Published on January 9, 2008
Module #1: Development of American Schools: Module #1: Development of American Schools In this module your will learn: The history of American Education The reason for federal involvement in education Where we are today Schooling is…: Schooling is… A federal interest A state responsibility A local operation The Colonial Period: The Colonial Period Read about the following: The Puritans in New England The Hornbook The Dame School Apprenticeships in Puritan Massachusetts @ http://www.nd.edu/~rbarger/www7/colonial.html 17th Century: 17th Century Primary purpose of education was to maintain Protestant religious beliefs and ensure social stability – “the good society.” Massachusetts Law of 1642 Old Deluder Satan Law of 1647: required communities to establish and support schools 50 households = teacher instruct in reading and writing 100+ = grammar school to provide instruction that prepared students for college and leadership positions Read more at http://www.nd.edu/~rbarger/www7/masslaws.html Great Conflict : Great Conflict Individuals who wanted to use education to maintain the power versus Individuals who wanted education to be a means of improving conditions for all people Who won??? Schools: Schools Petty Schools: Reading & Writing New England Primer: Read more @ http://www.nd.edu/~rbarger/www7/neprimer.html Grammar School Major emphasis on Latin and minor on Greek and Hebrew, Greek and Roman writers Read more about Grammar schools @ http://www.nd.edu/~rbarger/www7/latingra.html Middle and Southern Colonies: Middle and Southern Colonies Read about education in Middle colonies @ http://www.nd.edu/~rbarger/www7/midcolon.html Southern colonies @ http://www.nd.edu/~rbarger/www7/soucolon.html Shift in Education: Shift in Education Education assumed the role of providing a degree of upward mobility. Grammar schools represented a direct threat to aristocratic control because their existence suggested that individuals could be educated to rule. The grammar school became an important institution in England and to colonies for the improvement of middle-class status. Post-Revolutionary America: Post-Revolutionary America Themes Nationalism Noah Webster’s (“Schoolmaster of America”) spelling book replaced the New England Primer Webster believed that in addition to teaching reading and writing, his texts should produce good and patriotic Americans, develop an American language, and create a unified national spirit. Freedom could be allowed if controls over behavior were internalized within the citizen Balance of freedom and order to be achieved through education. Read more @ http://www.nd.edu/~rbarger/www7/webster.html Two Views: Two Views All citizens should be educated to read and write and that political opinions should be formed outside of educational institutions (Thomas Jefferson). versus Educational institutions needed to teach basic principles of a republican form of government (common school reformers). What types of elements are present in our schools today that reflect these two views? Secondary School: Secondary School 1751: referred to as “academies” Education that would be Practical Prepare students for college Formed the basis for early high schools First high school: Boston in 1821 Learn more @ http://www.nd.edu/~rbarger/www7/riseofhs.html Common School Movement1830s and 40s: Common School Movement 1830s and 40s Reflected a growing faith in the power of schooling to solve the problems of society. Horace Mann - “father of the common school” Goal was to provide a moral education based on general principles of the Bible and on common virtues resulting in the creation of a society with a consensus of political and moral values Charity Schools (Lancasterian System) Could handle as many as 1,000 students. Students in rows and received instruction from monitors, who received instruction form the master, who sat at the end of the room. The key to social control and social stability – SCHOOLS Read more @ http://www.nd.edu/~rbarger/www7/mann.html Distinctive Aspects of the Common School: Distinctive Aspects of the Common School Emphasis on educating all children in a common schoolhouse. Using schools as an instrument of government policies. Creation of state agencies to control local schools. *It was argued that if children from a variety of religious, social-class, and ethnic backgrounds were educated in common school, there would be a decline in hostility and friction between social groups – the idea of using education as a way to solve social problems and build a political community. Equality of Economic Opportunity: Equality of Economic Opportunity Schools became an important function for society in general. For the… Worker: means for improving personal economic condition. School reformer: means of reducing friction among social classes. Employer: means of ensuring a supply of the best possible workers by creating competition among workers in the labor market. Members of society: hope for providing and maintaining a society based on equality of economic opportunity. New Forms of School Organization: New Forms of School Organization Schoolmarms: 4 factors influenced the development of schoolmarms The struggle of women for education and careers. The development of concepts of republican motherhood and of women as symbols of charity. The inclusion of sex-role differences in the organization of education. Economic exploitation of women. As schools began to grow, development of Superintendent: Learn more @ http://www.nd.edu/~rbarger/www7/suptschl.html Principal: Learn more @ http://www.nd.edu/~rbarger/www7/roleprin.html Standardization of curriculum and instruction (McGuffey