Guidance to the Certification of Linux - PPT

Information about Guidance to the Certification of Linux - PPT

Published on October 20, 2014

Author: quontra123

Source: authorstream.com

Content

Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification: Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification Objectives: Objectives Identify the structure and types of device files in the /dev directory Understand common filesystem types and their features Mount and unmount filesystems to and from the Linux directory tree Create and manage filesystems on floppy disks, CDs, DVDs, USB storage devices, FireWire storage devices, and hard disk partitions Create and use ISO images 2 Objectives (continued): Objectives (continued) Use the LVM to create and manage logical volumes Monitor free space on mounted filesystems Check filesystems for errors Use hard disk quotas to limit user space usage 3 The /dev Directory: The /dev Directory Device file: file representing a system device Typically found in /dev directory Specifies how to transfer data to and from the device Character devices: transfer data to and from system character by character Block devices: transfer chunks or blocks of data using physical memory as a buffer Fast data transfer Floppy disks, CD-ROMs, DVDs, USB flash drives, hard disk drives 4 The /dev Directory (continued): The /dev Directory (continued) Major number: points to the device’s driver in the Linux kernel Minor number: indicates the particular device Device file type (block or character), major number, and minor number make up the unique characteristics of a device file 5 The /dev Directory (continued): The /dev Directory (continued) mknod command: can be used to re-create a corrupted device file Must know file type, major, and minor numbers /dev/MAKEDEV command: can be used to re-create a device file based on its common name Useful if don’t know some of the information required for the mknod command 6 Filesystems: Filesystems Filesystem: organization and management imposed on physical storage media Formatting: creating a filesystem on a device 7 Mounting: Mounting Mounting: making a device accessible to users via the logical directory tree Mount point: directory to which a device is attached The mounted device temporarily covers up the contents of the mount point Any existing directory can be a mount point In order to prevent making files inaccessible, create empty directories used specifically for mounting devices 8 Mounting (continued): Mounting (continued) 9 Figure 5-1: The directory structure prior to mounting Mounting (continued): Mounting (continued) 10 Figure 5-2: The directory structure after mounting a floppy device Mounting (continued): Mounting (continued) Root filesystem: when Linux filesystem is first turned on, a filesystem on the hard drive is mounted to the / directory Contains most OS files mount command: used to mount devices to mount point directories When used with no options or arguments, lists currently mounted filesystems umount command: used to unmount devices from mount point directories 11 Working with Floppy Disks: Working with Floppy Disks Disk devices must be prepared before use Formatted with a filesystem mkfs (make filesystem) command: Used to format a disk device with a filesystem –t option: Specifies filesystem type Default is ext2 filesystem To mount or unmount floppies, must ensure that no user is currently using the mount point directory Use mount command with no options or arguments to get list of currently mounted filesystems Once mounted, use as any other directory 12 Working with Floppy Disks (continued): Working with Floppy Disks (continued) mkfs -t ext3 /dev/hda1 mke2fs mkfs.ext3 mkfs.msdos mkfs.vfat 13 Table 5-3: Commands used to create filesystems Working with Floppy Disks (continued): Working with Floppy Disks (continued) 14 <device to mount> <mount point> <type> <mount options> <dump#> <fsck#> fuser command: With the –u option, lists users using a directory /etc/fstab file: Used to mount devices at boot time Also consulted when users do not specify enough mount command arguments Six fields: Working with Floppy Disks (continued): Working with Floppy Disks (continued) mount Mount <filesystem> <target> umount umount <target> 15 Table 5-4: Useful commands when mounting and unmounting filesystems Working with CDs, DVDs, and ISO Images: Working with CDs, DVDs, and ISO Images Most software is packaged on CDs and DVDs Can be mounted using the mount command and unmounted using umount command Different device file - depend on the technology used by the drive itself. For PATA drives, use one of the following: Primary master (/dev/hda) Primary slave (/dev/hdb) Secondary master (/dev/hdc) Secondary slave (/dev/hdd) 16 Working with CDs, DVDs, and ISO Images (continued): Working with CDs, DVDs, and ISO Images (continued) For SATA or SCSI drives, Linux may use many