Published on September 13, 2007
The Specific Carbohydrate Diet:Restoring Health Through Diet: The Specific Carbohydrate Diet: Restoring Health Through Diet Detailed in the book: Breaking the Vicious Cycle By Elaine Gottschall Internet Resources: breakingtheviciouscycle.info pecanbread.com The Human GI Tract: The Human GI Tract Food placed in the mouth is ground into finer particles by the teeth, moistened and lubricated by saliva and swallowed into the esophagus and carried by peristalsis to the stomach. The wall of the stomach is lined with millions of gastric glands. Three kinds of cells are found in the gastric glands: parietal cells, 'chief' cells, and mucus-secreting cells. Digestion within the small intestine produces a mixture of disaccharides, peptides, fatty acids, and monoglycerides. The final digestion and absorption of these substances occurs in the villi. Disaccharidases-These enzymes convert disaccharides into their monosaccharide subunits. Maltase hydrolyzes maltose into glucose. Sucrase hydrolyzes sucrose (common table sugar) into glucose and fructose. Lactase hydrolyzes lactose (milk sugar) into glucose and galactose. Fructose simply diffuses into the villi. The Human GI Tract: The Human GI Tract The large intestine receives the liquid residue after digestion and absorption are complete. This residue consists mostly of water as well as materials (e.g. cellulose) that were not digested. It nourishes a large population of bacteria (the contents of the small intestine are normally sterile). Most of these bacteria are harmless. And some are actually helpful, for example, by synthesizing vitamin K. If the large intestine becomes irritated, it may discharge its contents before water reabsorption is complete causing diarrhea. On the other hand, if the colon retains its contents too long, the fecal matter becomes dried out and compressed into hard masses causing constipation. Slide4: Monosaccharides Glucose, fructose and galactose Fruits, most vegetables and honey. Disaccharides Lactose, sucrose, maltose and isomaltose Table sugar, lactose, maple syrup. Polysaccharides Amylopectin and amylose Potatoes, corn, rice, grains and 'grain alternatives' such as quinoa and amaranth. The Vicious Cycle: The Vicious Cycle When carbohydrates are not fully digested and absorbed, they remain in the gut and become nutrition for the microbes. The microbes (both yeast and pathogenic bacteria) digest the unused carbohydrates through the process of fermentation, which produces gases such as methane, carbon dioxide, hydrogen and both lactic and acetic acids along with other toxins. The overgrowth of bacteria and yeast migrates into the small intestine and triggers a worsening cycle of gas and acid production, which further inhibits absorption and leads to yet more harmful by-products of fermentation. The Vicious Cycle: The Vicious Cycle The enzymes on the surface of the small intestines are destroyed by the bacteria, and this further disrupts the digestion and absorption of carbohydrates, leading to further bacterial overgrowth. The last step in carbohydrate digestion takes place at the minute projections called microvilli. Only those carbohydrates which have been properly processed by the enzymes embedded in the microvilli can cross over the barrier and enter the bloodstream. The Vicious Cycle: The Vicious Cycle As both the microbial flora and their by-products damage the mucosal layer of the small intestine, it is provoked to produce excessive protective mucous, which further inhibits digestion and absorption. Damage to the mucosal layer involves injury to the microvilli of the absorbtive cells. These microvilli act as the last barrier between the nutrition taken in and the bloodstream. As absorption is inhibited, folic acid and Vitamin B12 deficiency can lead to impaired development of microvilli, while an abnormally thick layer of mucus prevents contact between microvilli enzymes and the carbohydrates ingested. The Vicious Cycle: The Vicious Cycle The small intestine responds to this spiraling irritation by producing more goblet (mucus-making) cells, creating yet more mucus. Finally as the goblet cells become exhausted, the intestinal surface is bare and is further damaged, and possibly ulcerated. As a result of this malabsorption, the caloric energy, vitamins and minerals are lost as all parts of the body are deprived of the proper nourishment. Breaking the Cycle- The SCD: Breaking the Cycle- The SCD The Specific Carbohydrate Diet (SCD) limits food choices to foods that are easily digested, leaving no food sources for the microbes in the intestine. As the microbial population decreases due to lack of food, its harmful by-products also decrease, freeing the intestinal surface of injurious substances. No longer needing protection, the