Geologist

Information about Geologist

Published on August 9, 2014

Author: Boyscouts

Source: authorstream.com

Content

Geologist: Geologist PowerPoint Presentation: 1. Collect five geologic specimens that have important uses. PowerPoint Presentation: Fossil Mineral PowerPoint Presentation: Geologist’s Equipment : Safety Glasses Magnifier Geologist’s hammer Cold chisel – ½ “ X 1” Notebook Storage bag Gloves Day Pack for carrying supplies PowerPoint Presentation: Melting Igneous Rock Metamorphic Rock Molten Rock Sediment Sedimentary Rock The Rock Cycle While most think of rocks as static, inanimate objects, they have a dynamic ‘life’ cycle and undergo continual transformation. cooling Erosion, transport & deposition Heat & Pressure Heat & Pressure Compression & cementation of sediments & organics Erosion, transport & deposition Erosion, transport & deposition PowerPoint Presentation: Shark’s Teeth Fossil Mineral Quartz Lava Marble Limestone PowerPoint Presentation: 2. Rocks and minerals are used in metals, glass, jewelry, road-building products, and fertilizer. Give examples of minerals used in these products. Metals: Glass Jewelry Obsidian is volcanic glass Quartz Ruby Sand Sapphire Silver Turquoise copper, silver, tin, lead, iron and gold. PowerPoint Presentation: 2. Rocks and minerals are used in metals, glass, jewelry, road-building products, and fertilizer. Give examples of minerals used in these products. And Fertilizer Road-Building Products A perlite is an obsidian, or other vitreous rock with a concentric structure and which is expansible by heating. Concrete pavements (specifically, Portland cement concrete) are created using a concrete mix of Portland cement, gravel, and sand. PowerPoint Presentation: Shark’s Teeth Fossil Mineral Quartz Lava Marble Limestone Granite Sandstone Bones Slate Sulphur PowerPoint Presentation: 3. Make a scale of mineral hardness for objects found at home. Show how to use the scale by finding the relative hardness of three samples. Scale Number Mineral Example Scratch Test For this you need a fingernail, a penny, a steel knife blade, an old glass jar or shard, and maybe Mom's diamond ring. Then use the Moh's hardness scale (the scale on page 186 of the handbook). Another source assigned these hardness numbers: fingernail - 2.3, penny - 3.0, knife blade - 5.5 glass - 6.5. Make a number line with the numbers 1 to 10 marked at intervals. Try three of the sample rocks from the collection in #2 with scratches from your fingernail, penny, knife blade and glass. Based on what scratches what, label the number line with the samples. For example, if you have a rock that scratches a penny, but it in turn can be scratched by the knife, it's between 2.3 and 3.0 on the number line. PowerPoint Presentation: 4. List some of the geologic materials used in building your home. LIMESTONE: A sedimentary rock, it is used mainly in the manufacture of Portland cement, the production of lime, manufacture of paper, petrochemicals, insecticides, linoleum, fiberglass, glass, carpet backing and as the coating on many types of chewing gum. GRANITE: An igneous-plutonic rock, medium to coarse-grained that is high in silica, potassium, sodium and quartz but low in calcium, iron and magnesium. It is widely used for architectural construction, ornamental stone and monuments. MARBLE: A metamorphic even-granular grain to medium grained and may be uneven granular and coarse grained in calc-silicate rock. The normal color is white but accessory minerals act as coloring agents and may produce a variety of colors. Depending upon its purity, texture, color and marbled pattern it is quarried for use as dimension stone for statuary, architectural and ornamental purposes. Dolomite rich marble may be a source for magnesium and is used as an ingredient in the manufacture of refracting materials. SHALE: A sedimentary rock, well stratified in thin beds. It splits unevenly more or less parallel to bedding plane and may contain fossils. It can be a component of bricks and cement. PowerPoint Presentation: 5. Make a drawing that shows the cause of a volcano , a geyser, or an earthquake. The buoyancy and the pressure of the gas within the earth’s crust cause the volcano to erupt. Magma is formed when the upper mantle of the earth melts. A volcano is erupted when the magma (the hot liquid) rises upwards by the pressure of gas that is dissolved in it. This is one of the three predominant theories. According to the second theory, magma contains dissolved substances such as water, sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide. The solubility of the gases is high as the pressure increases. The solubility of water decreases as the magma moves closer to the earth’s surface and eventually separates from the magma. When the ratio of the gases becomes more in magma it causes the magma to disintegrate into pyroclasts , a combination of partially molten and solid fragments, and the volcano erupts explosively. The third theory says that a volcano erupts when new magma is injected into a chamber that is already brimming with magma of similar or different