General and Inorganic Chemistry - Basic One-Semester Course

Information about General and Inorganic Chemistry - Basic One-Semester Course

Published on August 5, 2014

Author: danlester

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Chemistry General and Inorganic: Chemistry General and Inorganic Contents: Contents Introduction to chemistry Matter and Energy Basic Atomic Theory The Periodic System Valency and Oxidation Numbers Chemical Bonding Chemical Nomenclature Chemical Reactions Stoichiometry Solutions Contents: Contents Introduction to chemistry Nature and Definition of Chemistry Importance of Chemistry Branches of Chemistry Scientific Method The Chemical Laboratory Measurement Matter and Energy Basic Atomic Theory The Periodic System Valency and Oxidation Numbers Chemical Bonding Chemical Nomenclature Chemical Reactions Stoichiometry Solutions Contents: Contents Introduction to chemistry Measurement Use of measurement in Chemistry The SI Units Reporting Numbers Conversion Factors Exercises Matter and Energy Basic Atomic Theory The Periodic System Valency and Oxidation Numbers Chemical Bonding Chemical Nomenclature Chemical Reactions Stoichiometry Solutions Contents: Contents Introduction to chemistry Matter and Energy Definition and States of Matter Physical and Chemical Change Physical and Chemical Properties Classification of matter Laws of Matter Energy Basic Atomic Theory The Periodic System Valency and Oxidation Numbers Chemical Bonding Chemical Nomenclature Chemical Reactions Stoichiometry Solutions Contents: Contents Introduction to chemistry Matter and Energy Basic Atomic Theory History Atomic Structure Quantum-mechanical model Quantum numbers Electronic Configuration The Periodic System Valency and Oxidation Numbers Chemical Bonding Chemical Nomenclature Chemical Reactions Stoichiometry Solutions Contents: Contents Introduction to chemistry Matter and Energy Basic Atomic Theory The Periodic System Historical Development of the Periodic Table Understanding the Periodic Table Periodic Trends Valency and Oxidation Numbers Chemical Bonding Chemical Nomenclature Chemical Reactions Stoichiometry Solutions Contents: Contents Introduction to chemistry Matter and Energy Basic Atomic Theory The Periodic System Valency and Oxidation Numbers Valency Assigning Oxidation Numbers Chemical Bonding Chemical Nomenclature Chemical Reactions Stoichiometry Solutions Contents: Contents Introduction to chemistry Matter and Energy Basic Atomic Theory The Periodic System Valency and Oxidation Numbers Chemical Bonding Writing Lewis Dot Symbols Types of Chemical Bonding Common Intermolecular Bonds Chemical Nomenclature Chemical Reactions Stoichiometry Solutions Contents: Contents Introduction to chemistry Matter and Energy Basic Atomic Theory The Periodic System Valency and Oxidation Numbers Chemical Bonding Chemical Nomenclature Anions and Cations Naming and Formula Writing of Compounds Chemical Reactions Stoichiometry Solutions Contents: Contents Introduction to chemistry Matter and Energy Basic Atomic Theory The Periodic System Valency and Oxidation Numbers Chemical Bonding Chemical Nomenclature Chemical Reactions Types of Chemical Reactions The Chemical Equation Balancing Chemical Equations Stoichiometry Solutions Contents: Contents Introduction to chemistry Matter and Energy Basic Atomic Theory The Periodic System Valency and Oxidation Numbers Chemical Bonding Chemical Nomenclature Chemical Reactions Stoichiometry Terms used in Chemical Calculations Molecular and Empirical Formulas Percentage Composition Reaction Stoichiometry Solutions Contents: Contents Introduction to chemistry Matter and Energy Basic Atomic Theory The Periodic System Valency and Oxidation Numbers Chemical Bonding Chemical Nomenclature Chemical Reactions Stoichiometry Solutions Types of Solutions Expressing Concentration of Solutions Titration Introduction to Chemistry: Introduction to Chemistry Definition of Chemistry Chemistry is a science that describes matter – its properties, the changes it undergoes and the energy that accompany those processes. It’s often called the central science. Introduction to Chemistry: Introduction to Chemistry