Published on March 26, 2008
Microvascular Free Flaps Used in Head and Neck Reconstruction.: Microvascular Free Flaps Used in Head and Neck Reconstruction. University of Texas Medical Branch Department of Otolaryngology Jeffrey Buyten, MD Shawn Newlands, MD, PhD, MBA Francis B. Quinn, MD October 19, 2005 Outline: Outline Radial Forearm Flaps Lateral Arm Flaps Lateral Thigh Flap Anterolateral Thigh Flap Rectus Abdominis Flaps Latissimus Dorsi Flap Gracilis Flap Temperoparietal Fascial Flap Fibular Osteocutanous Flap Iliac Crest Flaps Scapular Flaps Metatarsal Flap Rib Flaps Jejunum Omentum Gastroomentum Radial Forearm Flap: Radial Forearm Flap 1981 (China), 1985 (pharyngeal recon) Oral cavity, base of tongue, pharynx, soft palate, cutaneous defects, base of skull, small volume bone and soft tissue defects of face Thin, pliable skin Reconstitution of contours, sulci, vestibules Tongue mobility Fasciocutaneous flaps are highly tolerant of radiation therapy Composite flap with bone, tendon, brachioradialis muscle and vascularized nerve. Sensory recovery reported in patients even when a neural anastomosis is not performed. Fasciocutaneous flaps > musculocutaneous flaps Incomplete and unpredictable Skin from entire forearm 2 team approach Neurovascular pedicle: Neurovascular pedicle Up to 20 cm long Vessel caliber 2 – 2.5 mm Radial artery Venae comitantes / cephalic vein Lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve (sensory) Anastomose to lingual nerve Increased two point discrimination after inset Technical considerations: Technical considerations Tourniquet Flap designed with skin paddle centered over the radial artery Dissection in subfascial level as the pedicle is approached. Pedicle identified b/w medial head of the brachioradialis, and the flexor carpi radialis Radial artery is dissected to its origin Divided distal to the radial recurrent artery External skin monitor can be incorporated into the flap (proximal segment) A -plasty - reduces the potential for stricture Technical considerations: Technical considerations Osteocutaneous flap Monocortical Cuff of flexor pollicis longus 10 – 12 cm of radius Up to 40% circumference Limited by amount of available bone and risk for pathologic fracture. Pollicis longus tendon Suspending flap laterally in palatal and total lower lip recon Radial Forearm Flap: Radial Forearm Flap Radial Forearm Flap: Radial Forearm Flap Radial Forearm Flap: Radial Forearm Flap Radial Forearm Flap: Radial Forearm Flap Morbidity Hand ischemia Fistula rates - 42% to 67% in early series Subsequent series - 15% and 38%. Creation of a controlled fistula or use of a salivary bypass stent can protect the suture line from salivary soilage and decrease the potential for fistulization. Stricture formation - 9% to 50%. Radial nerve injury Variable anesthesia over dorsum of hand. Radial Forearm Flap: Radial Forearm Flap Preoperative considerations Allen test Tests viability of palmar arch system No IVs / blood draws in donor arm. Skin graft (must preserve paratenon layer) Osteocutaneous flaps Radius fracture Weakened supination, wrist flexion, grip strength and pinch strength. Should not be used defect extends below the thoracic inlet Postoperative management Forearm and wrist immobilization w/volar splint 7-10 days Oral intake can generally begin within 7 to 10 days 2 weeks is best if the patient has been previously irradiated. Lateral Arm Flap: Lateral Arm Flap Described by Song in 1982 Moderately thin fasciocutaneous flap Donor site skin 6-8 cm (1/3 circumference of arm) Fascial flap Augmentation of subcutaneous defects from lateral temporal bone resection or total parotid Portion of humerus can be taken. Oropharyngeal reconstruction Incorporates thin skin from the proximal forearm. Pharyngeal wall Thick skin from the upper arm Tongue base Neurovascular pedicle: Neurovascular pedicle Terminal branch of profunda brachii artery and posterior radial collateral artery Venae comitantes Travel with radial nerve in spiral groove of humerus Travels in the lateral intermuscular septum Posterior - Triceps Anterior - Brachialis and Brachioradialis Artery caliber 1.55 mm diameter (1.25 to 1.75 mm) @ deltoid