Published on June 18, 2007
Slide1: Copyright Patrick Traynor 2005 www.patricktraynor.com Text available at: www.GotDiscipline.com Got Discipline? PowerPointCoincides with Text: 'I found the descriptions of the teachers to be excellent. Each teacher came to life and in reading about the classroom interactions, it was like a visit to the classroom. Excellent in the range of observations and carefully drawn inferences.' –John McNeil, Ph.D., Professor Emeritus, UCLA 'The practical tried and true strategies will work with all students with behavioral issues. A good read with great advice.' –Sue Watson, Counselor, Special Education Teacher 'I wish this message could get through to every teacher, administrator, and parent who is in contact with a child who has ADD/ADHD.' –Kathleen Penrice, Teacher Got Discipline? PowerPoint Coincides with Text Patrick Traynor, Ph.D. Slide3: 'Classroom order is a precondition for teaching and learning. Steven Brint, 1998 Professor, Sociology, University of California Slide4: 'Control is the major issue and always at the center of student-teacher relations. Orderly behavior can never be expected; it is always problematic and always requires attention.' Phillip A. Cusick, 1990 Professor, Educational Administration Michigan State University Slide5: 'No matter how much money and programs, it won’t work – unless they understand respect and discipline in the classroom.' Jaime Escalante Inspirational Mathematics Teacher Walker, Colvin andamp; Ramsey (1995) Slide6: 'Discipline should be seen and used as a form of instruction.' Ruby K. Payne (2003) A Framework for Understanding Poverty Slide7: Children today are tyrants. They contradict their parents, gobble their food, and tyrannize their teachers. Socrates, 470-399 B.C. Slide8: Three Approaches to Classroom Management (Chapter 1) Lenient Low expectations Allows disruptions Friendship Dreikers, Grunwald, andamp; Pepper, 1982; Canter andamp; Canter, 1992; Jones, 2000; Albert, 1996; Coloroso, 1994; Steinberg, Dornbush, andamp; Brown, 1992 Rigid Low tolerance Coercive Unfairness Moderate Self-control Consistency Holds students accountable Slide9: Consequences of Three Approaches Lenient Comfort at expense of subject matter (Cusick, 1983) Contributes to an inability to learn (Grant, 1988; Walker, Colvin andamp; Ramsey, 1995) Rigid Decreases joy of learning (Moore, 1967) Defiant attitude (Brophy, 1983) Escalate misbehavior (Walker, Colvin andamp; Ramsey, 1995) Moderate Students internalize self-discipline (Charles, 1999) Preserves student dignity (Gaddy andamp; Kelley, 1984; Walker, Colvin, andamp; Ramsey, 1995) Slide10: Lenient Rigid Indirect Direct Nurturing E E E NE NE Lenient Rigid Moderate Continuum Model of Relationships of Approaches – Five Categories of Practices (Chapter 2) The Classroom Management Spectrum. E = Effective N = Not effective. Arrows = Movement toward more effectiveness. Adapted from Traynor (2004) Slide11: Perception, Skill, Attitude Low Perception Slide12: Perception, Skill, Attitude (Chapter 3) Enactment of practices depends on: Perception: Ability to perceive behavior that requires attention Skill: Ability to select and implement an appropriate practice Attitude: Interest or willingness toward enacting a particular practice Perception, Skill, Attitude: Consider the Venn diagram continuum model of classroom management practices just presented and on page 5 of the text. In pairs discuss the following and be prepared to share: Which effective category of practices would a lenient teacher have the most difficulty enacting? Which factors: perception, skill, or attitude do you think would be the source of such difficulty? Answer the same questions for a rigid teacher. Perception, Skill, Attitude Slide14: Perception, Skill, Attitude Research Shows (Traynor, 2004) Evaluating Perception, Skill, and Attitude: Evaluating Perception, Skill, and Attitude To heighten perception, a teacher can Increase awareness of possible insidious behaviors (Lenient Practices – Chapters 4-11) or that kids are fearful or overly defiant of an overbearing teacher (Rigid Practices – Chapters 22-24) Increase awareness of effectiveness and ineffectiveness of responses to student behaviors (All of Part II – Chapters 4-24) Evaluating Perception, Skill, and Attitude: Evaluating Perception, Skill, and Attitude To increase skill, a teacher can Increase knowledge base of effective practices (Nurturing – Chapters 12-14; Indirect – Chapters 15-18; Direct – Chapters 19-21) Reflect on effectiveness of own practices Evaluating Perception, Skill, and Attitude: Evaluating Perception, Skill, and