Published on March 27, 2008
United States: United States Motto In God We Trust The Melting Pot: The Melting Pot The melting pot is a metaphor for the way in which homogeneous societies develop, in which the ingredients in the pot (people of different cultures, races and religions) are combined so as to develop a multi-ethnic society. The term, which originates from the United States, is often used to describe societies experiencing large scale immigration from many different countries. America was founded by the English, But also by the Germans, Dutch, and French. The principle still sticks; Our heritage is mixed. So any kid could be the president. You simply melt right in, It doesn't matter what your skin. It doesn't matter where you're from, Or your religion, you jump right in To the great American melting pot. The great American melting pot. Ooh, what a stew, red, white, and blue Study Questions: Study Questions 11 C-p546-547 Outline of the presentation : Outline of the presentation The United States at a Glance Problems of Affluence Economic Development Urban Landscapes Regions of the Untied States The United States at a Glance: The United States at a Glance Scope of United States North: Canada South: Mexico East : Atlantic Ocean West : Pacific Ocean Total : 48 states & 2 The state of Alaska is in the northwest of the continent, with Canada to its east and Russia to the west across the Bering Strait. The state of Hawaii is in the mid-Pacific. The United States also possesses several territories, that are scattered around the Caribbean and Pacific. Problems of Affluence: Problems of Affluence Gap between the Rich and the Poor Congregation and Segregation Environmental Impact of Affluence: Disproportionate Consumption Gap between the Rich and the Poor: Gap between the Rich and the Poor Skilled worker vs unskilled workers Double-income vs single parents 2005 US income Distribution Tax the wealth to help the poor for welfare, public health, and infrastructure Congregation and Segregation: Congregation and Segregation Congregation High income-earning people have their own choices with respect where they live according to similar socioeconomic standing and cultural tastes (shopping, ethnic restaurants, cinemas, church…) Segregation Less affluent groups in U.S. Society have fewer opportunities for choosing where they live and become segregated into communities that more affluent groups avoid. Such segregated groups often occupy inner-city areas Environmental Impact of Affluence: Disproportionate Consumption: Environmental Impact of Affluence: Disproportionate Consumption One problem of affluence result from the environmental impacts of intensive use and extraction of resource. The United States is the largest energy consumer in terms of total use, using 100 quadrillion BTU in 2005. (4.5% world population consumes 40 % world oil products in 1970) Environmental legislation passed by the United States in 1970s is helpful to improve the air and water quality. However, such legislations , sometimes, led to the relocation of the most polluting industries to more materially impoverished countries. Economic Development: Economic Development Commercial Farming Basis Manufacturing Becomes Center Service Industries Regional Policy Commercial Farming Basis: Commercial Farming Basis In the 1990s, many farmers in the U.S heartland found that falling or static prices for their products could not sustain their debts on sophisticated equipment. Some returned to lower-cost farming using less equipment and fertilizer. In 1996s, the federal government ended its controls on farming, more agricultural products were exported to Mexico and China. Manufacturing Becomes Center: Manufacturing Becomes Center A major growth in manufacturing occurred after the 1860s with the adoption of steel production and the new possibilities. In 1860s the value of U. S manufactured goods exceeded the value of commercial farm products for the first time. Until 1950, manufacturing was the primary engine fueling the expansion of the U. S. economy. After WWII, manufacturing industries expanded along the west coast and in the Southern United States. Constructing interstate highways, distributing electricity to rural areas, and developing a network of airline routes facilitated the wider geographic diffusion of manufacturing industries since 1956. The U. S. Is the world leader in applying high technology to manufacturing an service industries. (Silicon Valley of CA, metropolitan Boston, metropolitan Washington D. C, the research region in North Carolina, metropolitan Austin, Texas, the Denver-Boulder region in eastern Colorado…) Service Industry: Service Industry 42 million visitors coming to the States in 2002 56 million American visitors