insertion Skin blood supply – 4 to 5 septocutaneous perforaters Sensory nerves (from proximal radial nerve) Posterior cutaneous nerve of the arm (lower lateral brachial cutaneous nerve) Posterior cutaneous nerve of the forearm (post antebrachial cut nerve) Technical considerations: Technical considerations No tourniquet. Central axis of flap design based on intermuscular septum Lateral intermuscular septum - 1 cm posterior to line drawn from insertion of deltoid and lateral epicondyle Can be extended distally over the upper forearm Radial nerve identified along the anterior aspect of the pedicle Radial nerve and pedicle are followed into the spiral groove Must identify and preserve muscular branches from radial nerve Osteocutaneous flap Humerus segment 10 cm in length 20% of the circumference Lateral Arm Flap: Lateral Arm Flap Morbidity Radial nerve damage Palsy 2/2 constrictive dressings or tight wound closure. Primary closure if less than 1/3 of arm Use STSG if closure under too much tension. Lateral Arm Flap: Lateral Arm Flap Preoperative Considerations Easy scar camouflage Male patients may have less hair in this region when compared to forearm Consider for intraoral reconstruction Flap becomes thinner more distally Lateral Thigh Flap: Lateral Thigh Flap Described by Baek in 1983 Large surface area Expendable tissue Flap size up to 25 x 14 cm Fasciocutaneous flap – thin to moderately thick Intraoral and pharyngeal reconstruction Reinnervated via lateral femoral cutaneous nerve Neurovascular pedicle: Neurovascular pedicle Third perforator of profunda femoris Travels w/in intermuscular septum Pedicle 8 – 12 cm Vessel caliber 2 – 4 mm Lateral femoral cutaneous nerve of the thigh Anterosuperior entry into flap Does not travel with vascular pedicle Terminal cutaneous branch of second or fourth perforators are the dominant arterial supply (rare) 4th perforator usually included in dissection to account for variations When 2nd perforator dominant – pedicle length limited by muscular branch vessels to preserve femoral blood supply. Lateral Thigh Flap: Lateral Thigh Flap Lateral Thigh Flap: Lateral Thigh Flap Technical considerations: Technical considerations Centered over lateral intermuscular septum Separates vastus lateralis and iliotibial tract (fascia lata) anteriorly from the biceps femoris posteriorly Septum located by line b/w greater trochanter and lateral epicondyle of femur 3rd perforator at midpoint of line Terminates in the intermuscular septum between the long head of the biceps femoris and the vastus lateralis Lateral femoral cutaneous nerve provides sensation to the skin of the lateral thigh and may be incorporated into the flap Dominant perforator identified in subcutaneous plane and then traced through the biceps femoris to the main pedicle Release of the adductor magnus from the linea aspera facilitates dissection of the main pedicle Lateral Thigh Flap: Lateral Thigh Flap Morbidity Atherosclerosis of profunda femoris and its branches Avoid in pts with h/o PVD Sciatic nerve injury Lateral Thigh Flap: Lateral Thigh Flap Preoperative Considerations Assess for PVD (palpate peripheral pulses) Not advised for use in obese individuals or in those with previous surgery or trauma to the thigh Postoperative management Primary closure of donor site Early walking Anterolateral thigh flap: Anterolateral thigh flap First reported by Song et al Subcutaneous, fasciocutaneous, myocutaneous, adipofascial Laryngopharynx, oral cavity, oropharynx, external skin and maxilla Flap may be thinned or suprafascial flaps taken for thinner flaps Popular in Asia Less popular in Europe and America Difficult perforator dissection (bountiful subcutaneous tissue) Variation in vascular anatomy Neurovascular pedicle: Neurovascular pedicle Descending branch of lateral circumflex femoral artery Septocutaneous Traverse the fascia lata Musculocutaneous perforators Traverse the vastus lateralis muscle and the deep fascia Venae comitantes Descending branch travels inferiorly in intramuscular space b/w rectus femoris and vastus lateralis Caliber – 2.1 mm artery, 2.6 mm vein Vascular pedicle up to 16 cm Lateral femoral cutaneous nerve – sensory nerve Branch