Attitude For a better attitude, a teacher can Put practices into an organized framework to simplify enactment (Page 5 Venn Continuum Model) Realize that enactment of even select strategies greatly increases effectiveness of learning environment. Decrease in stress, parent complaints, and administrative intervention. Lenient Practices: Lenient Practices Lenient Practices (Part II Category I): Lenient Practices (Part II Category I) With a partner, read a brief case episode at the beginning of one of the chapters, 4-11. Discuss how this teacher should have handled the situation, or what practice should this teacher have applied? Be prepared to share with group. Into which category would you place your recommended practice: Nurturing, Indirect, or Direct? Lenient Practices: Lenient Practices Restroom Passes (Chapter 4) Issues to consider Accident avoidance Should avoid being perceived as too rigid Allowance leads to persistent disruptions as the norm Allowance by several teachers leads to school disruptions Lenient Practices: Lenient Practices Restroom Passes Possible fair and reasonable strategies Spend the amount of time from class after class Three restroom passes per quarter; unused passes worth 'points' For grading, activities, passes for other events, etc. Students who need more than three can see teacher for more teacher can work out solution individually with student and/or family Isolates over users and makes their behavior more manageable Lenient Practices: Lenient Practices Avoidance (Chapter 5) Ignoring misbehavior that will not go away automatically contributes to an escalation Many behaviors need effective indirect or direct interventions Lenient Practices: Lenient Practices Use of Humor (Chapter 6) Often misinterpreted Friendly humor often confused for malicious intent Humor to communicate disapproval communicates tolerance Even though humor can make communicating praise less awkward If humor is part of classroom culture, teacher should be prepared for disciplinary intervention more frequently Lenient Practices: Lenient Practices No Assignment Lenient Practices: Lenient Practices No Assignment (Chapter 7) Students in close quarters have a natural propensity toward disorder If not engaged, will converse, tease, laugh, throw, horseplay, rough house, etc. At every moment, the students should have a productive activity The more available the teacher is, the more complex the activity can be If teacher is occupied in roll call, the activity should require very little teacher attention Lenient Practices: Lenient Practices Non-monitoring Lenient Practices: Lenient Practices Non-monitoring (Chapter 8) Allows students to manifest their natural propensity toward disorder To determine if more monitoring is needed: the next few times maladaptive behavior occurs, a teacher should reflectively ask 'Was I monitoring or not monitoring?' If the answer is 'not monitoring' more often than 'monitoring,' more monitoring is probably needed Lenient Practices: Lenient Practices Providing General Directives (Chapter 9) Communicates that maladaptive behavior, although not desired, will be tolerated and is acceptable. 'Keep it down' vs. 'Stop talking' 'Come on guys, let’s get busy' vs. 'complete your assignment right now' 'We need it clean in hear before we leave' vs. 'Everyone pick up two pieces of trash, place them in the trash can, and return to your seat' Students need clear unambiguous directives Lenient Practices: Lenient Practices Reinforcing Callouts (Chapter 10) Contributes to 'free for all' dialogue with disruptions Establish and follow hand raising procedure Do not permit students to call out; refer to hand raising procedure Acknowledge students with raised hand; but do not allow to interrupt dialogue Lenient Practices: Lenient Practices Referring to End of Class (Chapter 11) Triggers dismissal behaviors from students Communicates that 'packing up' is acceptable Avoid referring to the end of the period Nurturing Practices (Category II): Nurturing Practices (Category II) Nurturing Practices in combination with Direct Interventions have synergistic effect 'Teachers maintain control by balancing personal forcefulness with intimate teacher-pupil relationships.' (DeMarrais and LeCompte, 1999) Nurturing Practices with Lenient Approach will not be sufficient Nurturing Practices: With a partner, read and discuss a brief case episode at the beginning of one of the chapters, 12 – 14. Look at the appendix on page 113, Standard Two of the California Standards for the Teaching Profession – Creating and Maintaining an Effective Learning Environment. To which