different names, depending on the actual CD or DVD drive To make identification of CD/DVD drive easier, Fedora Linux includes symbolic links within the /dev directory: /dev/cdrom – symbolic link to first CD-ROM drive /dev/cdrw – symbolic link to first CD-RW drive /dev/dvd – symbolic link to first DVD-ROM drive /dev/dvdrw – symbolic link to first DVD-RW drive 17 Working with CDs, DVDs, and ISO Images (continued): Working with CDs, DVDs, and ISO Images (continued) CDs and DVDs Typically use iso9660 filesystem type and are read only when accessed using Linux Mount with –r (read-only) option Cannot be ejected until properly unmounted In GUI environment, CD or DVD automatically mounted to a directory underneath the /media directory Named for the label on the CD or DVD System places shortcut on desktop 18 Working with CDs, DVDs, and ISO Images (continued): Working with CDs, DVDs, and ISO Images (continued) Figure 5-3: Accessing a DVD within the GNOME desktop environment 19 Working with CDs, DVDs, and ISO Images (continued): Working with CDs, DVDs, and ISO Images (continued) iso9660 filesystem can be used to create ISO images that contain other files Can be mounted as a loopback device using the mount command mkisofs command: Used to create ISO image from directory Receives at least two arguments: Filename to be created Directory used to create the ISO image 20 Working with Hard Disks: Working with Hard Disks Three types of hard disks: PATA, SATA, and SCSI PATA HDDs must be configured in one of the following: Primary master (/dev/hda) Primary slave (/dev/hdb) Secondary master (/dev/hdc) Secondary slave (/dev/hdd) Different device file for each 21 Working with Hard Disks (continued): Working with Hard Disks (continued) SATA and SCSI hard disks are well-suited to Linux servers Faster access speed Multiple hard drives can be attached to a controller Associated with different device files First SCSI HDD (/dev/sda) Second SCSI HDD (/dev/sdb) Third SCSI HDD (/dev/sdc) And so on 22 Standard Hard Disk Partitioning: Standard Hard Disk Partitioning Partition: physical division of an HDD; can have its own filesystem Linux requires at least two partitions; root and swap Good practice to use more than two partitions Segregate different types of data Allow for use of multiple filesystem types on one HDD Reduce chance that filesystem corruption will render a system unusable Speed up access to stored data 23 Standard Hard Disk Partitioning (continued): Standard Hard Disk Partitioning (continued) Track: area on a hard disk that forms a concentric circle Sector: portion of a track containing information Block: combination of sectors Cylinder: series consisting of the same concentric track on all of the metal platters inside a HDD Partition definitions stored in first readable sector of the hard disk Master Boot Record (MBR) or master boot block (MBB) 24 Standard Hard Disk Partitioning (continued): Standard Hard Disk Partitioning (continued) 25 Figure 5-4: The physical areas of a hard disk Standard Hard Disk Partitioning (continued): Standard Hard Disk Partitioning (continued) 26 Table 5-5: Common hard disk partition device files for /dev/hda and /dev/sda Standard Hard Disk Partitioning (continued): Standard Hard Disk Partitioning (continued) 27 Table 5-5 (continued): Common hard disk partition device files for /dev/hda and /dev/sda Standard Hard Disk Partitioning (continued): Standard Hard Disk Partitioning (continued) 28 Figure 5-5: A sample Linux partitioning strategy Standard Hard Disk Partitioning (continued): Standard Hard Disk Partitioning (continued) 29 Figure 5-6: A sample dual-boot Linux partitioning strategy Working with Standard Hard Disk Partitions: Working with Standard Hard Disk Partitions fdisk command: Create partitions after installation Specify hard disk partition as an argument Variety of options for fdisk prompt to achieve different tasks cfdisk command: Interactive graphical utility for creating, manipulating and deleting partitions Reboot computer after using the fdisk and cfdisk commands to ensure proper reloading into memory 30 Working with Standard Hard Disk Partitions (continued): Working with Standard Hard Disk Partitions (continued) Edit /etc/fstab file to allow system to mount new filesystems automatically at boot time mkswap command: Prepare the swap partition swapon command: Activate the swap partition swapoff command: Deactivate the swap partition Edit /etc/fstab file to ensure that new swap partition is activated as virtual memory 31 Working with the LVM: Working with the LVM Logical Volume Manager (LVM): Used to create volumes Volumes can contain filesystems and can be mounted to directories More flexible than standard partitions – allows use of free space across multiple hard disks Has error correction abilities LVM components: physical volumes (PVs), volume group (VG), and logical volumes (LVs) 32 Working with the