Published on March 9, 2014
The Enlightenment: The Enlightenment LT: TLW learn about the enlightenment and how it still affects the world today through the analysis of primary documents and videos. EQ: Who were the great thinkers of the enlightenment and how did their beliefs affect the world? The Enlightenment: The Enlightenment The Enlightenment was a period of intellectual ferment and discussion amongst scholars in Western Europe, leading to new ideas about human behavior. These ideas changed the way Europeans viewed society, politics, government , and the economy. The ideals of liberty and justice , which modern democracies now consider essential , grew out of this movement. The Enlightenment: The Enlightenment The Enlightenment’s immediate roots can be found in the Scientific Revolution. Enlightenment thinkers applied these techniques to human behavior. They examined political, social, and economic problems and tried to establish solutions based on the scientific method. The Enlightenment: The Enlightenment The Enlightenment was also shaped by the Renaissance and the Protestant Reformation. During the Renaissance, humanists argued for the importance and worth of the individual. Reformers questioned the authority of the Roman Catholic Church and argued that individuals should think for themselves. The Enlightenment: The Enlightenment A number of European leaders styled themselves as “enlightened” and attempted to implement some of these ideas in their regimes. Catherine the Great, Joseph II of Austria, and Frederick II are among the rulers who attempted to bring the benefits of Enlightenment to their rule. The Enlightenment Thinkers: The Enlightenment Thinkers Use the “Student Handout 3.13—Enlightenment Thinkers Graphic Organizer” Use the chart and fill in the big ideas for each Enlightenment Thinker. Thomas Hobbes: Thomas Hobbes Hobbes is known as one of the first modern Western thinkers. He believed that religion should be separate from politics. He supported a strong government based on reason. Hobbes also tried to separate knowledge from faith, which eventually got him into trouble with the British Parliament. He was the first philosopher to emphasize reason instead of religious faith. Hobbes’ major belief was that all people are fearful and predatory (greedy). As a result, they must submit to the absolute power of the state. By allowing the state to have absolute power, the people would live by reason and gain lasting preservation. John Locke: John Locke Hobbes felt all people were selfish. Locke believed that all people were born good and were given natural rights by God. These were rights to life, liberty, and owning property. Locke believed that the king’s power should be limited by laws enacted by the people. This type of government is called a constitutional monarchy. He argued that the agreement between the government and the people was a social contract. If the government did not uphold its part and protect the people’s rights, the people should revolt. Freedom of religion was a right that the government should protect. People should be allowed to choose which church to attend. These ideas were used by American colonists in 1776 as a reason for the American revolution, and they helped shape the US Constitution. The ideas also influenced the French revolution in 1789. Cesare Beccaria: Cesare Beccaria Beccaria believed that people who were accused of a crime should have rights. He did not like the death penalty and believed torture was wrong. He believed that education would reduce the crime rate. The right to a fair and speedy trial was one of his ideas. He also believed that the punishment should be the same for everyone who commits the same crime. His ideas led to changes in European and American criminal laws. Baron de Montesquieu: Baron de Montesquieu He agreed with Locke in many ways about the role of government. Montesquieu admired the system in England that limited the power of the king. He said the government should be broken into different sections and that each should have some power to control the others. He wanted government to split into three branches. One branch would make laws, another would interpret the laws, and the third would enforce the laws. This system is called separation of powers, and was the model for the US government. One of the most important ideas from his system is that each branch has some control over another branch. For example, the legislature makes laws, but the head of state (president) enforces them. Montesquieu believed this system would prevent a leader from becoming a tyrant. Jacques Rousseau: Jacques Rousseau He believed that individuals should have certain rights. His ideas supported the French revolution. Rousseau felt that whatever the majority of the people wanted should become law. Rousseau’s ideas of individual freedom spread throughout Europe and the United States. He was against the absolute power or control of the Church and government, and he believed that the government should do what the majority of the people wanted. He also argued that if the people were in control, then the rules should be strictly enforced. Rousseau felt that education needed to be changed. He believed that children should be allowed to show their emotions in order to become well-rounded and freethinking individuals. Rousseau supported the ideals of the Enlightenment by defending the importance of reason and individual