element, 2.1-2.6 would your chosen episode apply and at what level of professional accomplishment would the practice be evaluated? Nurturing Practices Nurturing Practices: Nurturing Practices Greeting Students at Entrance (Chapter 12) Sets tone of courtesy and professionalism Prevents outdoor behaviors from being expressed indoors Nurturing Practices: Nurturing Practices Modeling Respect (Chapter 13) Demonstrating concern or good manners models expected behavior Facilitates reciprocal behavior from students Nurturing Practices: Nurturing Practices Appropriate Responses (Chapter 14) Demonstrate restraint, preservation of dignity Takes motive away from student to escalate maladaptive behavior Indirect Interventions: Indirect Interventions Read a brief case episode within Chapters 15-18 (i.e., one of the episodes in Chapters 15 or 16, one of the six in Chapter 17, or one of the five in Chapter 18). With a partner, share your episode and speculate how a more direct approach might have been less effective. Discuss why the practice described in the episode you read would not be placed in the Lenient category of practices. Indirect Interventions (Category III): Indirect Interventions (Category III) High Accountability Assignments (Chapter 15) Assignments that 'count' for something Especially important for assignments with low intrinsic motivation Indirect Interventions: Indirect Interventions Monitoring (Chapter 16) Set up room for efficient walking among students Strengthens teacher’s presence Allows for frequent, pertinent interaction Indirect Interventions: Indirect Interventions Fueling the Fire Indirect Interventions: Indirect Interventions Implicit Interactions (Chapter 17) Takes communication between teacher and student away from spectacle of student’s peers Decreases need for students to defend themselves Indirect Interventions: Indirect Interventions Implicit Interactions (Chapter 17) Private Interactions Approach student rather than letting student call out for all to hear Takes student from spectacle of entire class Avoids need for student to publicly respond Allows others to stay engaged Indirect Interventions: Indirect Interventions Implicit Interactions (Chapter 17) Strategic Avoidance Allows maladaptive behavior to extinguish itself Avoids contribution to an escalation Delay confrontation for calmer time Indirect Interventions: Indirect Interventions Implicit Interactions (Chapter 17) Waiting Conspicuously waiting implicitly communicates the directive to pay attention This implicit directive is awkward to argue against and makes talkers feel more and more conspicuous and awkward to continue Indirect Interventions: Indirect Interventions Implicit Interactions (Chapter 17) The Look Implicitly communicates disapproval Awkward to argue against Leaves rest of class undisturbed Indirect Interventions: Indirect Interventions Implicit Interactions (Chapter 17) Continuing with instruction Refocuses student attention on appropriate material Know subject matter and lesson well Indirect Interventions: Indirect Interventions Implicit Interactions (Chapter 17) Gestures Implicit, silent directive that does not call attention from an engaged class Awkward to argue against Indirect Interventions: Indirect Interventions Preparation (Chapter 18) Inviting environment Facilitates pleasant experiences Indirect Interventions: Indirect Interventions Preparation (Chapter 18) Materials To facilitate student access To preserve teacher time for meaningful student interaction Indirect Interventions: Indirect Interventions Preparation (Chapter 18) Visual Aides For reference during instruction or individual interaction Provides additional focus on the learning objective Focused students require less interventions Indirect Interventions: Indirect Interventions Preparation (Chapter 18) Physical Environment Physical structures serve particular functions for students and influence behavior Strategically orienting the structures such as student desks will influence student behavior in the intended manner Indirect Interventions: Indirect Interventions Preparation (Chapter 18) Professional dress Promotes professional image Unprofessional dress reinforces negative assumptions Easy to implement Direct Interventions: Direct Interventions Read a brief case episode at the beginning of one of the chapters, 19-21 (i.e., one of the episodes in Chapters 19 or 20, or one of the five in Chapter 21) Share episode with a partner. Discuss whether you would have acted as direct, more direct, or less direct than the teacher in the episode. Discuss another practice the teacher could have