compositions. The eruption occurs when the magma moves upwards due to the injection of new magma. PowerPoint Presentation: 5. Make a drawing that shows the cause of a volcano, a geyser, or an earthquake. You can see the upwelling molten rock in mid-ocean forcing the plates that form the ocean bottom apart. At the left side of the diagram, you can see the end of a plate meeting a second ocean-bottom plate. It is forced downward; this is called subduction . At the same time, the plate on the left rides up, creating mountains which form islands above the water's surface; magma that escapes also causes volcanoes. At the right, the same thing happens when the ocean plate meets a continental plate; mountains are thrust up. Some of them may be volcanic. PowerPoint Presentation: 5. Make a drawing that shows the cause of a volcano, a geyser , or an earthquake. Steam rises from heated water 2. Pulses of water swell upward 3. Surface is broken 4. Ejected water spouts upward and falls back Geyser activity, like all hot spring activity, is caused by surface water gradually seeping down through the ground until it meets rock heated by magma. The geothermally heated water then rises back toward the surface by convection through porous and fractured rocks. Geysers differ from non-eruptive hot springs in their subterranean structure; many consist of a small vent at the surface connected to one or more narrow tubes that lead to underground reservoirs of water. As the geyser fills, the water at the top of the column cools off, but because of the narrowness of the channel, convective cooling of the water in the reservoir is impossible. The cooler water above presses down on the hotter water beneath, not unlike the lid of a pressure cooker, allowing the water in the reservoir to become superheated, i.e. to remain liquid at temperatures well above the standard-pressure boiling point. The rocks in the nearby region produce a material called geyserite . Geyserite —mostly silicon dioxide (SiO 2 ), is dissolved from the rocks and gets deposited on the walls of the geyser's plumbing system and on the surface. The deposits make the channels carrying the water up to the surface pressure-tight. This allows the pressure to be carried all the way to the top and not be leaked out into the loose gravel or soil that are normally under the geyser fields PowerPoint Presentation: 5. Make a drawing that shows the cause of a volcano, a geyser, or an earthquake . The surface of the Earth is in continuous slow motion. This is plate tectonics--the motion of immense rigid plates at the surface of the Earth in response to flow of rock within the Earth. The plates cover the entire surface of the globe. Since they are all moving they rub against each other in some places (like the San Andreas Fault in California), sink beneath each other in others (like the Peru-Chile Trench along the western border of South America), or spread apart from each other (like the Mid-Atlantic Ridge). At such places the motion isn't smooth--the plates are stuck together at the edges but the rest of each plate is continuing to move, so the rocks along the edges are distorted (what we call "strain"). As the motion continues, the strain builds up to the point where the rock cannot withstand any more bending. With a lurch, the rock breaks and the two sides move. An earthquake is the shaking that radiates out from the breaking rock. Fault in shales near Adelaide, Australia PowerPoint Presentation: Shark’s Teeth Fossil Mineral Quartz Lava Marble Limestone Granite Sandstone Bones Slate Sulphur Graphite Wood Schist Pumice Mudstone PowerPoint Presentation: 6. Explain one way in which mountains are formed. Why are seashells found on Mt. Everest? Millions of years ago, Mt. Everest was not a mountain at all. It was underneath the ocean! A lot has changed since then. The outer skin of the earth – both land and sea – rides on gigantic “plates”. Over millions of years, these moving plates collide with one another to form spectacular mountains. PowerPoint Presentation: 7. Describe what a fossil is. How is it used to tell how old a formation is? Find two examples of fossils in your area. Fossils are the preserved remains or traces of animals, plants, and other organisms from the remote past. The fossil record was one of the early sources of data relevant to the study of evolution and continues to be relevant to the history of life on Earth. Paleontologists examine the fossil record in order to understand the process of evolution and the way particular species have evolved. PowerPoint Presentation: 8. Take a field trip to a geological site, geological laboratory, or rock show. Discuss what you learned at your next Webelos den meeting. PowerPoint Presentation: Shark’s Teeth Fossil Mineral Quartz Lava Marble Limestone Granite Sandstone Bones Slate Sulphur Graphite Wood Slate Pumice Mudstone Minerals make rocks, rocks don’t make minerals PowerPoint Presentation: Rock candy is a simple sugar candy that can double as a science experiment. The process can take up to a week, but it’s fun to watch the sugar crystals growing