rights. Individuals, according to Rousseau, should be allowed to experience and explore life. Benjamin Franklin: Benjamin Franklin Franklin believed in a government that had a single legislature with an advisory board. The board of people would also work for the government. He did not believe the people in charge should be paid for their services. He also felt that slavery was morally wrong and should be abolished. He was a very tolerant man. He could listen quietly but could talk when he was asked to. Because of these qualities, he was asked to represent the United States government during the Revolutionary war. Franklin believed in a simple lifestyle that used common sense and reason to make decisions and guide a person’s life. He was the creator of numerous inventions. Thomas Jefferson: Thomas Jefferson Jefferson believed that the majority of the people would make the right choices when given the chance. He did not want a government that had too much power. He also believed that individual freedom and rights should be protected by government. He felt that all people should be involved in making decisions for the country. He believed that everyone should be allowed to get an education regardless of social status. During the French revolution, he supported the people that wanted to make sure the king would no longer have total control. Voltaire: Voltaire Voltaire is often described as generous, enthusiastic, sentimental, and often distrustful. He felt that all things must be explained logically and reasonably. He fought against intolerance, tyranny, and superstition. He believed in freedom of thought and respect for all individuals. Most importantly, he believed that religion was too powerful and defended individuals who suffered because of their beliefs. He was against any form of religion that was too strict and did not accept the view of others, even though he did believe in God. He thought literature could be used to help understand the problems of the day. Mary Wollstonecraft: Mary Wollstonecraft Mary was not the first woman to recognize the inequalities between men and women during her lifetime, but she became the most popular. While she focused on fighting for the rights of women and against the inequalities in education, she also worked for the equal treatment of all human beings. She emphasized that education for men and women should be based on reason. Mary believed that people should be judged based on individual merit and moral virtue, not on gender. She wrote two books that discussed women’s rights. Mary wanted men to treat their wives as equals, not as property. She also strongly urged that women be given equal opportunity when trying to get a job. Adam Smith: Adam Smith Smith was a philosopher who focused on the role of economics. His most famous book, The Wealth of Nations, was published in 1776. The book had a significant impact on modern economics and concepts of individual freedom. In this book he argued that self-interest guides the most efficient use of resources. The Wealth of Nations established the study of economics as a separate and important topic. With this book, Smith became the first philosopher to focus on the role economics played within society. His beliefs of “free enterprise” set a new standard. Smith also gave lectures and discussed topics such as ethics, human motives, and society. He believed that someone working to earn money benefited himself but also benefited society as a whole. He claimed that charity was a virtuous act but that society should not depend upon charity. Father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla: Father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla After France invaded Spain and Napoleon replaced the Spanish king with his brother, Hidalgo formed ideas about freeing Mexico from the harsh rule of foreigners. Early in the morning on September 16, 1810, he delivered the “ Grito de Dolores,” a fiery speech in which he urged people to fight for Mexico’s independence. Later that day he carried a banner with the picture of Our Lady of Guadalupe and announced his crusade. Thousands of Mexicans joined him as he marched through the streets. By October Hidalgo was able to capture the towns of Guanajuato and Guadalajara. His victories were short-lived. By January the Spanish army had captured his troops. Hidalgo was able to run north, but he was quickly captured and then shot. Hidalgo not only fought for Mexican independence but also questioned many of the policies of his own Church. He was a well educated, liberal priest who urged his parishioners to fight for independence. Simón Bolivar: Simón Bolivar Bolívar believed in a strong central government. He admired the parliamentary system of Britain and thought that political power should be divided among different branches of government. He was afraid that if power was not divided one branch of government would become too strong. He was not willing to give all the people the power to vote until they were properly educated in how the political process worked. He also encouraged all the countries in Spanish America to join together as one nation to guarantee prosperity and security. Wrap Up: Wrap Up Go to the following link http://bit.ly/1oDnbtw To answer the following questions on the sheet, Three rights I think are essential to a successful society. Which Enlightenment thinker was most influential? Why? FOLLOW THE DIRECTIONS ON THE FORM!!