gender and us

Information about gender and us

Published on January 2, 2008

Author: Lilly

Source: authorstream.com

Content

GENDER & US:  GENDER & US Dr. Saman Y. Khan Definitions:  Definitions Sex: biological concept Gender: It is widely held that while one's sex is determined by anatomy, the concepts of "gender"--the traits that constitute masculinity and femininity--are largely, if not entirely, cultural constructs, effected by the omnipresent patriarchal biases of our civilization. The masculine in this fashion has come to be identified as active, dominating, adventurous, rational, creative; the feminine, by systematic opposition to such traits, has come to be identified as passive, acquiescent, timid, emotional, and conventional Or GENDER :  Or GENDER is s social concept and it means the socially and culturally prescribed roles that men and women are expected to follow According to:  Gerda Lerner in The Creation of Patriarchy (p.238), gender is the "costume, a mask, a straitjacket in which men and women dance their unequal dance" According to Introduction:  Introduction Gender, the sex-role identity used by humans to emphasize the distinctions between males and females The words gender and sex are often used interchangeably, but sex relates specifically to the biological, physical characteristics which make a person male or female at birth, whereas gender refers to the behaviour associated with members of that sex Role recognition:  Role recognition By the age of three, children tend to be aware of their gender; they are encouraged to prefer the games, clothing, modes of speech, and other aspects of culture usually assigned to their sex Even as babies, boys and girls are treated differently from one another: boys are seldom dressed in pink as it is considered to be a "feminine" color So even at an age at which male and female behaviour is indistinguishable it is seen as important that the child's sex is not mistaken Typical roles:  Typical roles Stereotypical sex-associated behaviour such as male aggression and female passivity is derived at least partly from roles which are taught during childhood; males are told "boys don't cry" and are given guns and cars as toys; girls are given dolls and playhouses so they can mimic the traditional female home-making role Socialization & Sexism:  Socialization & Sexism Because gender roles vary from culture to culture, it appears that many of the behavioral differences between males and females are caused by socialization Sexism is a set of attitudes and behaviors towards people that judge or belittle them on the basis of their gender, or that perpetuate stereotypical assumptions about gender roles Traditional rights:  Traditional rights Traditionally, rights to property and nationality pass through the male line, with the result that women's legal status is generally inferior to that of men: until the 20th century, women had no voting rights, limited rights to property, and were, in most respects, subject entirely to their fathers or husbands Inequality resulting from gender:  Inequality resulting from gender Women have lower status than men, but the extent of the gap between the sexes varies across cultures and time In 1980, the United Nations summed up the burden of this inequality: Women, who comprise half the world's population, do two thirds of the world's work, earn one tenth of the world's income and own one hundredth of the world's property Result of the inequality:  Result of the inequality Personal Image Educational attainment Income generation Skills accumulation Family ties Resources Crime Ottheeerss…………. Women’s struggle:  Women’s struggle Women’s struggle, through out the world, has been to remove this inequality and bring merit and reward closer to each other – particularly in WOMEN’S own lives The struggle for equal rights BEGINS here and feminism is born History of feminist movement:  History of feminist movement First discernibly arose in Europe in the late 18th century In 1975 the United Nations launched a Decade for Women programme, and major conferences were held in 1975, 1980, and 1985, and again in 1995 The 1995 conference, held in Beijing, China, centered on human-rights issues relating specifically to women The Feminist movement :  The Feminist movement This was struggle by women all over the world To campaign to obtain political, social, and economic equality between women and men Among the equal rights campaigned for are control of personal property, equality of opportunity in education and employment, equal suffrage (that is, the right to vote), and equality of sexual freedom Gains – Women’s suffrage:  Gains – Women’s suffrage Gained is the right of women to share on equal terms with men the political privileges afforded by representative government and, more particularly, to vote in elections and referendums and to hold public office Women who attained national leadership posts in modern times include prime ministers Golda Meir (Israel), Indira Gandhi (India), and Benazir Bhutto (Pakistan) and President Corazon Aquino of the Philippines (all Asians) Gains – 2:  Gains – 2 equal legal rights expanded access to jobs and other economic resources a voice in government policies shared responsibility by men for household work and child care GAINS/3:  GAINS/3 Increasingly, girls take on games previously associated with boys—but the reverse is still less in evidence Similarly, many boys and girls tend to excel only in the areas of study traditionally attributed to their sex, and this may partly explain male dominance in many fields such as science and engineering Therefore :  Therefore Although most women throughout the world had gained many rights according to law, in fact complete political, economic, and social equality with men remains to be achieved Current Movement’s focus:  Current Movement’s focus The movement falls broadly into three strands: exploration of solidarity and consciousness-raising, which facilitates the assessment of political and social position; campaigning on public issues, such as abortion, equal pay, childcare, and domestic violence; and the