intake of simple sugars and processed carbohydrates. Osteoporosis – consume at least 1200mg of calcuim and 400IU of vitamin D daily. Cancer – same as heart in addition see page 190 for list. Food Labels: Food Labels See figure 6.5 page 191 Daily Values – benchmarks for evaluating the nutrient content of foods. Free – it means product yields fewer than 5 calories or contains fewer than 5 milligrams. Light or lite – 1/3 fewer calories or 50% less fat. Low calorie – no more than 40 cal. per serving. Low fat – no more than 3g fat per serving. Healthy – food meets the criteria for low fat and low saturated fat, does not exceed max levels for sodium and cholesterol, and contains at least 10% for at least one of the following DV: vitamins A and C, calcuim, iron, protein, or fiber. Organic – only on raw products that are grown without added hormones, pesticides, or synthetic fertilizers and on processed foods that contain 95%organic ingredients. Planning a Nutrition Strategy for Wellness: Planning a Nutrition Strategy for Wellness Assess you nutrition. Make small adjustments. Choose foods for wellness. Snack Sensibly. Caution when eating pre-packages convenience dinners.