Published on August 7, 2007
Global Lessons: : Global Lessons: First 4-6 months of the Tsunami Response Objectives: Objectives Highlight emerging issues, findings, lessons. Global: repeated across several reports (not sourced). Commonplace. Art not science. Key Messages from UN / National Government Workshops: Lessons need to have broad scope and be relevant for more frequent, smaller-scale disasters, given vulnerability of the region. Lessons are best if captured, processed and disseminated in the form of policy advice and good practice to guide future post-disaster interventions. Source Material : Source Material 27 documents (annexed). Total: c. 40 Focus: Region/global: 14 Indonesia: 10 Sri Lanka: 6 Agency Type: 9: NGOs (incl 2 DEC studies) 10: UN andamp; World Bank 8: Other, eg, donors andamp; research institutes Guide to Document: Guide to Document Key DAC Criteria: Effectiveness andamp; timeliness Relevance andamp; appropriateness Coverage / needs assessment (incl gender andamp; vulnerable groups) Connectedness / sustainability (incl policy coherence) Impact Cross-cutting themes: Coordination Beneficiary participation / consultation Role of the military Effectiveness & Timeliness: Effectiveness andamp; Timeliness Effectiveness & Timeliness: Effectiveness andamp; Timeliness Preparedness: greatest global lesson Building preparedness capacity best supports coordination during emergency response. Efficiency The tendency to dump inputs and services - or provide more than can be effectively used - should be curbed through coordination and careful assessment of needs. Quality Nothing replaces presence. Relevance / Appropriateness: Relevance / Appropriateness Food relief The prevailing idea that nutrition is compromised if food is replaced with vouchers or cash needs to be researched; increasingly shown not to be the case. CFW CFW: A short-term solution that should be replaced by sustainable livelihoods options. Important because: As CFW decreases, jealousy and dependency issues occur. It doesn’t reach the most vulnerable. Role of the media Media sensationalism of disease in particular leads to inappropriate use of funds. Coverage / Needs Assessment : Coverage / Needs Assessment Needs assessments As information needed changes over time the assessment strategies for collecting it must also change. As time moves on families meet some of their own needs; one size fits all responses become more and more inappropriate. Standardised reporting formats allow users to quickly extract relevant information from shared needs assessment reports – though flexibility to meet novel situations is required. Only collect what you can use. Distribution / targeting Vulnerability depends on threat. Not many organisations were involved in advocacy for the rights of tsunami victims, esp IDPs. Connectedness (sustainability): Connectedness (sustainability) Humanitarian infrastructure / policy coherence Early focus on recovery. Must make sure remaining H need doesn’t fall through gap in shift to recovery. Flexible funding of Flash Appeal allowed funding gap between relief and recovery phase to be closed. However, those countries that didn’t benefit from Flash Apeal (India and Thailand) had difficulty raising resources for recovery. Livelihood development Delays in livelihood development andamp; shelter frustrates IDPs and contributes to mental health problems. Beneficiaries highlight the importance of savings and insurance schemes as well as community led reconstruction and development interventions. Connectedness (sustainability) contd: Connectedness (sustainability) contd Capacity strengthening TENSION: Local distribution systems should be established as soon as possible using community structures. This will help with equitable distribution. However, communities are not egalitarian; using community structures can reinforce existing prejudice. The key must be to ‘build back better’ for viable and sustainable development. Coordination: Coordination Many new actors; unprecedented involvement of business. Need to extend coord mechanisms. Conflict between the coordination role and the implementation one. Significant own funds led to a lack of the coordination that comes with funding from institutional donors or the UN. Problems of coord between national and foreign military due to lack of forces’ agreements. Beneficiary Consultation / Participation : Beneficiary Consultation / Participation Affected communities are key players in early relief efforts, yet not consistently consulted. Puts at risk sensitive issues such as land rights and vulnerable populations (incl migrant workers). Often geared towards efficiency rather than empowerment and ownership. Bibliography: Bibliography BIBLIOGRAPHY ACT International (2005) Real-time Evaluation of ACT International Tsunami Disaster Programs Apeal – Asia Earthquake andamp; Tsunamis (ACT International). June. ALNAP (2005) Tsunami Emergency: Lessons from Previous Natural Disasters (London: ALNAP at ODI). Bilateral Donor Group (2005) Bilateral Verification Missions to Tsunami Affected Districts in Sri Lanka, Jan – Feb 2005. (Sida) Care, CRS, Oxfam, World Vision (2005) Joint AAR of our Humanitarian Response to the Tsunami Crisis: Report of Workshop Proceedings Care International / World Vision International (2005) Multi-agency Evaluation of Tsunami Response: Thailand and Indonesia. Final Report, August 2005. Care International / Oxfam GB / World Vision International (2005) Multi-agency Evaluation of Tsunami Response: India and Sri Lanka. Final Report, July 2005. Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Diseases (CRED; 2005) The Andaman Nicobar earthquake and tsunami 2004: impact on diseases in Indonesia. (Brussels: CRED). July. DEC (2005) Monitoring Mission Report: Indonesia (London: DEC). DEC (2005) Monitoring Mission Report: Sri Lanka (London: DEC). Fritz Institute (2005) Logistics and the Effective Delivery of Humanitarian Relief (New York: Fritz Institute). check it’s NY Global Alliance (2005) Disaster Communication: Lessons from the Asian Tsunami Tragedy (Johannesburg: Global Alliance). Government of Indonesia andamp; UN (2005) Post-Tsunami Lessons Learned and Best Practices Worskhop (GoI andamp; UN). Slide14: HelpAge International (2005) The impact of the Indian Ocean tsunami on older people (London: HelpAge International). ICVA (2005) A Review of NGO Coordination in Aceh Post Earthquake / Tsunami (Geneva: ICVA). International Centre for Migration and Health (2005) Interim Report of a Meeting on Public Health Impact of the Tsunami (Geneva: ICMH). ISDR (2005) 10 Lessons learned from the South Asia Tsunami of 26 December 2004. (Geneva: ISDR). January. UN (2005) Regional Workshop on Lessons Learned and Best Practices in the Response to the Indian Ocean Tsunami: Report and Summary of Main Conclusions (New York: OCHA). ODI (2005) ODI / UNDP Cash Learning Project Workshop in Aceh, Indonesia. Workshop report. (London: ODI). July. OCHA / UNDGO / UNDP (2005) Report of the Joint OCHA / UNDGO / UNDP Mission to Sri Lanka, the Maldives and Indonesia. July. RedR (2005) Internal Evaluation: Phase 1: Learning Support and Capacity Building Programme in Sri Lanka (Feb – June 2005). August. Refugee Studies Centre (2005) Forced Migration Review: Tsunami: Learning from the humanitarian response. Special Issue. July (Oxford: RSC). Report of the Joint OCHA / UNDGO / UNDP Mission to Sri Lanka, the Maldives and Indonesia (publisher?). OCHA (2005) Indonesia Inputs for 6 month commemoration of tsunami (OCHA Indonesia). June. UNDP (2005) The Post-tsunami Recovery in the Indian Ocean: Lessons Learned, Successes, Challenges and Future Action (New York: UNDP Bureau for Crisis Prevention andamp; Recovery). April. UNHCR (2005) Transitional Shelter: Quality, Standards and Upgrading Guidelines World Bank (2005) Rebuilding a Better Aceh and Nias (Washington DC: World Bank), June. World Bank (2005) Lessons from Natural Disasters and Emergency Reconstruction.