Nature of Chemistry Chemistry has a specialized vocabulary. Some concepts are abstract. Chemistry is a broad area of study. Introduction to Chemistry: Introduction to Chemistry Importance of Chemistry Health and medicine Sanitation, anesthesia, vaccines, antibiotics, gene therapy Energy and the environment New energy sources Materials and technology Polymers, liquid crystals, superconductors, microprocessor Food and agriculture Biotechnology, pesticides, fertilizers Introduction to Chemistry: Introduction to Chemistry Principal Branches in Chemistry Inorganic Chemistry Organic Chemisty Analytical Chemistry Biochemistry Physical Chemistry Introduction to Chemistry: Introduction to Chemistry The Scientific Method The scientific way of doing research Ask a question Do background research Construct a hypothesis Test your hypothesis Analyze data Draw a conclusion Introduction to Chemistry: Introduction to Chemistry The Scientific Method Fact – is a statement based on direct experience. It is a consistent and reproducible observation. Hypothesis – a tentative explanation for a set of observations. Law – is a concise verbal or mathematical statement of a relationship between phenomena that is always the same under the same conditions. Theory - is a unifying principle that explains a body of facts and those laws that are based on them. Introduction to Chemistry: Introduction to Chemistry The Chemical Laboratory Is place where we observe, test, prove, validate or discover chemical concepts. Introductory chemistry exposes students to the laboratory setting to appreciate the chemical concepts through experiments. Introduction to Chemistry: Introduction to Chemistry Measurement The measurements chemists make are often used in calculations to obtain other related quantities. Measurements that will be used frequently in chemistry include time, mass, volume, density, temperature and amount of substance . The measured quantity is usually written as a number with an appropriate unit . Introduction to Chemistry: Introduction to Chemistry Measurement The arithmetic operations used with measured quantities are the same as those used with pure numbers; in other words, units can be multiplied, divided, and canceled. Introduction to Chemistry: Introduction to Chemistry Measurement The Metric System a system of units of measurement in which the divisions to subunits are made by a power of 10. Began in 1790 in France; later revised in 1960 to International System of Units (SI Units) Introduction to Chemistry: Introduction to Chemistry Measurement Common Decimal Prefixes Used with SI Units Introduction to Chemistry: Introduction to Chemistry Measurement Common SI Equivalent Quantities Introduction to Chemistry: Introduction to Chemistry Measurement Reporting numbers Scientists often have to deal with numbers that are very large or very small. Scientific notation 1000 = 1 x 10 x 10 x 10 = 1 x 10 3 0.001 = 1/10 x 1/10 x 1/10 = 1 x 10 -3 15,362 = 1.54 x 10 4 Introduction to Chemistry: Introduction to Chemistry Measurement Scientific Notation 2400 0.00409 80343 2243521 Introduction to Chemistry: Introduction to Chemistry Measurement Significant figures Guidelines in determining the number of significant figures Any digit that is not zero is significant. Zeros between nonzero digits are significant. Zeros to the left of the first nonzero digit are not significant. If a number is greater than 1, then all the zeros written to the right of the decimal point count as significant figures. 2.0 = 2 sf 40.062 = 5 sf 3.040 = 4 sf Introduction to Chemistry: Introduction to Chemistry Measurement Significant figures Guidelines in determining the number of significant figures If a number is less than 1, then only the zeros at the end of the number and the zeros between nonzero digits are significant. 