Published on January 12, 2008
Decolonization, Neo-colonialism & Globalism: Decolonization, Neo-colonialism & Globalism Differences in regional decolonization Economic development Environmental concerns such as deforestation, desertification Population trends (disease) Leads to the question of “Progress” or modernization and globalization vs. fundamentalism and tribalism Post WWII to present: Post WWII to present End to European colonial Empires Nationalism and independence Different roads to freedom Global impact About 90 new countries Pursuit of modernization Cold War goes global Superpowers Nonaligned nations Cold war ends (effects of dissolution of USSR 1990s) Ethnic conflict New nations seek stability Regional and global organizations UN NGO Global Issues Culture clash Weapon escalation Terrorism Human rights Intervention Population shifts and control Environmental Culture clash Decolonization: Decolonization Despite problems, decolonization did result in independence from Asian, European, and American imperialists in some cases notably India democratic regimes were established and achieved political success although industrialization has been slow to occur, conditions of industrialization no worse than conditions in Europe during eighteenth and nineteenth centuries urban squalor, underemployment, poor health care difficult to overcome burdens of excessive population conditions of limited capitalization, dependency created by external forces and imperialists. Globalization: Globalization Post colonialism Trans and multi-national corporations Modernity Changes in socio-economic patterns Trend towards democracy Positives Lower mortality rate Focus on individual Medical advancements Quality of life and standard of living better? Technological advancements in information storage and communication and architecture Negatives Holocaust Technology of war Pollution New diseases Environmental disasters Hedonism Global Economic Trends: Global Economic Trends Economic interdependence Lenders and debtors affected by debt crisis Environmental damage North Industrial Nations High standard of living Consumer of most of world’s resource South Many socialist countries Poverty Most of the world’s population and resources World Wars set the stage: World Wars set the stage Militarily exhausted European powers taught colonial peoples how to kill whites destroyed aura of invincibility that surrounded European military forced European powers to fall back on indigenous administrators during periods of war forced to grant concessions during wartime in return for promises of military support (often withdrawn after wars leading to discontent) general program of industrialization in many colonies to aid in war effort reduced dependency on European global network rise of Japan weakened European hold on Asia, in general Economic “miracle” – compared to Germany Protectionist Educated skilled workforce Higher rate of personal savings No large military Post war clause forbid military World Global standing significance: World Global standing significance BRIC Brazil Russia India China Asian Tigers Taiwan Singapore Korea Hong Kong Changing patterns of Life: Changing patterns of Life New roles for women Feminist movement Nationalist struggles Science and Technology Green revolution Space race Computer revolution (age of Information to Age of access) Medical breakthroughs Urbanization New definitions of community and older rural beliefs challenged Shantytowns New Global Culture Westernization Preservation of old and blending of artistic tradtions Competing Economic Models: Competing Economic Models After World War II most of Europe was in ruins. One quarter of Germany’s cities were rubble Yugoslavia had lost approximately 10 percent of its population 27 million people had died in the Soviet Union In China, survivors faced famine, disease, civil war, and revolution Britain and France were bankrupt. Forty four nations met at the original session of United Nations in July 1944 at Bretton Woods, New Hampshire to ensure post war economies did not return to the Autarky and Protectionism that had led to the rise of dictators. The Bretton Woods Conference created the International Monetary Fund, as well as the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (The World Bank) Decolonization In Asia: Decolonization In Asia The three most powerful nations in Asia went different ways after World War II. India gained independence, relatively peacefully, in 1947, splitting into India and Pakistan. China rapidly descended into Civil War. The Communists took over all of main land China in 1949. Only Taiwan and a few small islands remained in control of the Nationalists. Japan was totally devastated and occupied by the United States. With considerable help it eventually grew into an economic power by the end of the 1950s Decolonization IndoChina : Decolonization IndoChina French Indochina (Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam) The French granted limited autonomy to Laos and Cambodia after World War II. Negotiations with the Vietminh (Ho Chi Minh’s) government broke down in 1946. War erupted which continued for eight years until the French lost the battle of Dien Bien Phu and 10,000 soldiers. Vietnam split in two at the 17th parallel and elections were supposed to be held. It never happened. SEATO (South East Asian Treaty Organization) to stem the flow of communism. Malaya gained