LVM (continued): Working with the LVM (continued) 33 Working with the LVM (continued): Working with the LVM (continued) pvcreate command: used to create PVs pvdisplay command: used to display detailed information about each PV vgcreate command: used to create a VG that uses the space in PVs Arguments are name of the VG and PVs to be used Physical Extent: block size for saving data in a VG Should be set when creating a VG Can use vgcreate -s to set the PE 34 Working with the LVM (continued): Working with the LVM (continued) vgdisplay command: used to display detailed information about each VG lvcreate command: used to create LVs from available space in a VG lvdisplay command: used to display information about each LV Work with mount points of LVs as would work with any other had disk partition device file Edit /etc/fstab to ensure that LVs are automatically mounted at system startup 35 Working with the LVM (continued): Working with the LVM (continued) pvscan , vgscan , and lvscan commands: Display information about PVs, VGs, and LVs, respectively vgextend command: used to add a new PV to an existing VG lvextend command: used to increase the size of an LV, e.g., to use space extended onto an existing VG 36 Working with USB and FireWire-Based Storage Devices: Working with USB and FireWire-Based Storage Devices Most removable storage devices emulate SCSI protocol in the firmware of the device Devices are automatically mounted to a new directory under the /media directory named for the label on the device Easy to work with removable storage devices using a GUI interface If you want to use commands, must know the device file and mount point directory 37 Monitoring Filesystems: Monitoring Filesystems Check mounted filesystems periodically Errors Disk Space usage Inode usage Minimizes problems that due to damaged filesystems 38 Disk Usage: Disk Usage Using more filesystems typically results in less hard disk space per filesystem Errors when filesystems fill up with data Periodically remove obsolete files such as old log files to make room for new ones df (disk free space) command: Monitor free space used by mounted filesystems –h option: More user friendly To get information about different filesystems, you must mount them prior to using df command 39 Disk Usage (continued): Disk Usage (continued) du (directory usage) command: view size of a directory and contents in Kilobytes –s option: Summarizes output –h option: More user friendly dumpe2fs command: view total number of inodes and free inodes for ext2, ext3, or ext4 filesystem Use –h option 40 Checking Filesystems for Errors: Checking Filesystems for Errors Filesystem corruption: errors in filesystem structure preventing retrieval of data Commonly occurs due to improper system shutdown Syncing: process of writing data stored in RAM to the HDD Bad blocks: unusable areas of a disk Cannot hold a magnetic charge 41 Checking Filesystems for Errors (continued): Checking Filesystems for Errors (continued) fsck (filesystem check) command: check a filesystem for errors Filesystem must be unmounted –f option used to perform full check e2fsck command: Check ext2, ext3, and ext4 filesystems -c option checks for bad blocks tune2fs command: Used to change filesystem parameters -i option sets interval to forcing full system check 42 Checking Filesystems for Errors (continued): Checking Filesystems for Errors (continued) 43 Table 5-6: Common options to the fsck command Hard Disk Quotas: Hard Disk Quotas If several users on a system, must be enough hard disk space for each user’s files Hard disk quotas: user limits on filesystem usage Restrict number of files/directories or total disk space usage Soft limit: user may exceed quota briefly Hard limit: limit cannot be exceeded 44 Hard Disk Quotas (continued): Hard Disk Quotas (continued) quotaon and quotaoff commands: toggle quotas on and off edquota command: edit user quotas repquota command: report user quotas quota command: allows regular users to view their own quotas and current usage 45 Summary: Summary Disk devices are represented by device files that reside in the /dev directory Each disk drive must contain a filesystem, which is then mounted to the Linux directory tree for usage using the mount command Hard disks must be partitioned into distinct sections before filesystems are created on those partitions Many different filesystems available to Linux 46 Summary (continued): Summary (continued) The LVM can be used to create logical volumes from the free space within multiple partitions USB and FireWire storage devices are recognized as SCSI disks by the Linux system Important to monitor disk usage using the df , du , and dumpe2fs commands to avoid running out of storage space If hard disk space is limited, you can use hard disk quotas to limit the space that each user has on filesystems 47

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