0.090 = 2 sf 0.3005 = 4 sf 0.00420 = 3 sf For numbers that do not contain decimal points, the trailing zeros may or may not be significant. Introduction to Chemistry: Introduction to Chemistry Measurement Exercises in Significant Figures 0.00050 0.2066 69,087 0.0003651 Introduction to Chemistry: Introduction to Chemistry Measurement Conversion Factors - are ratios used to express a measured quantity in different units. Example: To convert a 150-mile car trip to feet, we use equivalent quantities to construct the desired conversion factor. The equivalent quantities in this case is: 1 mile = 5280 ft Make a ratio using the equivalent quantities in such way that the given unit can be cancelled. Introduction to Chemistry: Introduction to Chemistry Measurement Temperature Introduction to Chemistry: Introduction to Chemistry Measurement Exercises Introduction to Chemistry: Introduction to Chemistry Measurement Exercises Matter and Energy: Matter and Energy Matter is anything that occupies space and has mass . Mass of an object pertains to the quantity of matter the object contains. Silberberg Matter and Energy: Matter and Energy Three States of Matter Chang Matter and Energy: Matter and Energy Physical Separation Matter and Energy: Matter and Energy Chemical Change The chemical identity of a substance is destroyed and a new substance is formed. Matter and Energy: Matter and Energy Properties of Matter Physical Properties – can be observed or measured without changing the composition or identity of the substance. Ex. Boiling point of water Chemical properties – results in a change in composition and can be observed only though chemical reactions Ex. Flammability Matter and Energy: Matter and Energy Properties of Matter Physical Properties Taste Odor Color Texture Shape Solubility Electrical Conducting Heat Conducting Magnetism Phase (solid, liquid, gas) Mass Volume Density Melting Point Boiling Point Volatility Malleability Ductility Matter and Energy: Matter and Energy Properties of Matter Chemical Properties Stability Explosiveness Combustibility Sensitivity to Light Acidity Corrosiveness Reactivity Inertness Flammability Oxidizing Ability Matter and Energy: Matter and Energy Properties of Matter Intensive properties – is a property of a substance that is independent of the quantity of the substance Ex. Density Extensive properties – depends on the quantity of the substance Ex. Length Matter and Energy: Matter and Energy Classification of Matter Matter and Energy: Matter and Energy Atomic view of matter Law of conservation of mass The total mass of substances does not change during a chemical reaction Matter and Energy: Matter and Energy Atomic view of matter Law of definite composition No matter what its source, a particular compound is composed of the same elements in the same parts by mass Matter and Energy: Matter and Energy Atomic view of matter Law of multiple proportions - if elements A and B react to form two compounds, the different masses of B that combine with a fixed mass of A can be expressed as a ratio of small whole numbers. Matter and Energy: Matter and Energy Energy Is the capacity to do work May either be kinetic or potential environment.co.za Matter and Energy: Matter and Energy Kinetic Energy – is the energy in motion A bigger object has greater kinetic energy An object moving faster has a greater kinetic enegry wired.com Matter and Energy: Matter and Energy Potential Energy stored energy The water held back by the dam possesses potential energy, which is converted to kinetic energy when the water is released. Bettelheim Matter and Energy: Matter and Energy Forms of Energy: Mechanical energy/ motion Light/ radiant Heat/ thermal Electrical Sound Chemical Nuclear Gravitational energy Stored mechanical energy bbc.co.uk essc.org.ph Matter and Energy: Matter and Energy Law of Conservation of Matter-Energy Although one form of energy can be converted to another, the total amount of energy in any system does not change. Energy can be neither created nor destroyed. 1 g of matter completely converted to energy would produce 8.8 x 10 13 J, which is enough energy to boil 34,000,000 L of water initially at 20°C. This is equivalent to the amount of water in an Olympic-size swimming pool. Basic Atomic Theory: Basic Atomic Theory History Democritus and Leucippus (5 th century B.C.) Continued subdivision of matter would ultimately yield “atoms” (Greek atomos ), which can no longer be subdivided Basic Atomic Theory: Basic Atomic Theory History Aristotle (4th century B.C.) believed that matter could be hypothetically divided endlessly into smaller and smaller particles Basic Atomic Theory: Basic Atomic Theory History John Dalton Proposed an atomic theory which became a landmark in the history of chemistry Basic Atomic Theory: Basic Atomic Theory History John Dalton’ Postulates 1. Elements are composed of extremely small particles called atoms. All atoms of the same element are alike, and atoms of different elements are different. 