Published on January 3, 2008
Grammar for Writing: Grammar for Writing 7th March 2007 Teaching and applying sentence level objectives to writing Slide2: Aims To update grammatical knowledge To show the relationship between grammatical skills and effective writing To introduce ‘Grammar for Writing’ To illustrate lively, interactive sentence level teaching To illustrate the effective use of shared writing Slide3: Bell Work How did you learn to write? What are your most memorable experiences of writing at school? Slide4: Context ‘Grammar for Writing’ published in 2000 Renewed literacy framework 2006 Strand 11 - sentence structure and punctuation Fewer sentence level objectives for each year group Objectives there need to be interpreted and ‘broken down.’ Previous framework can support this. Slide5: Writing for Different Audiences and Purposes Involves… Seeing the craft: read like a writer, write like a reader Secretarial skills: handwriting, spelling, IT Content of writing: life experience, reading, curriculum Writing process: planning, composing, revising, editing Text structure: organisation, layout, coherence Grammatical knowledge and skills: Word modification Sentence construction and punctuation Cohesion Slide6: FS/KS1 General vocabulary development and basic sentence construction KS2 – Y3 and Y4 Use of various word classes, effectiveness of the words used, different sorts of connectives between sentences KS2 – Y5 and Y6 Complex sentences, range of conjunctions, varying word order for economy, emphasis or effect, organising whole texts and use of connectives to create cohesion Progression Slide7: The Grammatical Skills for Writing Word modification: the ability to control, select and vary language to create impact in relation to the audience and purpose of the writing Sentence construction and punctuation: the ability to construct, control, vary and punctuate sentences Text cohesion: the ability to create cohesive chronological and non-chronological texts Slide8: The man went down the road. Task In pairs, make a change to this sentence to improve it. Slide9: Adding adjectives/adverbs… The fat, hairy man went slowly down the long road. Changing specific vocabulary to be more precise… The tramp shuffled down Piccadilly. Using a subordinate clause to add further detail… While the house was burning, the man went down the road. Slide10: Deleting information to create suspense… The man went. Re-ordering words within the sentence… Down the road went the man. Children often start by adding strings of adjectives! Slide11: Word to Sentence Slide12: Task Match the word class to the word to the definition! Slide13: Word Classes determiner adjective noun pronoun verb adverb preposition conjunction the a big dog Rover It he barked slowly then with at in and when because Slide14: Henry VIII had two of his wives killed. Camels are sort of large animals. The tiny, little pieces of water in the air join together and make raindrops. Attach the beautiful, blue string to the stick. Buy this house. It has nice views. The reason why smoking is harmful is because it can give you cancer. Non-Fiction How do these sentences need to be adapted? Slide15: Henry VIII ordered two of his wives to be killed. Camels are large animals. The droplets of water in the air join together and make raindrops. Attach the blue string to the stick. Buy this house. It has superb views of the countryside. Smoking is harmful is because it causes cancer. Non-Fiction Slide16: The man got in the car. The tired, weary, sleepy cat dozed. The hot flame quivered. Joan said quietly… An enormous shark opened its enormous mouth and showed its enormous teeth. She was frightened. Task How could these fiction sentences be improved? Slide17: Improve Writing Through… Choosing precise nouns and expressive verbs Using adjectives and adverbs in moderation Avoiding stating the obvious Using repetition for effect Balancing telling (She was frightened) with showing or hinting (Her lip trembled) Selecting and limiting words for the intended purpose and audience Selecting stylistic devices such as alliteration, onomatopoeia, simile, metaphor Slide18: Chunks of Meaning Words Phrases Clauses Sentences Slide19: Phrases A group of words that act a one unit eg. the dog, the big dog, the dog over there Strictly speaking can also just be one word, eg. splendid! Can act as a noun, verb or adjective Noun – a big dog, my last holiday Adverbial – (she walks) very slowly, (she lives) along the lane Adjectival – (I’m) really hungry, (he’s) in a hurry Prepositional phrases start with a preposition. Slide20: Clauses A group of words that express an event or situation eg. she wanted a drink, a big dog chased me Differs to a phrase as a phrase doesn’t describe what happened Sentences are made up of one or more clauses: It was raining (one clause) It was raining and we went for a walk (two clauses joined by ‘and.’) It was raining when we went out (main clause and a subordinate clause) Main clauses are complete on their own, sub clauses can’t stand on their own. Slide21: Sentences Can be simple, compound or complex All consist of at least one clause It was late. (simple) It was cold but we went outside. (compound) Although it was late, I wasn’t tired. (complex) Slide22: Punctuation is about awareness of these grammatical chunks. To split up texts into sentences, indicating clearly where each major chunk of meaning begins and ends, we use capital letters and full stops. Within the sentence, we use a variety of punctuation marks to show breaks between phrases, clauses and sometimes, words. Punctuation Slide23: Coffee Slide24: Sentence to Text Varying Word Order Slide25: S Teachers S Teachers V teach V are O children. C wonderful. Subject, Verb, Object Slide26: Subject, Verb, Object/Complement (At the start of the sentence) English has three common clause structures: SV – The dog was barking in the garden. (SVA) SVO – The queen was eating a jam sandwich daintily. (SVOA) SVC – Teachers are wonderful, usually. (SVCA) Slide27: Subject, Verb, Object/Complement (At the end of the sentence) SV – In the garden the dog was barking. (ASV) SVO – Very daintily, the queen was eating a jam sandwich (ASVO) SVC – Usually, teachers are wonderful. (ASVC) Slide28: Subject, Verb, Object/Complement (Split by adverb/adjective) SV – The dog, in the garden, was barking. (SAV) SVO – The queen, very daintily, was eating a jam sandwich (SAVO) SVC – Teachers, usually, are wonderful. (SAVC) Slide29: Varying Word Order to Improve Sentences How does altering the position of the adverbial phrase affect the meaning? The teacher was talking to the class in a loud voice. In a loud voice, the teacher was talking to the class. The teacher, in a loud voice, was talking to the class. The teacher was talking, in a loud voice, to the class. Slide30: Improve Writing Through… Varying sentence openings: John hurried down the street carefully, with a box of eggs in his hands. With a box of eggs in his hands, John carefully hurried down the street. Down the street, John hurried carefully with a box of eggs in his hands. Carefully, with a box of eggs in his hands, John hurried down the street. Slide31: Cohesion Cohesion within a text is achieved through accurate use of: Connectives Pronouns Tense Slide32: The big dog enjoyed barking, moreover he was very good at it and very loud. The baby however needed some sleep, so the dog was despatched to the garden. He barked and yelped for some time until he grew sleepy himself. Eventually, he stretched out under the stars and fell into a deep sleep. Connectives 25 Slide33: The big dog enjoyed barking, moreover he was very good at it and very loud. The baby however needed some sleep, so the dog was despatched to the garden. He barked and yelped for some time until he grew sleepy himself. Eventually, he stretched out under the stars and fell into a deep sleep. Pronouns 25 Slide34: The big dog enjoyed barking, moreover he was very good at it and very loud. The baby however needed some sleep, so the dog was despatched to the garden. He barked and yelped for some time until he grew sleepy himself. Eventually, he stretched out under the stars and fell into a deep sleep. Consistency of Tense 25 Slide35: Improve Writing Through… Linking sentences with appropriate connectives Judicious use of pronouns Maintaining consistency of tense Slide36: Grammar to Writing Applying the Principles Slide37: Improve Writing Through… Questions to draw the reader in: Have you ever flown a kite? Why be the only teacher without a laptop? What had Darren heard? Using different sentence types: Imperatives to add impact: Buy now! Take care! The wiring is dangerous. ‘Stop!’ they yelled. Slide38: Eventually, feeling exhausted, they decided to finish for that day, but where was the golden snake? It was illusive! Wearily, fearing they would never find it and feeling dejected, they went to bed. (Guess who fell asleep first?) Melodine had no idea that Eldero was asleep and started talking to him. ‘I wonder what tomorrow will be like?’ but, of course, there was no answer. ‘Typical!’ Melodine was worried, but as Eldero’s snoring, which could be heard echoing through the woods, became regular she felt more at ease and fell asleep, sensing that she was safe. Example Slide39: Improving Writing Using short sentences for dramatic emphasis: She stopped. He gasped sharply. Through varying sentence length Using longer sentences to move the narrative on. Buy Slide40: My heart is racing, the helpless light from the moon is wasting itself on the tree tops as the inconspicuous labyrinth towers over me; I am writing this diary. There is a sudden tug on the silken string, I call my beloved’s name, ‘Theseus?’ although I know that he cannot hear me. Is he still alive? Then, as the pale moon’s light shines upon me, a viscous path of blood is harshly illuminated. I flinch. Move away, not knowing what to expect. Then there is a roar. I sit here and wonder if my poor, poor Theseus is alright. I abide being here. I feel so guilty. What if it assassinates my brave Theseus? Gingerly stepping forward, I hear a terrifying scream as from the corner of my eye I glimpse a figure in the shadows, just perceptible in the waning light. My heart stops. Example Slide41: That had been yesterday. It was now 6.30. Dibling and Blubow set off on foot to the path that led to Mountain Serchew. As they approached the mountain, which cascaded tauntingly over them, looking as if it would collapse should a monstrous gush of wind blow past, Blubow detected an unfamiliar noise. ‘Wait! I don’t think this path is safe! Something terrible is going to happen. I can feel it!’ Dibling however, had already commenced his journey up the foreboding path, resolute in his determination to reach the soul of Mountain Serchew and recover the Sapphire stone. Example Slide42: Improve Writing Through… To hide the source of the action: The gun had been removed from the cabinet. Using the passive voice for effect To create impact: The victim was torn apart by the cheetah. Slide43: Example The Greeks fought a considerable number of wars, one of the most famous of which was the battle between Athens and Persia, known as the Battle of Marathon. The Athenians had only 10, 000 soldiers whereas the Persians had twice as many. The Athenians devised a plan to ensure victory, unsure as to whether it would work. Their intention, under Miltiades, their leader, was to attack the flanks first. The flanks of the Persian army were relentlessly battered, leaving the centre unguarded. The Athenians grasped this opportunity and King Darius, directing from the centre, was mercilessly killed. Slide44: The Book! Slide45: The Book Part 1 – Introduction & rationale Part 2 – Teaching units Part 3 – Teachers’ notes and glossary Slide46: Teaching Sequence for Writing Whole class sentence level teaching focus Whole class sentence level activities Define principles Teacher demonstration and scribing Support composition Independent writing Review Slide47: Teaching Units Units are on the ncnet website Flipchart files with key resources Slide48: Activities Function: Function Bridie called softly. Carefully she picked up the candle and peered into the darkness. Shadows flickered. She stood still and listened. Cautiously she moved down the corridor. Her dress rustled, and she paused. A gust of wind blew gently and the candle flickered. Fortunately, it did not blow out. Her mind raced madly. I will arrive soon, she muttered anxiously. For children to investigate the function of a word class, sentence structure or punctuation mark. Compare: Compare ‘I hate you,’ she whispered. ‘Let’s find the others,’ he suggested. ‘That’s not fair!’ he exclaimed. She whispered that she hated him. He suggested that they find the others. He exclaimed that it was not fair. For children to deduce principles governing a grammatical feature by comparing texts containing different facets of the same feature. Cloze: Emma strolled around the supermarket, collecting the items on mum’s list, humming her favourite song. she had collected everything she made her way to the checkout. the groceries were packed she reached into her bag for her purse , it was nowhere to be found. Cloze For children to consider the effectiveness of a particular word within a sentence & to practice using language appropriate to audience & purpose. whilst After Once however Construct: Construct For children to experiment with sentence structure to reinforce knowledge of word classes and sentence construction. although he was scared he walked on , Slide53: I saw the plane and then it flew over and then it seemed to disappear and then, just when I thought that it had gone, it came back. I could hardly believe it and then just when I did not know if I was awake or dreaming it shot in over the trees and then it landed on the lake. Then out climbed a man, he was rowing across to me and then he spoke to me. I found myself talking to the first human being that I had seen in months and then I knew that it was over. Improve For children to practice re-drafting. Quick Make Replace Re-order: Quick Make Replace Re-order Task - Jigsaw Read through the activity and discuss it’s purpose and how it could be used. Share with you ‘home’ group Slide55: Plenary Read through your learning points from today What have you learnt that you didn’t know before? How will this impact upon your classroom practice? What are your next steps?