of lumbar plexus Enters thigh deep to lateral aspect of inguinal ligament near ASIS Runs with deep circumflex iliac artery and vein Runs anterior, posterior or through sartorius, continuing through fascia lata Neurovascular pedicle: Neurovascular pedicle Musculocutaneous variations Vertical musculocutaneous perforators (descending lateral circumflex femoral artery) Pass through vastus lateralis perpendicularly into fascia lata Horizontal musculocutaneous perforators (transverse branch of lateral circumflex femoral artery) Pass through vastus lateralis horizontally Skin blood supply Septocutaneous perforators – 10.7% Musculocutaneous perforators from descending branch – 89% Musculocutaneous perforator from transverse branch – 3.5% Anterolateral thigh flap: Anterolateral thigh flap Anterolateral thigh flap: Anterolateral thigh flap Technical considerations: Technical considerations Draw line from ASIS to lateral patellar border Cutaneous perforator exit point from intermuscular septum or from vastus lateralis 2 cm lateral to and 2 cm inferior to midpoint of line from ASIS and lateral border of patella Use Doppler to mark perforators Dissect (medial to lateral) to intermuscular septum b/w rectus femoris and vastus lateralis. Retract rectus femoris medially exposing perforators Leave muscle cuff around myocutaneous perforators Fasciocutaneous flap, suprafascial flap, cutaneous flap (up 5 mm thickness), adipofascial flap May include lateral cutaneous nerve of thigh Max size – horizontal line from greater trochanter down to a parallel line 3 cm above patella 25 x 18 cm 20 x 26 cm Close donor site primarily if less than 8 cm wide Anterolateral thigh flap: Anterolateral thigh flap Anterolateral thigh flap: Anterolateral thigh flap Morbidity Possible STSG Depends on extent of injury to vastus lateralis Thinned flaps with more complications in intraoral defects Anterolateral thigh flap: Anterolateral thigh flap Preoperative Considerations Reduced donor site morbidity compared to RFF Can be as thin as RFF Contraindicated in pts with prior upper thigh surgery, vascular procedures, big eaters… Rectus abdominis: Rectus abdominis Easy to harvest Long pedicle Skin from abdomen and lower chest Myocutaneous flap or muscle only flap Not used for functional motor reconstruction Can include entire muscle or only small portion in paraumbilical region Plentiful people – thinner flap created by skin grafting the muscle Skinny people Flap used for moderately volume defects Poor color match Tends to become ptotic Skull base defects Muscular component used to seal subarachnoid space Able to fill large tissue deficits Total glossectomy defects Neurovascular pedicle: Neurovascular pedicle Two dominant pedicles Deep superior epigastric artery/vein Deep inferior epigastric artery and vein Based on inferior epigastrics when used for h/n recon because of larger pedicle size Inferior epigastric diameter – 3 to 4 mm Reinnervated with any of the lower six intercostal nerves. Pedicle may travel along lateral aspect of muscle before taking intramuscular route Technical considerations: Technical considerations Cutaneous blood supply Harvest anterior rectus sheath in paraumbilical region (dominant perforators located here) Skin paddle designed with epicenter above the umbilicus Primary closure Hernia prevention depends on restoring abdominal wall. Arcuate line (level of ASIS) Superior – posterior sheath with transversalis fascia, internal oblique and transversus abdominis Closure of posterior sheath prevents herniation Inferior – only transversalis fascia posterior to muscle Must close anterior sheath to prevent herniation Technical considerations: Technical considerations Dissect superiorly first Dissect down to underlying muscle Split fascia to the costal margin Lateral and inferior portions of skin paddle incised next Small cuff of anterior rectus fascia preserved medially and laterally, to preserve cutaneous perforators Split fascia vertically down to the public region Divide rectus superiorly and free from posterior rectus sheath Dissection below the arcuate line Vascular pedicle identified below arcuate line along the lateral deep aspect of the muscle. Divide