enacted with a possible outcome on the learning environment (either positive or negative). Be prepared to share. Direct Interventions: Direct Interventions Explicitly and assertively guides behavior Fair and judicious consequences No harm to physical or emotional well-being; preserve dignity Direct Interventions: Direct Interventions Establishing and Implementing a Behavioral System (Chapter 19) Takes arbitrary nature away from consequences Allows teacher a fair, readily available system, that can be referred to when reacting to the immediacy of the 'crowd.' Direct Interventions: Direct Interventions Explicit Directives (Chapter 20) Leave little room for misinterpretation Teachers should determine and communicate consequence for continued defiance prior to next incident Maintain professionalism Directives are not subject to negotiation Do not argue Repeat directives (broken record) Direct Interventions: Direct Interventions Routines (Chapter 21) Common Behaviors Such As Pencil Sharpening Can disrupt engagement or instruction Routines that facilitate productive behavior rather than interrupt instruction or engagement Direct Interventions: Direct Interventions Routines (Chapter 21) Instructional Routines Frequent activities should be made routine to decrease unnecessary instruction Instructional behaviors become part of culture of classroom Direct Interventions: Direct Interventions Routines (Chapter 21) Dismissal Routines Associated with engagement through the end of the routine/session Allows manifestation of desire to leave with productive behaviors Direct Interventions: Direct Interventions Routines (Chapter 21) Material Distribution/Collection Materials can become unwieldy and contribute to disorder Setting explicit procedures or routines help guide behavior Direct Interventions: Direct Interventions Routines (Chapter 21) Upon Entering Sets learning tone Excludes outdoor behavior Conditions for learning Rigid Practices(Category V): Rigid Practices (Category V) Intimidation, expressions of anger, arbitrary consequences Have negative effects No joy of learning (Moore, 1967) Facilitate self-fulfilling prophesy effect (Brophy andamp; Evertson, 1981) Defiance or escalation of maladaptive behavior (Walker, Colvin andamp; Ramsey, 1995) Rigid Disposition: Rigid Disposition Unrealistic Expectations Rigid Disposition: Rigid Disposition Read a brief case episode at the beginning of one of the chapters, 22-24. Discuss how this teacher should have handled the situation, or what practice should this teacher have applied? Into which category would you place your recommended practice: Nurturing, Indirect, or Direct? Rigid Disposition: Rigid Disposition Unrealistic Expectations (Chapter 22) Teachers should expect to teach behaviors consistent with learning as part of their teaching. Realistic expectations better prepare teacher for implementing pedagogically sound practices (Traynor, 2003) Rigid Disposition: Rigid Disposition Read paragraphs 3 andamp; 4 on page 77 (Chapter 22) regarding the Triune Brain Hypothesis Discuss with a partner how teacher stress might be associated with the enactment of unsound classroom order practices. Be prepared to share. Rigid Disposition: Rigid Disposition Low Empathy (Chapter 23) Demonstrating empathy facilitates interactions that contribute to a respectful climate Realize most students are unable to reciprocate empathy Rigid Disposition: Rigid Disposition Temper Rigid Disposition: Rigid Disposition Temper (Chapter 24) Expressing anger in negative ways has no place in professional repertoire Kids lose respect Hinders principal’s ability to support teacher Related Issues: Related Issues Dealing with Parents Click Here to Order Related Issues(Part III): Related Issues (Part III) With a partner, describe an effective teacher/parent interaction you have experienced. What characteristics contributed to the effectiveness of the interaction? Related Issues: Related Issues Parents (Chapter 25) If parent speaks well of a teacher to a student at home, the student is more likely to demonstrate teacher respect inside the classroom. Related Issues: Related Issues Parents (Chapter 25) Telephone Powerful intervention First contact with parent should be positive Identify challenging students first or second day Follow positive 'script' (pp 87, 88-89) Facilitates earning parent respect at home; builds teacher support system at home. Related Issues: Related Issues Parents (Chapter 25) Telephone (cont’d) If communicating maladaptive behavior Open positively Be specific State in terms of loss of student’s benefit (e.g., the learning will