academic discipline of women's studies, which attempts to provide a theoretical analysis of the movement WID VERSUS GAD:  WID VERSUS GAD The philosophical debate in the movement Its practical push Its link to sustainable development Link to Millennium Development goals Women in Development (WID):  Women in Development (WID) Fulfilling practical needs and Part of the initial women’s movement ¨Practical needs are identifiable by: Tend to be immediate and short-term    Are unique to particular women and men     Involve women and men as beneficiaries rather than active participants. Are easily identifiable by women and men Can generally be addresses without changing traditional gender role But argued by WID advocates that:  But argued by WID advocates that The benefits of development had not reached women; In some economic sectors women’s position was undermined; So women MUST be integrated into the design and implementation of development programs through legal and administrative change So …:  So … Although WID improved opportunities for women but not the power sharing So for gender and development to move further And link with sustainable development Empowerment is needed Strategic needs are :  Strategic needs are Are long-term Are common to almost all women and men Involve women as agents, or enable women to become agents Relate to women’s disadvantaged position in society, subordination, lack of resources and education, vulnerability to poverty and violence. Are not easily identified by women and men Can empower women and transform gender relation Empowerment:  Empowerment Empowerment may be defined as: A process through which women and men in disadvantaged positions increase their access to knowledge, resources, decision-making power, and raise their awareness of participation in their communities, in order to reach a level of control over their own environment Gender analysis:  Gender analysis In order to insure that both practical needs and strategic interests are being met for all people in a community it is important to gather information. This information is commonly referred to as a Gender Analysis The information collected should come from the first person Information gathered second or third hand becomes less and less valuable 3 steps:  3 steps Who does what Who has access to resources Who has control over the resources If practical needs and strategic interests are not being met one can usually determine why not after answering the above 3 questions Or :  Or The Activity Profile Access and Control Profile Influencing Factors Profile Emphasis:  Emphasis In development programmes, the effort is for bring women out of the women and children category (social welfare) into that of productive workers whose contribution is regained formally There is global overwork of women (2/3rd of all) And global under rewards (10% of income and 1 % of property) Millennium development goals:  Millennium development goals 1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger 2. Achieve universal primary education 3. Promote gender equality and women’s empowerment 4. Reduce child mortality 5. Improve maternal health 6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases 7. Ensure environmental sustainability 8. Develop a global partnership for development Enough ?:  Enough ? For women advocates, the MDGs are a set of minimal goals that are necessary, but not sufficient, for human development They do not represent full vision of gender equity, equality and women’s empowerment or poverty eradication and structural transformation envisaged in UN conferences and human rights instruments Nor do they reflect the broad, universal reach of these commitments but only the most basic requirements of the Least Developed Countries Nonetheless…:  Nonetheless… The time-bound targets offer an avenue of engagement to women advocates monitoring the implementation of the Beijing Platform for Action and other key international policy agreements of the 1990s Accountability:  Accountability Advocates for gender equality and women’s empowerment can play an important role in holding their governments accountable for reaching the Millennium Development Goals. Make gender equality central, not only to goals 1, 3, and 7 on poverty eradication, gender equality, and environmental sustainability, but to all eight goals Black feminism:  Black feminism Gender related to race Men are not the enemy … Paid work – site of contradiction rather then freedom Family is not the primary place of oppression Black feminist have highlighted the phrase personal is political Slide35:  In the IMF and World Bank, the Board of Governors is made up of senior economic government officials, such as Ministers of Finance and Central Bank heads, with each member country represented. The Board of Directors is the chief decision-making body within each of the IMF and World Bank. In practice, the Board of Directors’ delegated powers make it the primary policy-making body in each organization. Change:  Change Conflict is inevitable whenever a change is being promoted. Men will invariable feel as though power is being taken away from them when women start to be included in the upper levels of the Women’s Empowerment Framework Women may be resistant to change due to the conflict it will bring. They may be afraid of violence in the home as a result of the change Backlash :  Backlash In the 1990s, the women's movement has been examining the possibility that Western society is demonstrating a so-called post-feminist backlash against legal and social gains made by women. … on how gains previously made as a result of the feminist movement are now being eroded. This is thought to be exemplified by recent opposition, especially in the United States, to, for example, abortion Conclusion:  Conclusion From search engines, some key search words to use to get more information on this topic are: *gender and development *women and health *sustainable human development *women in development *human rights *United Nations *OXFAM *CEDPA *UNICEF Thank you:  Thank you

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