independence from British but asked for help to keep Chinese communists from taking over Philippines Independence from U.S. on July 4, 1946. Indonesia Revolution broke out before the war ended, gained independence in 1948. Decolonization Middle East: Decolonization Middle East After World War II the Middle East became a powder keg of conflicting interests Flood of Jewish refugees from Europe and other parts of the world created considerable conflict Britain turned mandate over to the United Nations for arbitration State of Israel created out of British mandate of Palestine in 1948. Conflict in that region ever since 1954 Egyptian seizure of Suez Channel and nationalization of property 1973 Six Day War India set a positive example: India set a positive example Leadership: dependent on Western-educated elites, particularly at the outset often associated with colonial administration or legal systems Congress Party in India grew out of regional associations of Western-educated Indians later dependent on charismatic leaders capable of appealing to masses (Gandhi, Nehru) Methods: use of non-violent means boycotts, demonstrations, strikes; method formalized by Gandhi. Methods attractive to other colonies--particularly the nonsettler colonies of Africa, where Western-educated elites carried out similar programs to achieve independence. Mohandas K. Gandhi: Mohandas K. Gandhi “Democracy and violence can ill go together. Evolution of democracy is not possible if we are not prepared to hear the other side.” “It may be long before the law of love will be recognized in international affairs. The machinery’s of government stand between and hide the hearts of one people from those of another.” Civil Disobedience....becomes a sacred duty when the state has become lawless or which is the same thing, corrupt. And a citizen who barters with such a state shares the corruption or lawlessness. INC 1885 Satyagraha (Sanskrit, "truth and firmness http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/history/core/pics/0255/img0055.jpg Civil Disobedience vs. Terrorism: Civil Disobedience vs. Terrorism The individual, Thoreau claimed, is "a higher and independent power," from which the state obtains its power. Civil Disobedience Refusal to obey civil laws People practicing civil disobedience break a law because they 1. consider the law unjust 2. want to call attention to its injustice 3. hope to bring about its repeal or amendment. They are also willing to accept any penalty, such as imprisonment, for breaking the law. This is what separates them from other protesters/lawbreakers or terrorists. Not Revolution: Not Revolution Civil disobedience is a symbolic, but nevertheless real, violation of what is considered an unjust law rather than the rejection of a whole system of laws and government. Proponents of such resistance assert that legitimate avenues of change are blocked, and they see themselves as obligated by higher principles or ideals to break a specific law. It is because civil disobedience is an acknowledged crime that it can serve as a protest. By submitting to punishment, the lawbreaker hopes to set a moral example that will provoke the majority or the government to effect a meaningful change through change in law and public policy. The major qualification is that the disobedience be nonviolent. Three types represented by the person who used it: Three types represented by the person who used it Three notable examples of progress were achieved through the practice of civil disobedience in the mid-20th century. The first, the independence of India, was largely a result of the Satyagraha (Sanskrit, "truth and firmness"), programs of passive resistance by Mohandas Gandhi to the British colonial laws. The second involved civil rights legislation in the United States, in which the nonmilitant or non-violent efforts of Martin Luther King, Jr., played a primary role. And the third notable, Nelson Mandela, is now President of the government he helped to adapt, although through more violent methods. Neither of the three wanted to overthrow the government just to change the laws that prevented them from operating on the same scale as everyone else. Characterized by level of violence: Characterized by level of violence Gandhi-Passive Resistance. This is more effective in India because of the numbers of people. Any massive action would totally disrupt governmental activities. King-Non-Violent Resistance. Action against the law other than just marches. Mandela-Militaristic Resistance. The more violent the reaction against the disobedience the more violent the resistance becomes. India vs. Egypt: India vs. Egypt Similarities both nations typified by overwhelming population growth that ate up much of gains both engaged in state stimulation of economy state financed education, land redistribution (although largely unsuccessful) Differences no military intervention in India, retention of civilian rule India had a larger industrial and scientific sector, also better transport and communication infrastructure India had larger middle class than Egypt India state intervention in economy less direct than in Egypt India had greater access to international capitalization. Limits of Decolonization: Limits of Decolonization While political independence was won, otherwise limited changes: non-revolutionary, elite-to-elite transfer of power social hierarchies relatively undisturbed economic power