suffer if poor behavior continues) State potential consequences End positively Related Issues: Related Issues Parents (Chapter 25) Telephone (cont’d) Difficulty in reaching parents Not home Leave message on machine Write brief note; send with child Record contact Not English Speaking Use translator Related Issues: Related Issues Parents (Chapter 25) Telephone (cont’d) Having students call in front of peers? Potential for not communicating accurately Defensive behaviors Potential for backfire, humiliation Related Issues: Related Issues Parents (Chapter 25) Telephone (cont’d) Return messages by end of next business day Be prepared with records Make concern objective and solvable Do not argue Follow up after resolution Related Issues: Related Issues Parents (Chapter 25) Parent conferences Keep positive Negative behaviors, if any, should already have been brought up. Frame concerns in progressive light, e.g., 'And if Johnny only worked a little harder on his spelling words, his spelling scores would increase tremendously.' Make effort to let parent bring up issue of behavior Related Issues: Related Issues With a partner, describe why some students might have more difficulty than most in demonstrating the expected behaviors within an orderly classroom. How might their 'disposition' be a great disadvantage at school if a teacher expects the child to consistently demonstrate the behaviors normally consistent with classroom learning. Be prepared to share. Related Issues: Related Issues ADHD (Chapter 26) Same interventions apply but with greater frequency Verbal Reinforcement Sincere Specific Selectively Ignoring Inappropriate Behavior Teaching Self Management Related Issues: Related Issues ADHD (Chapter 26) Physical Environment Seating arrangement Timer Accommodating need for minimum classroom restraints – return book to library, etc. Medication considerations; School is artificial Expecting ADHD student to conform naturally is unrealistic Realistic Expectations Triune Brain Theory; Goal is to operate rationally and avoid fight/flight View students not as disabled, but as needing extra attention; empathize Related Issues: Related Issues Think of a stressful situation such as spilling coffee in your car, arguing with a family member, being late, etc. If the goal of someone was to bring you to a higher level of mastery of a particular learning objective at this moment, how might they approach you, or should they? Discuss with a partner and be prepared to share. Antisocial Behavior Related Issues: Related Issues Antisocial Behavior (Chapter 27) Students on verge of demonstrating austere behavior Goal is to avoid escalating minor maladaptive behavior to a peak (Walker, Colvin, andamp; Ramsey, 1995) Use nurturing, indirect interventions Remain professionally poised Consider long term plan involving staff Related Issues: Related Issues The First Day (Chapter 28) If set nice tone, remainder of year is simply maintenance Behavior will be good the first few days regardless of teacher skill Do not 'break the ice;' capture this learning tone and maintain/nurture it for remainder of year Give engaging assignment, simple; goal is conditioning and establishing learning tone Related Issues: Related Issues The Disciplinary Referral Related Issues: Related Issues If a disciplinary referral becomes necessary for a student, what aspects of it put the principal in a strong position to support the teacher? Discuss with a partner and be prepared to share. Related Issues: Related Issues The Disciplinary Referral (Chapter 29) After teacher has exhausted repertoire of interventions Similar to a doctor not being able to treat a patient Too many referrals decrease credibility of teacher and office However, any one student must not be permitted to remain in class and disrupt learning. Parent should have been well aware of the student’s pattern of maladaptive behavior and interventions implemented well before referral List facts not opinions Make inarguable; less is more Students have a tendency to deny opinions and use against teacher Justification for Managing Behavior(Part IV): Justification for Managing Behavior (Part IV) Practices in book are based on premise that behavior must be managed Some put forth that if students understand why rules are necessary they will naturally follow them (Sarason, 1990) Others argue that simply enforcing preset rules without student input into their creation will preclude student understanding of why rules are necessary (Kohn, 1996) Justification for Managing Behavior: Justification for Managing Behavior Read the first two paragraphs of Part IV (page 109). Discuss with a partner whether you agree or disagree. Be prepared to share. Justification for Managing Behavior: Justification for Managing Behavior Non-strategic approach to classroom management does not fit current U.S. Diversity; U.S. middle class culture is not universal throughout U.S. 