over time. Note that the exact quantity of sugar syrup you will use depends on the size of the jar you have. If you want to make several pieces of rock candy, use multiple jars and skewers, and double or triple the sugar syrup solution as necessary. Ingredients: 2 cups water 4 cups granulated sugar 1/2-1 tsp flavoring extract or oil (optional) food coloring (optional) glass jar skewer or thread (see below) Preparation: 1. Prepare your materials: wash a glass jar thoroughly with hot water to clean it. Cut a length of thick cotton thread a few inches longer than the height of the jar, and tape it to a pencil. Place the pencil across the lip of the jar, and wind it until the thread is hanging about 1 inch from the bottom of the jar. Attach a paper clip to the bottom of the thread to weight it and ensure it hangs straight down. Alternately, you can use a wooden skewer as the base of your rock candy, and use clothespins balanced across the top of the jar to clip it into place. PowerPoint Presentation: 9. While you are a Webelos Scout, earn the Cub Scout Academics belt loop for Geology. Belt Loop Complete these three requirements: 1. Define geology. 2. Collect a sample of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks. Explain how each was formed. 3. Explain the difference between a rock and a mineral . PowerPoint Presentation: 9. While you are a Webelos Scout, earn the Cub Scout Academics belt loop for Geology. Belt Loop Complete these three requirements: Define geology. Geology is the science and study of the solid Earth and the processes by which it is shaped and changed. Geology provides primary evidence for plate tectonics, the history of life and evolution, and past climates. In modern times, geology is commercially important for mineral and hydrocarbon exploration, evaluating water resources, is publicly important for predicting and understanding natural hazards, understanding and remediating environmental problems, and understanding past climate change, plays an essential role in geotechnical engineering, and is a major academic discipline. PowerPoint Presentation: 9. While you are a Webelos Scout, earn the Cub Scout Academics belt loop for Geology. Belt Loop Complete these three requirements: 2. Collect a sample of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks. Explain how each was formed. Igneous : Igneous rock is any rock made by the cooling of magma or lava. Sedimentary : Sedimentary is gravel, sand, clay or soil that settles out of water in river beds, ponds, lakes and oceans. Metamorphic : Metamorphic rock has been through a process much like baking, change is caused by intense heat and great pressure deep in the earth. PowerPoint Presentation: 9. While you are a Webelos Scout, earn the Cub Scout Academics belt loop for Geology. Belt Loop Complete these three requirements: 2. Collect a sample of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks. Explain how each was formed. Igneous : Igneous rock is any rock made by the cooling of magma or lava. PowerPoint Presentation: 9. While you are a Webelos Scout, earn the Cub Scout Academics belt loop for Geology. Belt Loop Complete these three requirements: 2. Collect a sample of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks. Explain how each was formed. Sedimentary : Sedimentary is gravel, sand, clay or soil that settles out of water in river beds, ponds, lakes and oceans. PowerPoint Presentation: 9. While you are a Webelos Scout, earn the Cub Scout Academics belt loop for Geology. Belt Loop Complete these three requirements: 2. Collect a sample of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks. Explain how each was formed. Metamorphic : Metamorphic rock has been through a process much like baking, change is caused by intense heat and great pressure deep in the earth. PowerPoint Presentation: 9. While you are a Webelos Scout, earn the Cub Scout Academics belt loop for Geology. Belt Loop Complete these three requirements: 3. Explain the difference between a rock and a mineral . A rock is composed of combinations of minerals, each mineral having its own chemical formula and crystalline structure. Minerals are composed of an element or combination of elements. Granite, for instance, is an intrusive igneous rock composed of the minerals quartz, feldspar, mica, hornblende, and other combinations or ratios of minerals. A mineral is a naturally-occurring inorganic (there are some exceptions to this) crystalline solid (though mercury is regarded as a mineral) with a specific chemical composition and a characteristic internal regular geometric arrangement of atoms, sometimes expressed as natural crystal faces. A rock is an aggregate of one (such as quartzite) or more (such as granite) mineral particles formed through either crystallization of molten magma (igneous rocks), settling of particles (sedimentary rocks), or reheating and pressure applied to pre-existing rocks (metamorphic rocks), with no set chemical composition or atomic structure. PowerPoint Presentation: Webelos Pack 195 Grand Prairie, tx

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