2. The separation of atoms and the union of atoms occur in chemical reactions. In these reactions, no atom is created or destroyed, and no atom of one element is converted into an atom of another element. 3. A chemical compound is the result of the combination of atoms of two or more elements. A given compound always contains the same kinds of atoms combined in the same proportions. Basic Atomic Theory: Basic Atomic Theory History Rutherford’s Atomic Model (1911) Basic Atomic Theory: Basic Atomic Theory History Bohr Model Basic Atomic Theory: Basic Atomic Theory History Major accomplishments 1897 Thomson discovers the electron 1900 Planck develops quantum theory 1905 Einstein publishes relativity and photon theories 1911 Rutherford presents nuclear model 1913 Bohr proposes atomic model 1914-1918 World War I 1924 De Broglie publishes wave theory of matter 1926 Shrodinger develops wave equation 1927 Heisenberg presents uncertainty principle 1932 Chadwick discovers the neutron Basic Atomic Theory: Basic Atomic Theory Atomic Structure The Three Subatomic Particles Proton Electron Neutron Basic Atomic Theory: Basic Atomic Theory Atomic Structure The Three Subatomic Particles 1 amu = 1.6605 x 10 -24 g 1 amu = 1/12 the mass of C-12 Basic Atomic Theory: Basic Atomic Theory Atomic Structure Mass Number (A) = number of protons and neutrons Atomic Number (Z) = number of protons Charge (C) = number of electrons lost or gained X C A Z F - 19 9 Ca +2 40 20 Basic Atomic Theory: Basic Atomic Theory Atomic Structure Isotopes Atoms of an element that have different numbers of neutrons and therefore different mass numbers 28 Si, 29 Si and 30 Si Basic Atomic Theory: Basic Atomic Theory Atomic Structure Atomic weight (or atomic mass) The average of the masses of an element’s naturally occurring isotopes weighted according to their abundances 107.87 amu Basic Atomic Theory: Basic Atomic Theory Atomic Structure Atomic weight (or atomic mass) Basic Atomic Theory: Basic Atomic Theory Quantum-mechanical model of the atom An atom has certain allowed quantities of energy due to the allowed frequencies of the electron whose behavior is wavelike and whose exact location is impossible to know. Schrodinger equation – the solution arises to atomic orbitals Basic Atomic Theory: Basic Atomic Theory Quantum-mechanical model of the atom We cannot know precisely where the electron is at any moment, but we can describe where it probably is, that is, where it is most likely to be found, or where it spends most of its time. Basic Atomic Theory: Basic Atomic Theory Quantum numbers of an atomic orbital An atomic orbital is specified by three quantum numbers Principal quantum number ( n ) is a positive integer (1,2,3,..). Indicates the size of the orbital Distance from the nucleus Specifies the energy level Basic Atomic Theory: Basic Atomic Theory Quantum numbers of an atomic orbital An atomic orbital is specified by three quantum numbers 2. Angular momentum quantum number ( l ) is an integer from 0 to n-1 Related to the shape of the orbital Sometimes referred to as the orbital shape (or azimuthal ) quantum number The number of possible l values equals the value of n . Ex. n = 3; l = 0,1 and2 (3 values) Basic Atomic Theory: Basic Atomic Theory Quantum numbers of an atomic orbital An atomic orbital is specified by three quantum numbers 3. Magnetic quantum number (m l ) is an integer from -1 through 0 to +1. It prescribes the orientation of the orbital in the space around the nucleus Sometimes called as the orbital-orientation quantum number No. of possible m l values equals the number of orbitals , whichis 2 l +1 Basic Atomic Theory: Basic Atomic Theory Quantum numbers of an atomic orbital