mucus-producing cells stop producing excessive mucus, and carbohydrate digestion is improved. Breaking the Cycle- The SCD: Breaking the Cycle- The SCD Malabsorption is replaced by absorption. As the individual absorbs energy and nutrients, all the cells in the body are properly nourished including the cells of the immune system, which than can assist in overcoming the microbial invasion. The SCD also uses probiotics and yogurt to replenish the GI tract with beneficial bacteria. Foods Allowed on the SCD: Foods Allowed on the SCD PROTEINS All fresh or frozen beef, lamb, pork, poultry, fish, and shellfish, eggs, natural cheeses (see BTVC for full list of allowed cheeses), homemade yogurt (recipe in BTVC) and dry curd cottage cheese. VEGETABLES Fresh or frozen (with no added sugar or starch). Artichoke (not Jerusalem type), asparagus, beets, dried white navy beans, lentils, split peas, broccoli, brussel sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, carrots, celery, cucumbers and dill pickles, eggplant, garlic, kale, lettuce of all kinds, lima beans, mushrooms, mustard, olives, onions, parsley, peas, pumpkin, spinach, winter and summer squash, string beans, tomatoes, turnips, watercress. FRUITS Raw, cooked, frozen, or dried apples, avocados, apricots, ripe bananas, berries of all kinds, cherries, fresh or unsweetened shredded coconut, loose dates that do not stick together, grapefruit, grapes, kiwi, kumquats, lemons, limes, mangoes, melons, nectarines, oranges, papayas, peaches, pears, pineapples, prunes, dark raisins, rhubarb, and tangerines. NUTS Almonds, pecans, Brazil nuts, filberts, hazelnuts, walnuts, unroasted cashews and chestnuts. Peanut butter and other nut butters without any additives. BEVERAGES Tomato and vegetable juices. Tropicana 100% orange juice, Welch’s grape juice, pineapple juice, apple cider, weak tea or coffee, herbal teas (peppermint and spearmint only). Milkshakes made with homemade yogurt, fruits and sweetened to taste with honey. Freshly squeezed vegetable or fruit juices made from the list of allowed foods. Foods Not Allowed on the SCD: Foods Not Allowed on the SCD Processed meats, such as lunch meats, bologna, etc. Most store-bought products including baby food. Potatoes, sweet potatoes, yams, cassava, corn. Soy beans, mung beans, fava, beans, garbanzo beans, bean sprouts, bean flour. Amaranth, quinoa, tapioca, oats, arrowroot, rice, buckwheat, millet, wheat, seaweed, xanthan gum. Canned vegetables and fruit. Store-bought nut and coconut 'milks'. Instant coffee or tea, soft drinks. Roasted nuts, beer nuts, glazed nuts. Molasses, agar-agar, carrageenan, maple syrup. Store-bought jams, jellies, ketchup, mayonnaise, salad dressings. Homemade Vs. Store-bought: Homemade Vs. Store-bought There are a number of reasons why homemade items are necessary for SCD™ instead of the 'convenient' store-bought items. The 2% rule: There is a rule that allows some ingredients that constitute less than 2% of the total weight or volume unnecessary to report on the ingredient list. This can include sugar and other illegal ingredients, since these do not fall under the list of usual allergens. Store-bought products often pass through many sets of hands before they are put in the final package. For example, some juice concentrates can be made in one plant and then shipped to another plant where water is added and then they are bottled. The final producer can 'honestly' say they did not add any illegals but what about the first producer of the concentrate. The original concentrate does not even have to be made in the same country as the final bottler. Commercial producers are not bound to report some of the ingredients listed in their foods. They can use processing aides, enzymes etc., that are used in the production of the food but are not technically an ingredient. When you make foods for your children you know 'exactly' what you are putting into it. Buying foods such as cookies that are not listed on this site as suitable SCD™ products, can lead to trouble. Some producers may unintentionally use illegal ingredients. For example, a commercial producer uses honey that is not pure (i.e., cut with corn syrup) but includes honey on the ingredient list. The end result is that your child is unknowingly ingesting illegals. Some companies blatantly lie about the ingredients in their products. ASD Intro Diet - 2-5 Days: ASD Intro Diet - 2-5 Days Chicken broth Chicken broth with pureed cooked carrots Chicken broth with chunks of cooked chicken Chicken broth with cooked carrot sliced into little 'coins' Chicken broth with 'chicken balls' made from ground chicken Chicken broth with 'noodles' made from beaten eggs cooked omelette-style into a 'crepe' and then rolled up and thinly sliced Chicken egg-drop soup Chicken pancakes Roasted chicken