held by indigenous elites with little or no redistribution of wealth continued heavy influence of Western culture; little disruption of Western dominance of international trade or patterns of industrialization continued economic dependence on West or newly arisen industrialized powers of Pacific rim. Link between Decolonization and Globalization: Link between Decolonization and Globalization The economy an society has had some change but not really revolutionary change since 1910. In some ways there have been few changes; economy is still largely dependent on exports, global network; little heavy industrialization, low level of capitalization; social system still, in part, based on society of racial hierarchy; Indians, people of color tend to remain at bottom of social ladder; women have achieved voting rights, but only recently have made direct impacts on political system; political systems whether controlled by caudillo, middle class oligarchy, military, or revolutionary clique’s continue to be dominated by small numbers of powerful people. After these “revolutions” the Military came to forefront during 1960s in fear of Cuban expansion of Marxist revolution; made possible by failure of populist and liberal governments to supply reforms; often supported initially by U.S. as means of opposing communism; tended to conservatism; imposed bureaucratic authoritarian regimes based on military chain of command; heavy use of torture, political repression of opposition; governments lasted until mid-1980s. Comparative Revolutions: Comparative Revolutions Mexican Revolution of 1910 has some similarities with the Cuban revolution of the 1950s. both were launched against long-standing personal rules (Diaz, Batista); both were nationalistic responses to foreign control of internal resources and economy; both involved demands for redistribution of land; both involved what was essentially guerilla warfare against national military forces. the outcomes of the revolutions were different; Cuban revolution resulted in establishment of Marxist-Leninist socialist government; Mexican government enacted constitution of 1917 which appeared to establish liberal democracy; actual government controlled by single party. Also Cuba and Guatemala in the 50’s both based on populist appeal of laboring groups, nationalist expropriation of foreign capital, land redistribution. Guatemalan reform movement under Arevalo and Arbenz halted by intervention of U.S. Central Intelligence Agency in support of business interests while Cuban revolt under Castro resulted in creation of Marxist-Leninist state with economy dependent on Soviet Union;succeeded where Guatemalan thwarted by U.S. intervention. Populist politics: Populist politics Populism in Latin America was typified by mobilization of support from labor, poor; strong nationalism particularly directed against foreign ownership of resources often led by military figures who wished to retain structure of government. Following general failure of liberal governments in Latin America with Great Depression, number of populist movements resulted in conservative, military responses; Peron in Argentina, APRA in Peru, Vargas in Brazil populism continued to play a role in all revolutionary movements since the 1930s. LA and African Neocolonialism = Dependency: LA and African Neocolonialism = Dependency Political instability with Marxist and capitalist influence Continuing friction from racial inequalities Economy drained of natural resources with no opportunity to diversify from its colonial export of cash crops Because of competing loans from US and USSR areas left with large debts in which the lenders tried to exploit Corruption and misconduct of dictators and caudios allowed social issues like health care, education were ignored and the infrastructures weak, including both the political and economic institutions Causes and Impact: Causes and Impact Three main issues lead to decolonization: desire for independence European distraction with internal affairs resentment against discrimination Further issues were promises of independence during WWII, increased education and a wave of nationalism separated Africa from Latin America The results of decolonization including political instability, economic weaknesses and debt lead to dependency of the former colonies Changes in women’s status: Changes in women’s status Early stages of women's education linked to need of Western-educated male leaders for educated wives role of women in nationalist movements increased with development of mass participation in aftermath of World War I Indian women, Egyptian women, market women of West Africa all played major role in popular movements demanding independence had major impact on European colonial powers participation in independence struggles paralleled demands for greater rights in colonial societies led to granting of rights to women including suffrage and legal equality in new nations. Third World Country comparison of women’s rights: Third World Country comparison of women’s rights Greater political rights suffrage almost invariably granted greater legal rights such as access to divorce actual benefits of above limited by traditional social roles few women reached positions of power those that did were related to powerful males no entry into administrations continued subjection in households continued existence of domestic seclusion and veiling particularly in