going other countries in 2002 Regional Policy: Regional Policy The imbalance of regional development (the favored regions vs less fortunate regions) during 1900s led to attacks by different regional policies. The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) is a federally owned corporation in the United States created by congressional charter in May 1933 A.D. to provide navigation, flood control, electricity generation, fertilizer manufacturing, and economic development in the Tennessee Valley, a region particularly impacted by the Great Depression. The TVA was envisioned not only as an electricity provider, but also as a regional economic development agency that would use federal experts and electricity to rapidly modernize the region's economy and society. Urban Landscapes: Urban Landscapes Preindustrial U. S. Towns Industrial and Commercial Cities Post-1945 Cities Postindustrial Cities Centrification Preindustrial U. S. Towns: Preindustrial U. S. Towns Industrial and Commercial Cities: Industrial and Commercial Cities Central business districts (CBDs) in late 1800s and early 1900s. Shops, banks, and other financial services were concentrated due to the rapid growth of manufacturing industry and the railroad network. Concentric pattern of urban zones in 1920s. By 1920 American cities often evolved into a concentric pattern of urban zones around the CBD, with poorer housing in inner suburbs and more affluent zones beyond. Postindustrial Cities: Postindustrial Cities 1970s saw the emerging of “edge city” , which coined for new exurban developments relying primarily on car and truck transport and secondarily on air travel. Edge cities include large developments of shopping malls, offices, warehouses, and factories, located on the edge of major metropolitan areas. Gentrification: Gentrification Gentrification is a phenomenon in which low-cost, physically deteriorated neighborhoods undergo physical renovation and an increase in property values, along with an influx of wealthier residents who may displace the prior residents. Traditionally the largest African-American community in the U.S., Bedford-Stuyvesant in New York City is now undergoing the rapid gentrification of (mostly white) artists and bohemians. Regions of the Untied States: Regions of the Untied States New England Megalopolis Manufacturing Belt Appalachia U.S. Heartland: Midwest and Great Plains The South Western Mountains Pacific Coast Alaska and Hawaii New Inland(Libby Pond Gorham New Hampshire New England US Autumn) : New Inland (Libby Pond Gorham New Hampshire New England US Autumn) “I think if I had to show someone New England only at one instant, in one time and place, it would have to be this: from a canoe suspended on a silver river, surrounded by the great, silent autumnal explosions of the trees. On the hills the evergreens stand unchanging…Scattered in abstract patterns through their ranks, the deciduous trees, produce the glorious golds, or angels, reds, and purples” (Ogden Tanner) New England: New England Six States: Maine, Mass, New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia. The region where first Europeans settlers landed in North America Birthplace of the nation of the United States. High-education area leads to high-tech industry Megalopolis: Megalopolis The term was first used in the United States by Jean Gottmann in 1957, to describe the huge urban area along the Eastern seaboard of the U.S. from Boston, Massachusetts to Washington, D.C. Baltimore, Philadelphia, New York, and some urban cities between Boston and Washington D. C. 50 million people 1/6 nation’s population Manufacturing Belt: Manufacturing Belt The northern sections of Indiana and Ohio; the Lower Peninsula of Michigan; New York, especially around Buffalo; New York City and Northern New Jersey; most of Pennsylvania; and the northern part of West Virginia, particularly the Northern Panhandle. Other cities such as Baltimore, Maryland, and Wilmington, Delaware which share important economic characteristics are sometimes included. Saint Louis, Missouri may be considered to be a manufacturing center Manufacturing Belt: Manufacturing Belt area from Boston—New York City-Philadelphia—Pittsburgh,--Cleveland—Detroit—Chicago Manufacturing industry dominated from 1800s-1900s Pittsburgh: textile and metal goods Cleveland: Steel and heavy engineering Detroit: automobile and truck Chicago: engineering and farming machinery 2/3 US manufactured products before WWII Appalachia: Appalachia Appalachia is a term used to describe a region in the eastern United States that stretches from southern New York state to northern Alabama, Mississippi, and Georgia. Although parts of the Appalachian Mountains extend through Maine into Canada, New England is usually