rectus inferiorly Pedicle dissected inferiorly to origin off the external iliac system Rectus abdominis: Rectus abdominis Rectus abdominis: Rectus abdominis Rectus abdominis: Rectus abdominis Rectus abdominis: Rectus abdominis Morbidity Abdominal weakness Hernia Rectus abdominis: Rectus abdominis Preoperative Considerations Prior abdominal surgery Prior inguinal herniorrhapy may compromise pedicle dissection 2/2 scarring Hernia Diastasis recti Postoperative management Ileus Avoid abdominal strain for 6 weeks. Latissimus dorsi: Latissimus dorsi Pedicle or free flap Free flaps Better flap positioning Cutaneous portion can be centered over pedicle Less risk of pedicle kinking Musculocutaneous Large volume defects of large cutaneous neck defects Muscle-only flap Broad and thin Atrophies to about 4 mm Ideal for scalp reconstruction Poor for large volume defects Massive scalp defects STSG for final resurfacing Non sensate Motor reconstruction possible Useful after total glossectomy Neurovascular pedicle: Neurovascular pedicle Thoracodorsal artery Arise from subscapular vessels off of third portion of axillary artery and vein Vessel diameter at origin – 2.7 mm(1.5 to 4.0) Vein diameter – 3.4 mm (1.5 to 4.5) Pedicle length 9.3 cm (6 to 16.5) Can be lengthened by sacrificing branch to serratus anterior Numerous variations Most common: independent origin of thoracodorsal vein/artery Technical considerations: Technical considerations Lateral decubitis position If at 15 degrees, flap may be harvested simultaneously with primary lesion resection Anterior muscle border along line b/w midpoint of axilla and point midway b/w ASIS and PSIS Vessels enter undersurface of muscle 8 to 10 cm below midpoint of axilla Serratus vessels ligated during harvest Can design two paddle flap based on medial and lateral branches of thoracodorsal vessels Total glossectomy insetting. Muscle inset as a sling on undersurface of mandible Sutured to pterygoid, masseter, or superior constrictor... Thoracodorsal nerve anastomosed to a hypoglossal nerve Gives reconstructed tongue the ability to elevate superiorly toward the palate Latissimus dorsi: Latissimus dorsi Latissimus dorsi: Latissimus dorsi Morbidity Marginal flap necrosis Pedicled flaps pass b/w pec major and minor Changes in arm position may occlude pedicle Should immobilize arm in flexed position Latissimus dorsi: Latissimus dorsi Preoperative Considerations Relative contraindications - prior axillary LN dissection Preop angiography advocated to assess vessel patency Postoperative management Suction drains High incidence of seroma Gracilis flap: Gracilis flap 1976 Thin muscle flap Dynamic facial reanimation Muscle revasularized and reinnervated Long vascular pedicle Easy dissection Neurovascular pedicle: Neurovascular pedicle Terminal branch of adductor artery from profunda femoris Runs b/w adductor longus (anterior) and adductor brevis and magnus (posterior) Enters gracilis at junction of upper third and lower two thirds 8 – 10 cm inferior to pubic tubercle 2 venae comitantes – drain into profunda femoris Artery caliber – 2 mm Vein caliber 1.5 – 2.5 mm Motor innervation – anterior branch of obturator nerve 2 – 3 cm cephalic to vascular pedicle. Blood supply to skin variable Skin supplied mostly by septocutaneous perforators Technical considerations: Technical considerations Muscle can be split into at least two functional muscular units Single neuromuscular unit can be transferred to decrease bulk Orient skin paddle longitudinally Must be centered over dominant musculocutaneous perforator For synchronous mimetic movement when proximal facial nerve not available. 