Roasted turkey Hamburger patties Beef broth Beef broth with meatballs made from ground beef Eggs Scrambled, poached, hard-boiled, soft-boiled ,sunny side up, deviled eggs made with homemade mayo Homemade gelatin (made from unflavored real gelatin and purple grape juice) Made in a shallow pan and cut with shaped cookie cutters or into cubes Grape juice and apple cider- 50% juice/50% water SCD - Beginner: SCD - Beginner After the intro diet, foods should be introduced slowly. Good foods to introduce after the intro diet, include: Applesauce Avocado Bananas-very ripe Butternut squash Green Beans Pear sauce Spinach Zucchini These foods should be peeled, deseeded as needed, and well cooked. Try to introduce one new food at a time. Otherwise, it will be impossible to figure out which food is causing a problem, if there are any problems. Keeping a food log/diary will be very helpful. SCD - Intermediate: SCD - Intermediate After the 'Beginner' foods are well-tolerated, more variety can be added to the diet. All fruits and vegetables are appropriate at this point. But at the 'Intermediate' stage, all foods should still be cooked, peeled and deseeded (as needed). Nut butters and nut flours can be introduced as well. Continue to introduce foods slowly, keeping a daily diary to keep track of progress. For those wishing to introduce goat yogurt and/or goat cheese, this can be done after the other foods (described above) are well-tolerated and behavior is stable. Yogurt can also be made from nut 'milks'. Introduce yogurt slowly, starting with 1/4 tsp per day, gradually increasing intake. SCD - Advanced: SCD - Advanced After the 'Intermediate' foods are well-tolerated, more variety can be added to the diet. All fruits and vegetables are appropriate at this point. At the 'Advanced' stage, raw foods can be cautiously added to the diet. Continue to introduce foods slowly, keeping a daily diary to keep track of progress. After raw foods are well tolerated, dried fruits such as raisins, dates, currents and fruit leather can be tried. Homemade jerky can also be introduced. After all allowed SCD foods are well tolerated, approved beans can be introduced into the diet. “How Will I Get MY Child to Eat SCD Food?”: 'How Will I Get MY Child to Eat SCD Food?' For the most picky eaters, the best results will probably come by finding a few SCD foods that are accepted before switching the child to SCD. Gradually phase out starchy foods, replacing them with SCD foods. Make a list of all the foods your child likes. Look for similarities among the foods on the list. Use those similarities to come up with a list of SCD items to try. Many parents find that once the starch is off the menu, their children actually begin to try new foods more willingly. Thinking “Outside the Box”: Thinking 'Outside the Box' Think creatively. Vegetables do not have to be served 'as is'. Vegetables can be successfully hidden in: hamburgers, meat loaf, chicken nuggets, spaghetti sauce, pancakes, muffins, cakes and cookies. 'Orange and green make brown'. If you mix an orange vegetable with a green vegetable, the result will be brown and can be hidden in anything that will come out brown naturally, such as hamburgers and nut-based baked goods. SCD Tips and Tricks: SCD Tips and Tricks Get organized. Print recipes your child likes Prepare a weekly menu Prepare a weekly cooking schedule Prepare a weekly shopping list Store these items in two plastic 4x6 photo albums. Put the recipes in one and the other items in the other. This will keep all needed items together and ready to be used at all times. SCD Tips and Tricks: SCD Tips and Tricks Always have some SCD food prepared and handy. SCD baked goods freeze and thaw beautifully. Keep some extras on hand at all times. Nothing leads to 'cheating' more than not having something ready when a child asks for food. Buy a good stainless steel Thermos. These are great for your child’s school lunch and for going out to eat. They keep food hot for 4-5 hours. Keep a current list of allowed foods posted on your refrigerator. This will keep other family members and caregivers informed and it will help prevent 'accidental cheating'. SCD Tips and Tricks: SCD Tips and Tricks Schedule a time to speak with teachers, therapists and caregivers. Provide each person with information about the SCD and keep them updated on allowed foods OR keep them supplied with appropriate foods. Keep a food journal. Track foods eaten, behavior and stool information. This will help you to see what foods your child does and does not tolerate. Join the pecanbread Yahoo! group. Go to http://groups.yahoo.com/group/pecanbread to join. Being a member of a support group will help you to overcome the feeling of being alone and you will receive support and help from the members of the group.