haemoglobinometer

Information about haemoglobinometer

Published on July 14, 2014

Author: raniashok

Source: authorstream.com

Content

HAEMOGLOBINOMETER: HAEMOGLOBINOMETER Mrs. Rani Ashok Associate Professor of Zoology Lady Doak College, Madurai – 2 Email: [email protected] Haemoglobin : Haemoglobin Hemoglobin ( Hb ) is a conjugated protein present in red blood cells. It carries oxygen from the lungs to the tissues, and carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs. It is made up of heme and globin . The heme group is an iron complex, containing one iron atom. Iron is essential for the primary function of the hemoglobin , the transport of oxygen. Haemoglobin : Haemoglobin When reduced hemoglobin is exposed to oxygen at increased pressure, oxygen is taken up at the iron atom until each molecule of hemolecule at each iron atom. The Hb molecule when fully saturated with oxygen, that is, four oxygen molecules combined with one hemoglobin molecule, is called oxy- hemoglobin . One gram of hemoglobin carries 1.34 ml of oxygen. Hemoglobin returning with carbon dioxide from the tissues is called reduced hemoglobin . Types of Haemoglobin : Types of Haemoglobin Normal types Adult Hb , Fetal Hb and Embryonic Hb Abnormal types Hb S, Hb C, Hb D, Hb E and Unstable hemoglobins Adult Haemoglobin : Adult Haemoglobin Haemoglobin A ( HbA ) About 97 per cent of hemoglobin of adult red cells is Hb A. It consists of two alpha (a) and two beta (b) chains with the structural formala a 2 b 2. Hb A is detected in small amounts in the fetus as early as the eighth week of intrauterine life. During the first few months of postnatal Life, Hb A almost completely replaces Hb F and the adult pattern is fully established in six months Adult Haemoglobin : Adult Haemoglobin Haemoglobin A 2 (HbA 2 ) minor hemoglobin in the adult red cells. It has the structural formal of a 2 d 2 . Hb A 2 is present in very small amounts at birth and reaches the adult level of 3 per cent during the first year of life. Its concentration increases in some types of anemia Foetal Haemoglobin : Foetal Haemoglobin Fetal hemoglobin ( Hb F): Hb F is the major hemoglobin in intrauterine life. It has the structural formala of a 2 g 2 . Hb F accounts for 70-90 per cent of hemoglobin at term. It then falls rapidly to 25 per cent in one month, and 5 percent in six months. The adult level of 1 per cent is not reached in some children until puberty Hb F concentration in adults increases in some types of anemia , hemoglobinopathies , and some time in leukemia . Hemoglobin Bart’s ( Hb Barts ): This is the minor hemoglobin present in fetal life. It consists of four gamma (g) chains g 4 . Hb Bart’s concentration increases in fetal life in thalassemia . Embryonic Haemoglobin : Embryonic Haemoglobin Confined to the very early stage (the embryonic stage) of development. There are three embryonic hemoglobins : 1) Hb Gower 1 (consisting of two zeta and two epsilon chains: V 2   e 2 ), 2) Hb Gower 2 (consisting of two alpha and two epsilon chains: a 2 e 2 ) and 3 ) Hb Portland (consisting of two zeta and two gamma chains:V 2 g 2 ) Abnormal Haemoglobin: Abnormal Haemoglobin Four clinically important abnormal hemoglobins : Hb S, Hb C, Hb D, and Hb E SHALI’S HAEMOGLOBINOMETER: SHALI’S HAEMOGLOBINOMETER PowerPoint Presentation: Sahli’s tube which is having red and yellow scales on two sides. Red scale is percentage scale and yellow scale is gram percentage or g/100ml scale Error percentage is 3%. SHALI’S HAEMOGLOBINOMETER: SHALI’S HAEMOGLOBINOMETER It contains a comparator, hemoglobin tube, hemoglobin pipette, and stirrer SHALI’S HAEMOGLOBINOMETER: SHALI’S HAEMOGLOBINOMETER Comparator At the middle there is a slot which accommodates the hemoglobin tube. Non-fading standard brown tinted glass pieces are provided on either side of the slot for colour matching. An opaque white glass is fitted at the back to provide uniform illumination SHALI’S HAEMOGLOBINOMETER: SHALI’S HAEMOGLOBINOMETER Haemoglobin tube It is graduated on one side in gram per cent (g%), from 2-24, and on the other side as percentage (%), from 20-140. This tube is called as Sahli -Adams tube SHALI’S HAEMOGLOBINOMETER: SHALI’S HAEMOGLOBINOMETER Haemoglobin pipette The pipette bears only one mark indicating 20 cu mm (0.2ml). There is no bulb in this pipette SHALI’S HAEMOGLOBINOMETER: SHALI’S HAEMOGLOBINOMETER Stirrer It is thin glass rod used for stirring the solution Sahli’s acid hematin method: Sahli’s acid hematin method PRINCIPLE Hemoglobin is converted to acid hematin by the action of HCL. The acid hematin solution is further diluted until its colour matches exactly with that of the permanent standard of the comparator block. The hemoglobin concentration is read directly from the calibration tube. Requirements: Requirements Sahli’s haemoglobinometer N/10 HCl Distilled water Dropper Materials for a sterile finger prick Procedure: Procedure In sahli’s tube, take N/10 HCL(1/10 th of the original HCL) up to 10 th level of scale. In sahli’s pipette, take 0.02ml (20microleter) blood. Add blood from pipette into tube. HCL will cause the lysis of the blood cells and hemoglobin is released. Hb after combining with HCL, forms acid hematin which is of tan color . Put tube in the hemometer and continuously add drops of distilled water and shake with the stirrer until color matches. Then, take the reading. Interpretation of results: Interpretation of results Heam portion of hemoglobin is a porphyrin type pigment and contains iron Thank You: Thank You

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