2 stage procedure with cross face sural nerve graft Tinel sign used to monitor axonal growth across the face – 9-12 months After adequate axonal regrowth – muscle transferred Gracilis flap: Gracilis flap Temperoparietal Fascia Flap: Temperoparietal Fascia Flap More commonly transferred as a pedicled flap but can be used as a free flap when arc of rotation is inadequate Ultra thin – 2 to 4 mm thick Highly vascular, pliable and durable Fascial, fasciocutaneous Up to 17 x 14 cm with extensive scalp undermining Oral cavity, hemilaryngectomy defects, middle and upper regions of face w/split calvarial bone graft Neurovascular pedicle: Neurovascular pedicle 5 layers – scalp Temperoparietal fascia (TPF) deep to skin and subcutaneous tissue. Superficial to temporalis muscular fascia Above superior temporal line it’s continuous with galea aponeurotica Base centered over helix Superficial temporal artery and vein – travel in TPF layer 3 cm superior to root of helix Vessels branch into frontal and temporal divisions Most commonly based on parietal branch Ligation of frontal artery 3 – 4 cm distal to branching point to avoid frontal nerve injury Venous pedicle may course with arteries or 2 to 3 cm posteriorly Middle temporal artery – proximal superficial temporal artery at zygomatic arch (supplies temporalis muscular fascia) Including middle temporal artery enables a two-layered fascial flap on a single pedicle. Temperoparietal Fascia Flap: Temperoparietal Fascia Flap Technical considerations: Technical considerations Vertical incision over root of helix to superior temporal line V-shaped extension at superior limit of incision Scalp elevation ant and post Dissect deep to flap Loose areolar tissue deep to flap Temperoparietal Fascia Flap: Temperoparietal Fascia Flap Temperoparietal Fascia Flap: Temperoparietal Fascia Flap Morbidity Frontal branch weakness (travels in TPF) Secondary alopecia – damage to hair follicles due to superficial dissection Temperoparietal Fascia Flap: Temperoparietal Fascia Flap Preoperative Considerations Relative contraindications - prior XRT, neck surgery, bicoronal incision or external carotid embolization. Doppler assessment of pedicle Fibular osteocutaneous flap: Fibular osteocutaneous flap 1975 Hidalgo – mandibular recon 1989 Longest possible segment of revasularized bone (25 cm) Ideal for osseointegrated implant placement Mandible reconstruction (near total), maxillary reconstruction Neurovascular pedicle: Neurovascular pedicle Peroneal artery and vein Sensate restoration with lateral sural cutaneous nerve Peroneal communicating branch vascularized nerve graft for lower lip sensation Skin perforators Posterior intermuscular septum (septocutaneous or musculocutaneous through flexor hallucis longus and soleus) Should always include cuff of flexor hallucis longus and soleus in flap harvest 5-10% of cases blood supply to skin paddle is inadequate Technical considerations: Technical considerations Choose leg based on ease of insetting Intraoral skin paddle Harvest flap from contralateral side of recipient vessels 8 cm segment preserved proximally and distally to protect common peroneal verve and ensure ankle stability Center flap over posterior intermuscular septum Anterior to soleus and posterior to peroneus Doppler cutaneous perforators Greatest number of perforators present in the 15 to 25 cm range Distal skin paddle increases pedicle length Thigh tourniquet to 350 mm Hg Vascularity to skin running through the septocutaneous perforators may be enhanced by harvesting a segment of soleus to capture additional musculocutaneous perforators Fibular osteocutaneous flap: Fibular osteocutaneous flap Fibular osteocutaneous flap: Fibular osteocutaneous flap Fibular osteocutaneous flap: Fibular osteocutaneous flap Fibular osteocutaneous flap: Fibular osteocutaneous flap Morbidity Donor site complications Edema Weakness in dorsiflexion of great toe Skin loss in 5 – 10% of flaps reliability of the skin is questionable, and both the surgeon and the patient should be prepared for the possible need for a second soft tissue flap, either free or pedicled, when reconstructing composite defects with a fibular osteocutaneous flap May need STSG over donor site closure Fibular osteocutaneous flap: Fibular osteocutaneous flap Preoperative Considerations Angiography MRA h/o distal lower extremity fracture Look for varicose veins, edema Postoperative management Distal pulses monitored Posterior splint for 10 days Iliac crest flaps: Iliac crest flaps Osteocutaneous, osteomusculocutaneous Segmental mandibular defects Up to 16 cm bone Oromandibular reconstruction No motor or sensate reconstruction Only vascularized bone used extensively with simultaneous or delayed endosteal