Islamic societies spread of religious fundamentalism has intensified women's subordinate status in most societies. Role of Marxism in Second WorldMao vs. Lenin: Role of Marxism in Second World Mao vs. Lenin Lenin insisted on the leadership of a small cadre of urban workers as the leaders of revolution; peasantry was largely isolated from revolutionary movement purpose of early reforms to build industry Mao declared entire Chinese peasantry a proletariat distrusted small cadres of intellectuals in favor of peasant revolution early emphasis on uplift of peasantry, redistribution of land Mao remained distrustful of small elites, continued to favor peasant revolution; led to series of purges later in Mao's regime. Preconditions of Revolution in both China and its former satellite, Vietnam: Preconditions of Revolution in both China and its former satellite, Vietnam Both suffered heavily from the assaults and exploitive terms of exchange imposed by the imperialist powers; each contended with underdevelopment, overpopulation, and poverty; both saw their ancient traditions, embodied in the Confucian system, collapse in face of outside influence and failure of Confucian-style elites to organize resistance; both countries gained little, if anything, from years of European domination; both already had, prior to Western incursion, a strong sense of identity, common language, and unifying polity. Vietnam and China still regional: Vietnam and China still regional Although traditional imperial, Confucian dynasties were destroyed, some concepts typical of ancient Chinese culture retained still bias against commercial and business classes emphasis on necessity of rulers to promote the welfare of the mass of the people ideological systems stress secular, social harmony lack of religious emphasis continued sense of cultural superiority reassertion of elitist thinking and bureaucratic control in China continued patterns of family and household from past. Vietnam Decolonization differs: Vietnam Decolonization differs Most third world decolonization achieved without violence no tradition of peaceful colonialism as in most third world nations Vietnamese experience totally violent French rule promoted Vietnamese sense of separate identity Confucian tradition regarded French as barbarians any Vietnamese who supported French rule was regarded as a traitor failure of Confucian empire to resist foreigners led to complete abandonment; left no cultural tradition to defend led to radical revolutionary means no strong religious basis as cultural unity French destroyed bourgeois political organizations. 1979 Iranian Revolution and Fundamentalism: 1979 Iranian Revolution and Fundamentalism Revolution aimed at Westernized regime that was demonstrably un-Islamic although composed of indigenous rulers Khomeini claimed to be divinely inspired leader for return to pure forms of Islam typical of the days of the Prophet promised rebels instant paradise should they fall during revolution Fundamentalists attempted to spread Islamic revolution to other neighboring regimes continued conflict of Shi'ite versions of Islam versus Sunnite regimes. Iraq and Sunnis vs. Iran and Shi’ites African Liberation: African Liberation nonsettler colonies vs. those with substantial white settler populations. Although there was some resistance, particularly in the British colonies, nonsettler colonies proceeded to independence more rapidly and without violence best example is Ghana; Kenyatta led nationalist movement that utilized Indian model of non-violent resistance to achieve independence in 1957 white settler colonies resisted independence movements from nationalist groups led to violent resistance in Kenya, Algeria; in both colonies rebellions defeated by colonial powers, but independence granted as a result of war weariness only South Africa able to retain minority, white regime. Apartheid (separateness) Divergence or ConvergenceTribalism vs. MacWorld: Divergence or Convergence Tribalism vs. MacWorld Role of civilizational identity versus the pace of internationalization in twentieth century cultures. Various cultures continue to emphasize traditions that are specific and traditional identification may be through traditional religions Islam, Hinduism ethnic identification, as with Slavic groups in former Yugoslavia or among French-speaking population in Quebec or simply cultural patterns such as centralized state and bureaucratic intervention in China end of cold war has accentuated regional separations. Despite retained individuality, some forces continue to accelerate internationalization: difficulty of isolation speed of transportation and communication world trade, development of international scientific community international artistic styles, popularity of Western fashions, fads, sports such as soccer. Third World CountriesLDC: Third World Countries LDC Population pressure growing populations overwhelm national resources and restrict their ability to achieve economic independence lack of industrialization is complicated by lack of investment capital continued dependence on export of agricultural products, mineral wealth fluctuation of market value of export products continued dependence on global trade network dominated by industrial nations of first and second worlds dramatic population shifts to urban regions that cannot provide employment or housing creation of potentially volatile underemployed