Readers); learn more @ http://www.nd.edu/~rbarger/www7/mcguffey.html National Education Association (NEA) The Committee of Ten (1892): National Education Association (NEA) The Committee of Ten (1892) Recommendation 8 years of elementary education 4 years of secondary education: Goal was to prepare all students to do well in life, contributing to their own well-being and society's good, and to prepare some students for college. Defined four different curricula as appropriate for high school. Classical Latin-scientific Modern language English Courses that are now considered basic like foreign languages, mathematics, science, English and history were included in each curriculum. End of the 19th Century: End of the 19th Century Urbanization Industrialization Immigration American educational system took on broader social and economic functions: Expanded social functions (nurse, health programs, showers, after-school and community activities, playgrounds, etc.) Curriculum to solve problems of the lost values of a small-town, rural society Americanization programs for immigrants Organize the school system to improve human capital as a means of economic growth (vocational education and establishment of comprehensive high school) End of the 19th Century: End of the 19th Century A hierarchy with a superintendent at the top and orders flowing from the top to the bottom of the organization Clearly defined differences in roles of superintendent, principals, assistant principals, and teachers Graded schools in which students progressively moved form one grade to another (learn more @ http://www.nd.edu/~rbarger/www7/grading.html) A graded course of study for the entire school system to assure uniformity in teaching in all grades in the system An emphasis on rational planning, order, regularity, and punctuality In the urban areas… The “Goal”Meritocracy: The “Goal” Meritocracy Social goal: each individual’s social and occupational position is determined by individual merit, not political or economic influence Science of Education: Science of Education As schools grow we see the use of… Measurement of intelligence, interests, and abilities Learn more @ http://www.nd.edu/~rbarger/www7/hall.html Vocational guidance: matching the student with an educational program and future occupation Learn more @ http://www.nd.edu/~rbarger/www7/manualtr.html Education & Human Capital: Education & Human Capital Use of segregated educational systems School was used to select individuals for particular occupations. Increased investment in education would increase the economic wealth of society. Pressure to provide an education that would be useful in getting a job. Learn more @ http://www.nd.edu/~rbarger/www7/impbusin.html Equality of Opportunity: Equality of Opportunity Under this system, it allowed an individual to find the best place in the economic system in which to develop personal interests and abilities. No longer did students receive an equal or common education; students received different educations based on individual differences. Problem: Was often a mask for social-class and racial discrimination. Political Structure of Schooling: Political Structure of Schooling We see the development of … Modern school bureaucracy Educational administration became professionalized New concepts of educational control Teacher unions Establishment of small school boards In the first place God made idiots. This was for practice. Then he made school boards. Mark Twain: In the first place God made idiots. This was for practice. Then he made school boards. Mark Twain Development of School Boards: Development of School Boards School should be kept out of politics. Control of the school by local civic elites composed primarily of the “best” members of the community. Proper role of the board of education was to establish policy. Proper role of the administrators was to administer that policy without interference from the board of education. PLESSY V. FERGUSON : PLESSY V. FERGUSON Established the “separate but equal doctrine” Learn more @ http://www.nd.edu/~rbarger/www7/plessy.html In education, Roberts v. Boston - 1849 Mass Circuit- Separate But Equal Doctrine Early 1900s: Early 1900s The following slides outline some of the early position statements about education from different organizations. Cardinal Principals of Secondary Education (1913-NEA): Cardinal Principals of Secondary Education (1913-NEA) Health Command of fundamental processes Worthy home membership Vocation Citizenship Worthy use of leisure time Ethical character Learn more @ http://www.nd.edu/~rbarger/www7/cardprin.html Cardinal Principles for Elementary Schools (1932 – NY Dept of Ed.): Cardinal Principles for Elementary Schools (1932 – NY Dept of Ed.) Understand and practice desirable social relationships Discover and develop desirable individual aptitudes Cultivate the habits of critical thinking Appreciate and desire worthwhile activities Gain command of common integrated knowledge and skills Develop a sound body and normal mental attitudes The Purposes of Education in American Democracy (1938-Educational Policies Commission): The Purposes of Education in American Democracy (1938-Educational Policies Commission) Self-realization Human Relationship Economic efficiency Civic responsibility The Imperative Needs of Youth of Secondary School Age (NASSP, 1944): The Imperative Needs of Youth of Secondary School Age (NASSP, 1944) Education should be planned for all youth. Education should be free. All youth have certain educational needs in common, and education should be adapted to personal and social needs. Education should be continuous. Education for All American Children (Educational Policies Commission 1948): Education for All American Children (Educational Policies Commission 1948) A basic health education A high degree of skill in reading, writing, and arithmetic Habits of good workmanship Skills of critical thinking, constructive discussion, and social responsibility Cooperative skills Development of Unions: Development of Unions American Federation of Teachers 1916 Learn more @ http://www.nd.edu/~rbarger/www7/aft.html 1940s & 50s: 1940s & 50s Professional educators criticized for making the public schools weak. Anticommunism and cold war Sputnik in 1957 Federal Responses: Federal Responses National Science Foundation National Defense Education Act (NDEA): targeted specific funds for improving math and science education Became a means by which the federal government could control local educational policy simply by offering money for the establishment of specified educational programs. Learn more about federal response @ http://www.nd.edu/~rbarger/www7/fedaid.html 1960s: 1960s Increased involvement and power of the federal government over local school systems War on Poverty Economic Opportunity Act of 1964 (EOA): Job Corps & Head Start Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (ESEA): Major funding for improving educational programs for children form low-income families. Civil rights legislation Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954): “Separate but equal” is not equal Learn more @ http://www.nd.edu/~rbarger/www7/brown.html Mass media: local problems became national issues Civil Rights Act of 1964 Spring (1990): In the rhetoric of the War on Poverty, education was considered the hope of the poor and the method of the middle class.: Spring (1990): In the rhetoric of the War on Poverty, education was considered the hope of the poor and the method of the middle class. 1970s-Conservative Reaction: 1970s-Conservative Reaction Beginning of accountability movement Development of alternative/magnet schools Education given greater emphasis in national politics Public Law 94-142 – The Education of All Handicapped Children Act Growth of NEA/AFT 1980s – Educational Reform: 1980s – Educational Reform Investigation of schools Ernest Boyer: study of American high school for the Carnegie Foundation John Goodlad: Study of Schooling Horace’s Compromise by Ted Sizer A Nation at Risk Learn more @ http://www.nd.edu/~rbarger/www7/nationrs.html *First national elections with a clearly defined educational constituency 1990s: 1990s Goals 2000 (1991): Centerpiece for education reform in both the Bush and Clinton Administrations The Goals: All children in America will start school ready to learn. The high school graduation rate will increase to at least 90%. All students will leave grades 4, 8, and 12 having demonstrated competence in challenging subject matter in the core academic subjects. U.S. students will be first in the world in mathematics and science achievement. Goals 2000 Continued…: Goals 2000 Continued… Every adult American will be literate and will possess the knowledge and skills necessary to compete in a global economy and exercise the rights and responsibilities of citizenship. Every school in the U.S. will be free of drugs, violence, and the unauthorized presence of firearms and alcohol and will offer a disciplined environment conducive to learning. The nation’s teaching force will have access to programs for the continued improvement of their professional skills and the opportunity to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to instruct and prepare all American students for the next century. Every school will promote partnerships that will increase parental involvement and participation in promoting the social, emotional, and academic growth of children. Education Issues in 1990s: Education Issues in 1990s Local system vs. federal/state Growth of teacher power General education vs. categorical programs Reform of education and schooling Minimum competency/Quality review/Accountability Decision making or social problem solving Role of administration (manager vs. educational leader/facilitator) Societal Factors 1990s: Societal Factors 1990s Only 28% of voters have school-aged children. Today, much greater. Economic realities have required both parents to enter workforce Sharp increase in single-parent families (1 in 5). Today, much greater. More pluralistic society Less participation in government Declining belief in idea of progress and government action Increasingly “litigious” society “Information Age” Today: Today Our students have changed, so must we… To see the “mindset” of incoming college students, visit http://www.beloit.edu/~pubaff/mindset/ Revised Elementary & Secondary Education Act – January 2002No Child Left Behind: Revised Elementary & Secondary Education Act – January 2002 No Child Left Behind Annual, statewide assessments in reading and mathematics for grades 3-8 States must attain academic proficiency – as defined by each state – for all students within 12 years. Adequate yearly progress (AYP) Annual school report cards Highly qualified teachers Plus more…. Read more @ http://www.ed.gov/nclb/landing.jhtml?src=pb http://www.isbe.net/nclb/default.htm Educational Administration: Educational Administration Relatively new field of study School administration grew out of the need for more schooling and more complex organizational arrangements. 1st state superintendent – 1812 (NY) 1st district superintendent – 1837 (Buffalo and Louisville) “Head” or “Principal Teacher – 1830-40 in Cincinnati and Detroit 1800s: school administration positions firmly in place in urban areas. Slide47: You are now ready to take your quiz.