dental implant placement Skin paddle was not ideal for relining the oral cavity Too thick for accurate restoration of the 3D anatomy Inclusion of internal oblique flap Denervated muscle undergoes atrophy that leaves a thin, fixed, soft tissue coverage over the bone. Neurovascular pedicle: Neurovascular pedicle Deep circumflex iliac artery from lateral aspect of external iliac artery 1 – 2 cm cephalic to inguinal ligament Ascending branch of deep circumflex iliac artery supplies internal oblique muscle Deep circumflex iliac vein – 2 venae comitantes Can pass either superficial to deep to artery Artery caliber – 2 to 3 mm Vein caliber – 3 to 5 mm Pedicle to internal oblique can arise separately from deep circumflex iliac artery Iliac crest flaps: Iliac crest flaps Technical considerations: Technical considerations Skin paddle centered on axis from ASIS to inferior tip of scapula Cutaneous perforators 9 cm posterior to ASIS and 2.5 cm medial to iliac crest Generous cuff of external oblique, internal oblique and transversus abdominis layers must be preserved to maintain cutaneous perforators Internal oblique muscle axial-pattern blood supply Skin paddle bulky and immobile Do not rotate skin in order to prevent sheer injury Iliac crest flaps: Iliac crest flaps Iliac crest flaps: Iliac crest flaps Iliac crest flaps: Iliac crest flaps Morbidity Hernia Need to approximate cut edge of iliacus muscle to transversus abdominis Can be reinforced by drilling holes into cut edge of iliac bone Approximate external obliques and aponeurosis to tensor fascia lata and gluteus muscles Keep inferior oblique inferior and anterior to ASIS Skin loss from perforator sheer injury poor color match Iliac crest flaps: Iliac crest flaps Preoperative Considerations h/o hernias, prior iliac bypass graft Severe PVD, Preop angio Scapular flaps: Scapular flaps Fasciocutaneous, osteofasciocutaneous, cutaneous flap, parascapular cutaneous flap, latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap, and serratus anterior flap Thin, hairless skin Two cutaneous flaps may be harvested Horizontally oriented flap – transverse cutaneous branch Vertically oriented flap parascapular flap – descending cutaneous branch Long pedicle length Large surface area Complex composite midfacial or oromandibular defects Up to 10 cm bone Osseointegrated implants possible Single team approach Neurovascular pedicle: Neurovascular pedicle Subscapular artery and vein Circumflex scapular artery and vein emerge from triangular space (teres major, teres minor and long head of triceps) Paired venae comitantes Artery caliber – 4 mm at takeoff from subscapular Subscapular caliber – 6 mm at takeoff from axillary artery Pedicle length – 7 to 10 cm, 11 to 14 cm (from axillary artery) Preservation of thoracodorsal vessels allows simultaneous transfer of latissimus and portion of serratus flap Largest amount of tissue available for transfer Thoracodorsal artery and circumflex scapular artery can have separate origins from axillary artery. Non-sensate flaps Scapular vessels - very rarely affected by atherosclerosis Scapular flaps: Scapular flaps Technical considerations: Technical considerations Decubitis positioning 15 degree angle Separate axillary incision helpful in dissecting pedicle to axillary artery and vein Bone harvest Teres major, subscapularis and latissimus dorsi need to be reattached to scapula Flap harvest opposite side of modified or radical neck dissection Scapular flaps: Scapular flaps Scapular flaps: Scapular flaps Morbidity Brachial plexus injury 2/2 lateral decubitis positioning Use axillary roll Stay 1 cm inferior to glenoid fossa Detach teres major and minor to harvest bone Can cause shoulder weakness and limit range of motion. Scapular flaps: Scapular flaps Preoperative Considerations Prior axillary node dissection – contraindication Postoperative management Immobilize for 3 to 4 days Early ambulation 5 days for bone harvest PT Rib flap: Rib flap First vascularized bone to be used in mandibular reconstruction. (osteocutaneous) Blood supply to the rib Internal mammary artery Posteriorly or posterolaterally on the posterior intercostal vessels Transferred with the