populations in cities. Global Economic Organizations: Global Economic Organizations IMF The IMF is an international organization of 182 member countries, established to promote international monetary cooperation, exchange stability, and orderly exchange arrangements; to foster economic growth and high levels of employment; and to provide temporary financial assistance to countries under adequate safeguards to help ease balance of payments adjustment. WBG Founded in 1944, the World Bank Group consists of five closely associated institutions: the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, International Development Association, International Finance Corporation, Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency and the International Center for Settlement of Investment Disputes. Bretton Woods agreements in 1944 created International Bank for Reconstruction and Development NGO’s: NGO’s Non-governmental organizations associated with the United Nations http://www.ngo.org/links/index.htm Economic Regions: Economic Regions NAFTA North Atlantic Trade Organization EU Economic Union OPEC Oil Producing and Exporting Countries GATT General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) which in 1995 became the World Trade Organisation (WTO) Four Tigers: Four Tigers New Period in 20th Century: New Period in 20th Century Criteria established throughout text parallel developments in major civilizations new technologies new political forms tendency toward cultural secularization reshuffling of political boundaries Decolonization loosening of Western geopolitical dominance intensification of international contacts more extensive trade worldwide alliance systems cultural exchanges Slide42: Linkages Among Environmental Issues Water Air Quality Ozone Depletion Desertification Forests Sulfate Aerosols Climate Change Biodiversity Loss Trends?: Trends? Political organization seems to favor continued dominance of democratic parliamentarianism, well established in industrialized countries successful attacks on authoritarian forms of government in Philippines, Korea, many African states, Indonesia and throughout Latin America unclear if new democracies firmly rooted. Economic trends based on industrialization gaps remain wide based on level of industrialization and sophistication of technology Issue of access to technology Industrialization has impact Immigration Intercontinental impact on family Family roles in flux Urbanization Instead of sedentary vs. nomads we now have urbanites vs. ruralitites Maquiladoras: Maquiladoras Foreign-owned, controlled or subcontracted manufacturing plants that process or assemble imported components for export. generally imported duty-free when they come into the US Trend began in 1960’s today less than in 2000 http://students.syr.edu/scool/pie1.gif Outsourcing –Issue of Production vs. Service: Outsourcing – Issue of Production vs. Service Global Value Chain Commodity chains (luxury and service markets vs. self-sustaining) Global Digital Divide Elbe-Triest Line becomes the North – South Divide NIE’s Newly Industrialized Economies increases in the labor force and technology - together According to leading economists, while the industrial countries will be faced with is a rather dramatic slowing of labor force growth the developing world will continue to experience strong growth in its labor force in the years ahead Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Neo-colonialism: Neo-colonialism the continued relegation of the Third World to economic dependency after decolonization Third World countries Issues of culture Sara vs. Barbie Sara was Iranian doll Sustainable Development vs. Dependency theory: Sustainable Development vs. Dependency theory Traditional Society - ‘constrained by a productivity ceiling’ Preconditions for Take Off - ‘ society in a state of transition’ Take-Off - ‘ Growth becomes an normal condition’ Drive to Maturity - ‘economy capable of move beyond take off industries eg. Innovation occurs.’ The Age of High Mass Consumption - ‘income sufficiently high that mass consumption of durable resources is possible’ Estimated Human Population Over the Past two Millennia (Cohen 1995): Estimated Human Population Over the Past two Millennia (Cohen 1995) Wealth Distribution Today: Wealth Distribution Today In 1970 the richest 10% of the worlds citizens earned 19 times as much as the poorest 10%. By 1997, the ratio had increased to 27:1. In 1997, the wealthiest 1% of the world’s people commanded the same income as the poorest 57%. Just 25 million rich Americans (.4% of the world’s people) had a combined income greater than that of the poorest 2 billion people (43% of the world population). (Income ratios reflect purchasing power parity [data from UNDP 2001]) Population theory: Population theory Thomas Malthus population theory does not take into account increasing technological advances that increase the food supply and environmental use But to keep pace with population growth we might have to increase the food supply by 60 – 100 % As hunger increased there would be more social disorder, riots, wars, plagues - famine. Population checked - at least for awhile. Called Malthusian checks. Argued that “moral restraint” was only hope: no premarital sex, later marriages. Very Victorian. However, didn’t happen as he forecast. Birth rates declined soon after death rates did. Contraception became more widespread. Industrialization