Published on March 9, 2014
Instructional goals and objectives in social studies : Instructional goals and objectives in social studies Planning with the End in Mind Start with the end: Start with the end When planning a trip, what is the first thing you do? PLAN YOUR DESTINATION! After you decide where you are going, then you can… plan your method of transportation (do I take a plane, car or ship?) book your hotel (do I stay in a 3 star or 5 star hotel?) plot your route (do I take the fastest course or choose the scenic route?) g ather your resources (what should I bring with me, and how much money should I take?) The same principles apply to planning a lesson – you start with the end in mind! The rest follows… Start with a Goal: Start with a Goal Every educational activity/lesson should have a goal The goal identifies the destination – it sets the purpose for the lesson activities Goals are written as broad statements that reveal the intended outcome of an educational activity CAUTION: The goal should never focus on what the instructor will do Follow with objectives: Follow with objectives The objectives are the cognitive actions/behaviors that will lead to the goal – they help define the activities in which the students will engage Objectives are written as action statements that reveal the path to be taken in pursuit of the goal CAUTION: Objectives are not procedural activities, but rather cognitive ones Goals vs. objectives: Goals vs. objectives GOALS Broad Statements General Intentions Hard to Measure “State of being” words Words used to identify goals may include: learn, understand, comprehend, appreciate, realize, know, recognize WHAT YOU WANT STUDENTS TO KNOW (cognitive condition) OBJECTIVES Specific Observable Measureable “Action” words W ords used to identify objectives may include: list, analyze, summarize, examine, explore, evaluate, organize, create, interpret WHAT YOU WANT STUDENTS TO BE ABLE TO DO (cognitive behavior) Goals and objectives are often thought of as the same thing. They are not….. Goals and objectives work together: Goals and objectives work together The GOAL of a learning activity is like a target – the goal is the final destination, the end product The OBJECTIVES are like the arrows that help you reach the target – objectives are systematic, cognitive behaviors that will lead to the final destination, the end product The Components of an objective: The Components of an objective A=AUDIENCE - the students or participants, NOT the instructor B=BEHAVIOR - the cognitive activities in which the students will engage C=CONDITION – the learning environment imposed by the instructor D=DEGREE – the level of mastery Audience: Audience In most cases, the audience will be your STUDENTS Occasionally it will be parents or colleagues Keep the specific needs, talents and struggles of your students in mind as you construct objectives Objectives may vary widely based on your intended audience Most objectives start with the audience STUDENTS will be able to…. Behavior: Behavior Behaviors are the cognitive actions in which students engage What are cognitive actions? Cognitive abilities/actions are brain-based skills we need to carry out any task. They have more to do with the mechanisms of how we learn, remember, problem-solve, and pay attention rather than with any actual knowledge Cognitive actions/behaviors are expressed using actions words, such as….classify, judge, select, infer, prioritize, show, apply, describe … The cognitive actions must be observable and measureable In some cases, these actions need to be made explicit and overt so that they can be observed and measured How do we define behaviors?: How do we define behaviors? Benjamin Bloom and his colleagues published a taxonomy of learner behaviors which has been used extensively in educational settings as a conceptual framework for defining instructional objectives The taxonomy categorizes cognitive levels of thinking, ranging from lower-order (knowledge/ comprehension) to higher-order (synthesis/evaluation) Bloom . B. and Krathwolh , D . (1956) Taxonomy of Educational Objectives : The Classification of Educational Goals , New York, Longman Selecting behaviors….: Selecting behaviors…. Bloom’s taxonomy is often used to help select appropriate action words to use in objectives Specific action words are often associated with different levels of the taxonomy Decide first what level of the taxonomy you wish to target, and then select appropriate cognitive actions that will help students meet the lesson goal condition: condition Condition identifies the setting under which the action/behavior is to be demonstrated Conditions may include: how students are to work (i.e., independently or in groups) the activity in which students will demonstrate the cognitive action or behavior (i.e., during a close reading activity, in a class discussion, while working on a project) The specific materials to be used (i.e., employing a document analysis tool, using a map of Africa, with a graphic organizer) Only include conditions that help specifically target the goal CAUTION: If the objective is made clear just by stating the desired performance then don’t add conditions arbitrarily. degree: degree Degree identifies the standard for acceptable demonstration of the cognitive action/behavior What has to happen for the learner to meet the objective? What type of evidence must be present (qualitative or quantitative)? If the standard is qualitative in nature, a quantitative degree is inappropriate…use a qualitative indicator Sample objectives: Sample objectives A = Audience B = Behavior C = Condition D = Degree During a close reading activity , students will analyze mandates imposed on the Colonists by the British (Stamp Act, Townsend Acts, Tea Tax, etc .) and will select and summarize at least 4 tenets of the new laws the Colonists claimed to be unjust . Students will identify 4 types of natural borders and barriers on a map of China , and will analyze, through critical-thinking questions , the impact of China’s geography on the ability of the Chinese government to rule its people and protect its borders Students will use a Venn diagram to compare and contrast the Japanese samurai with the European knight. Students will identify at least 5 similarities and 3 differences . Do the objectives target the goal?: Do the objectives target the goal? GOALS Students will understand the causes of the American Revolution Students will learn how the complexity of China’s geography impacted imperial rule Students will recognize the similarities and differences between samurais and knights OBJECTIVES During a close reading activity, students will analyze mandates imposed on the colonies by the British (Stamp Act, Townsend Acts, Tea Tax, etc.) and will select and summarize at least 4 tenets of the new laws the Colonists claimed to be unjust . Students will identify 4 types of natural borders and barriers on a map of China, and will analyze, through critical-thinking questions, the impact of China’s geography on the ability of the Chinese government to rule its people and protect its borders Students will use a Venn diagram to compare and contrast the Japanese samurai with the European knight. Students will identify at least 5 similarities and 3 differences.