'It may take time – and explicit coaching – for students to learn the set of behaviors appropriate for a U.S. school context.' (Diaz-Rico andamp; Weed, 2002) Justification for Managing Behavior: Justification for Managing Behavior Standards and Accountability No Child Left Behind, Adequate Yearly Progress, High School Exit Exams, student retention laws, with accompanying federal and state sanctions including state takeover Justification for Managing Behavior: Justification for Managing Behavior Natural propensity to demonstrate behaviors consistent with learning in confined quarters is unrealistic. Students will not naturally engage in content standards and demonstrate behaviors consistent with learning Justification for Managing Behavior: Justification for Managing Behavior Effective deliberate practices are humane, leave dignity in tact, and fit with diverse nature of the current classroom References: References Albert, L. (1996). Cooperative discipline. Circle Pines, Minn: American Guidance Service. Brint, S. G. (1998). Schools and society. Thousand Oaks: Pine Forge Press. Brooks, D. M. (1985). 'The first day of school.' Educational Leadership. May 1985, 76-78. Brophy, J. (1983). 'Research on the self-fulfilling prophecy and teacher expectations.' Journal of Educational Psychology, 75, 631-661. Brophy, J., andamp; Evertson, C. (1981). Student characteristics and teaching. New York: Longman. Canter, L., andamp; Canter, M. (1992). Assertive discipline: Positive behaviors management for today’s classroom. 2d e. Santa Monica, Calif.: Canter andamp; Associates. Charles, C. M. 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Jones, F. (2000). Tools for teaching. Santa Cruz, CA. Frederic H. Jones andamp; Associates, Inc. Kohn, A. (1996). Beyond discipline: From compliance to community. Alexandria, Va.: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development Moore, G. A., Jr. (1967). Realities of the urban classroom. Garden City, NY: Anchor Books. Moore, W., andamp; Cooper, H. (1984). 'Correlations between teacher and student background and teacher perceptions of descriptive problems and disciplinary techniques.' Psychology in the Schools, 21, 386-392. Newman, F. M., Rutter, R. A., Smith, M. S. (1989). 'Organizational Factors that affect teachers’ sense of efficacy, community and expectations.' Sociology of Education 62, 221-38. Noddings, N. (1997). Accident, awareness, and actualization. Learning from our lives: Women, research, and autobiography in education, Danvers, MA: Teachers College, Columbia University. Sarason, S. B. (1990). The predictable failure of educational reform. Jossey Bass. Steinberg, L., Dornbush, S. M., andamp; Brown, B. B. (1992). 'Ethnic differences in adolescent achievement: An ecological perspective.' American Psychologist, 47, (6), 723-729. Traynor, Patrick L. (2002). 'A scientific evaluation of five different strategies teachers use to maintain order.' Education, 122, 493-509. Traynor, Patrick L. (2003). 'Factors contributing to teacher choice of classroom order strategies.' Education, 123, 586-599. Traynor, Patrick L. (2004). A study comparing three classroom management approaches. Dissertation on file at the University of California, Riverside. Underwood, Anne (2005). 'The gift of ADHD?' Newsweek March 14, 2005. U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education (2004) Teaching Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Instructional Strategies and Practices, Washington, D.C., 2004. www.ed.gov/teachers/needs/speced/adhd/adhd-resource-pt2.pdf. Walker, H. M., Colvin, G., andamp; Ramsey, E. (1995). Antisocial behavior in school: strategies and best practices. Brooks/Cole Publishing Company. Wong, H. K., Wong, R. T. (1998). How to be an effective teacher: The first days of school. Harry K. Wong Publications, Inc. Young, K. R. (1993). 'The role of social skills training in the prevention and treatment of behavioral disorders.' In B. Smith (Ed.), Focus 1993 – Teaching students with learning and behavioral problems (pp. 341-367). Victoria, British Columbia: Smith. Slide94: Visit www.GotDiscipline.com for more information on the book, Got Discipline? Research-Based Practices for Managing Student Behavior. Dr. Traynor would like to thank all the participants who made this work possible.