The hierarchy of quantum numbers for atomic orbitals Total number of orbitals = n 2 Basic Atomic Theory: Basic Atomic Theory Quantum numbers of an atomic orbital What values of the angular momentum ( l) and magnetic (ml) quantum numbers are allowed for a principal quantum number ( n) of 3? How many orbitals exist for n = 3? Basic Atomic Theory: Basic Atomic Theory Quantum numbers of an atomic orbital n = level or shell l = sublevel or subshell 0 = s 2 = d 1 = p 3 = f sublevels are named by joining the n value and the letter designation n = 2, l = 0 is called the 2s sublevel Basic Atomic Theory: Basic Atomic Theory Quantum numbers of an atomic orbital m l = orbital Each allowed combination of n, l and m l values specifies one of the atom’s orbitals describing its size , shape and orientation . Basic Atomic Theory: Basic Atomic Theory Shapes and orientations of atomic orbitals Basic Atomic Theory: Basic Atomic Theory Shapes and orientations of atomic orbitals Basic Atomic Theory: Basic Atomic Theory Electronic configuration Basic Atomic Theory: Basic Atomic Theory Electronic configuration Use of quantum numbers in writing the electronic configuration Basic Atomic Theory: Basic Atomic Theory Electronic configuration Arrangement of elements according to sublevel being filled Basic Atomic Theory: Basic Atomic Theory Electronic configuration Orbital diagrams and electron configurations Basic Atomic Theory: Basic Atomic Theory Electronic configuration Noble-gas electronic configuration The Periodic System: The Periodic System Development of the Periodic Table Johann Dobereiner 1829 1865 “Triads” 1862 1869 1913 The Periodic System: The Periodic System Development of the Periodic Table John Newlands “Law of Octaves” 1829 1865 1862 1869 1913 The Periodic System: The Periodic System Development of the Periodic Table Julius Lothar Mayer First to build the periodic table of elements 1829 1865 1862 1869 1913 The Periodic System: The Periodic System Development of the Periodic Table Dmitri Mendeleev Periodic Table according to increasing atomic weights 1829 1865 1862 1869 1913 The Periodic System: The Periodic System Development of the Periodic Table Henry Moseley Corrected some items in the periodic table made by Mendeleev 1829 1865 1862 1869 1913 The Periodic System: The Periodic System The Periodic Table Classification of Elements The Periodic System: The Periodic System Periodic Trends Metallic property Atomic radius Ionization energy Electron affinity Electronegativity Half the distance between the nuclei of identical neighboring atoms Period increase increase Group See Figure The Periodic System: The Periodic System Periodic Trends Relative atomic radii for the representative elements Metallic property Atomic radius Ionization energy Electron affinity Electronegativity The Periodic System: The Periodic System Periodic Trends The looseness of the outermost electrons Period Group increase increase Metallic property Atomic radius Ionization energy Electron affinity Electronegativity The Periodic System: Periodic Trends The Periodic System The amount of energy required to remove the outermost electron Period Group increase increase Metallic property Atomic radius Ionization energy Electron affinity Electronegativity See Figure The Periodic System: The Periodic System Periodic Trends <<back The Periodic System: The Periodic System Periodic Trends The amount of energy released when an atom gains electrons Period Group increase increase Metallic property Atomic radius Ionization energy Electron affinity Electronegativity The Periodic System: Periodic Trends The Periodic System Ability of an atom to attract electrons toward itself Period Group increase increase Metallic property Atomic radius Ionization energy Electron affinity Electronegativity Valency and Oxidation Numbers: Valency and Oxidation Numbers Access denied... Chemical Bonding: Chemical Bonding Access denied... Chemical Nomenclature: Chemical Nomenclature Access denied... Chemical Reactions: Chemical Reactions Access denied... Stoichiometry: Stoichiometry Access denied... Solutions: Solutions Access denied...

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