and urbanization meant less need for family labor. Child labor laws and mandatory schooling laws meant child had to be supported far longer. Slide51: Food supply Population 1 1 2 2 3 4 4 8 5 10 etc. Persistent Infectious Diseases: Persistent Infectious Diseases Relationship between disease and Political Instability HIV/AIDS Malaria Infant mortality an indicator Life span Literacy rates Sub-Sahara hardest hit Nearly 42 million children in 27 countries will lose one or both parents to AIDS by 2010 19 of the hardest hit countries will be in Sub-Saharan Africa. Factors contributing to Infectious Disease: Factors contributing to Infectious Disease http://www.cia.gov/cia/reports/nie/report/nie99-17d.html Globalization, Population growth and deforestation and desertification: Globalization, Population growth and deforestation and desertification The impact of Deforestation is not just that we don’t have wood any more Who does it Slash and burn to clear for crops Need food Not having the forests alters the environment What is progress?: What is progress? Progress advances in technological sophistication and scientific knowledge allows ability to manage human and natural environment, with better means to preserve health and improve life expectancy increased education improvement in status of women and treatment of children abolition of slavery. Regression: technologies applied to war allowed greater destructive capability intensifying regional conflicts and small wars spread of armament sales, including nuclear weapons increasing intolerance in societies such as the Middle East and India. Issues?: Issues? Population growth (6.4 billion) Exhaustion of frontiers Technological advances associated with the "postindustrial world." Environmental degradation In 1960s and 1970s, there was widespread concern that population growth would outstrip production of food and resources and lead to environmental disaster and warfare drop in birth rates has caused this problem to be discounted by 1990s although birth rates remain dangerously high end of "frontiers" means greater potential for friction, seen now in hostility toward immigrants no more population migrations possible, leading to potential conflict over space. Technological developments (computers, genetic engineering, robotics) linked to creation of "post-industrial society" most typical of advanced industrial states led to service-oriented economy with machines performing most industrial tasks and much of agricultural production as well fosters a generally optimistic view of industrialized society, though critics emphasize increase in inequalities in world economy others argue that technological transformations are not fundamental but merely reinforce existing trends. Environmental issues: Environmental issues Access to water Water quality Deforestation leads to desertification Desertification leads to change in climate Mud slides Urban Sprawl Decrease in species on earth Environmental Issues: Environmental Issues Deforestation Damage due to pollution Damage due to commercialization Damage due to land use needs Desertification Acid Rain Radioactive Sites Nitrogen Phosphorus CO2 Great Britain: Great Britain Reluctantly gives up its imperial lands Joins the European Economic Community Moved towards conservatism in the 1980’s under Margaret Thatcher Developing nations: Developing nations In the 21st century the industrialization nations will continue to fall behind the developing nations and will continue to fall behind the developing nations as a percentage of world population: at current rates, 95% of all future population growth will be in developing regions, particularly in Africa and in the Muslim countries In Asia, the populations of China and India continued to grow despite government efforts to reduce family size. Unclear whether these D.N.s will experience the demographic transition seen in the industrialized countries- but fertility rates have fallen some Unequal Development & Movement of Peoples : Unequal Development & Movement of Peoples Since 1945 global economic productivity has created unprecedented level of material abundance. At the same time, industrialized nations enjoy a larger share of the world’s wealth – majority of the world lives in poverty Migration from developing to developed has increased substantially Leads to increase in racial & ethnic tensions Europe & America will face increased numbers of Muslim populations as well as cross-cultural contact AsiaSouthwestern, Central, East: Asia Southwestern, Central, East China: China World: World Slide66: II. The West and the World: Decolonization and the Cold War A. End of Empires Burma Aung San (1915-1947) India Subhas Chandra Bose (1897-1945) National Army, WWII Muhammad Ali Jinnah (1876-1948) Palestine Israel, 1948 Ghana Kwame Nkrumah (1957-1966) Kenya Jomo Kenyatta (1963-1978) Indochina Ho Chi Minh (1890-1969) French defeated, 1954 Algeria Franco-Algerian War, 1954-1962 Slide67: II. The West and the World: Decolonization and the Cold War (A. End of Empires) Kenya Jomo Kenyatta (1963-1978) Indochina Ho Chi Minh (1890-1969) French defeated, 1954 Algeria Franco-Algerian War, 1954-1962 Slide68: American Civil Rights Movement NAACP, 1910 Martin Luther King Jr. (1929-1968) South Africa Afrikaner Nationalist Party from1948 Apartheid "No Trial" Act, 1963 Slide69: Third World Indonesia Ahmed Sukarno (1949-1966) Bandung Conference, 1955 "Nonaligned"