pectoralis major, serratus anterior, or latissimus dorsi muscle Poor bone stock except for condylar reconstruction Not commonly used Neurovascular pedicle: Neurovascular pedicle Metatarsus flap: Metatarsus flap Osteocutaneous flap based on the first dorsal metatarsal artery Thin sensate skin with the second metatarsal. Limited bone volume Not commonly used Neurovascular pedicle: Neurovascular pedicle Jejunal flap: Jejunal flap 1959 Circumferential pharyngoesophageal defects Patch graft Diameter of jejunum – good match to cervical esophagus Ideal mucosal surface Two team approach Advantages Better superior positioning Disadvantage Inferior positioning limited by thoracic inlet 3 anastomoses Neurovascular pedicle: Neurovascular pedicle Mesenteric arcade vessels Usually 2nd arcade is best for pharyngeal reconstruction Technical considerations: Technical considerations Harvest distal to Ligament of Treitz Up to 20 cm Laparoscopic harvest has been reported Mark proximal graft with suture – isoperistaltic placement Proximal end divided along antimesenteric border to facilitate tongue base closure Distal end – end to end anastomosis Lock and key closure Exteriorize a monitoring segment Jejunal flap: Jejunal flap Jejunal flap: Jejunal flap Morbidity Most susceptible to primary ischemia Fistula formation – 18% 11% rate of anastomotic stricture Higher rate if cervical anastomosis stapled Wet voice (TEP) Functional obstruction 2/2 peristalsis Dysgeusia Harvest site complications Jejunal flap: Jejunal flap Preoperative Considerations Absolute contraindications Disease extension into proximal thoracic esophagus Ascites Crohn’s disease Relative contraindications Chronic intestinal diseases h/o abdominal surgery Consider angio Intraperitoneal sepsis Do not use in laryngeal sparing procedures Postoperative management Remove monitoring segment pod 7. Jejunostomy tube Gastroomental flap: Gastroomental flap 1961, 1979 Greater omentum – double layer of peritoneum Hangs from greater curvature of stomach and transverse colon Omentum - thin and well vascularized Excellent coverage for great vessels Plasticity allows for variable placement Form adhesions to inflamed, ischemic, or necrotic tissues Separates them from surrounding tissues Promotes healing in previously radiated fields Large scalp defects, Extensive midfacial defects w/coverage of split rib or calvarial grafts Facial contouring Management of osteoradionecrosis or osteomyelitis in head and neck Pharyngoesophageal reconstruction Neurovascular pedicle: Neurovascular pedicle Right gastroepiploic artery Caliber – 1.5 to 3.0 mm Gastroomental flap: Gastroomental flap Morbidity Intraabdominal complications Gastric leak Peritonitis Intraabdominal abscess Volvulus Gastric outlet obstruction If mucosal flap too large or if placed too close to pylorus Fistula Preoperative Considerations h/o GOO h/o PUD Gastroomental flap: Gastroomental flap Bibliography: Bibliography Chepeha, DB, Teknos, TN. Microvascular Free Flaps in Head and Neck Reconstruction. In: Head and Neck Surgery—Otolaryngology, 3rd ed., Bailey, BJ Ed. Philadelphia, Lippincott-Raven Publishers, 2001; 2045 – 2065. Urken, ML, Buchbinder, D, Genden, EM. Reconstruction of the Mandible and Maxilla. In Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, 4th Ed. Edited by Cummings CC, St. Louis: Mosby Year Book Inc.; 2004. 1618 – 1635. Chang, KE, Gender, EM, Funk, G. Reconstruction of the Hypopharynx and Esophagus. In Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, 4th Ed. Edited by Cummings CC, St. Louis: Mosby Year Book Inc.; 2004. 1945. Taylor, SM, Haughey, BH. Reconstruction of the Oropharynx. In Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, 4th Ed. Edited by Cummings CC, St. Louis: Mosby Year Book Inc.; 2004. 1758. Lee, KJ. Essentials of Otolaryngology. 891. Lin, DT, Coppit, GL, Burkey, B. Use of the Anterolateral Thigh Flap in Reconstruction of the Head and Neck. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 12: 300-304. 2004. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. Genden, E, Haughey, BH. Mandibular Reconstruction by Vascularized Free Flap Tissue Transfer. Am Journ Otolaryngol. 1996; 17 (4): 219 – 227.