excluded from the definition of Appalachia Appalachia: Appalachia Over twenty million people live in Appalachia, an area roughly the size of the United Kingdom, covering mostly mountainous, often isolated areas from the border of Mississippi and Alabama in the south to Pennsylvania and New York in the north. Appalachia also includes parts of the states of Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, Kentucky, Ohio, Maryland, and the entire state of West Virginia. The region contains few intermediate-sized cities, and only two large metropolitan areas are located entirely within the region—Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and Knoxville, Tennessee. Appalachia: Appalachia Western Virginia and eastern Tennessee from central Appalachia and remains one of the poorest parts of the United States. Mining industry (coal) Oak Ridge atomic laboratories and Huntsville rocket center U.S. Heartland: Midwest and Great Plains: U.S. Heartland: Midwest and Great Plains North of the Ohio River and the Ozark Mountains 8 top US agricultural states “breadbasket of US) Midwest—eight states of the Corn Belt and Great Lakes area The Great Plain includes North and South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma, and part of Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, and northern Texas Iowa & Illinois—corn Belt WIS—Dairy Belt North & South Dakota—Spring Wheat Nebraska & Kansas – Winter Wheat Midwest: Midwest Midwest refers Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Ohio, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota and Wisconsin Great Plains: Great Plains This area covers parts of the U.S. states of Colorado, Kansas, Montana, Nebraska, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas and Wyoming, ". The South: The South The South Atlantic States Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia, The East South Central States: Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi Tennessee The West South Central States: Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma Texas The South : The South from the southern Atlantic coastal plain westward to the southern Mississippi River and beyond into Eastern Texas Cultural identity of the south: colonial migration pattern , agricultural practice, and membership of Confederacy states in the Civil War Plantation economy Real change in the south happened in the Civil Rights of African Americans in 1960s. Western Mountains: Western Mountains The west 1/3 of the United States is a mountainous region. The mountain block much of the humid westerly winds flowing into the region from the Pacific Ocean, resulting in vast arid rain shadow areas throughout the interior. Large portion of this region is sparsely settled, much of which are owned by federal government as national parks national forests and grazing lands. In the north part of this regions there remain such cities as Las Vegas, Nevada, Phoenix, Arizona, Salt Lake City, Utah.. In the south part of this region there live Hispanic people in the border area between US and Mexico. Pacific Coast: Pacific Coast California, Oregon Washington. Arizona and Nevada, while not coastal states, are also often included in the West Coast due to their proximity to the Pacific Coast and their economic and cultural ties to California (such as Arizona's two largest universities which are members of the Pacific 10 Conference). Pacific Coast: Pacific Coast From Seattle –San Diego (second nation core) Seattle, Los Angels/Long Beach are major world ports This region is now US door to the world’s most rapidly growing countries (Five of California top 11 banks are Japanese-owned, 30 of the smaller ones are backed by Chinese money. Half of the 1,400 Taiwanese corporations in the States are based in California) This region also has trading links to Europe and Latin America (Southern California has the highest proportion of Hispanic Americans in the country . 35.5% of whole population in 2005. Alaska and Hawaii: Alaska and Hawaii Alaska The largest state with the least population The Alaska Range and the Brooks Range cover much of Alaska Alaskan Pipeline (Why do you think oil is sent through the pipeline, instead of being trucked across Alaska?) Hawaii Consist of 8 main islands and 100 small islands Tourism for mainland Americans and Asians Naval stations. Alaska: Alaska The area that became Alaska was purchased from Russia on March 30, 1867. The land became the 49th state of the U.S. on January 3, 1959. Hawaii: Hawaii The State of Hawaii is located on an archipelago in the central Pacific Ocean southwest of the continental United States, southeast of Japan, and northeast of Australia. The state was admitted to the Union on August 21, 1959, making it the 50th state.