Hair Structure

Information about Hair Structure

Published on December 6, 2009

Author: nadharaiya

Source: authorstream.com

Content

PREY BASE IDENTIFICATION OFGREATER CATS OF GIR PAUSING THEIR SCAT HAIR SAMPLESNishith Dharaiya and Soni V.C.Department of Biosciences, Saurashtra University, Rajkot.Present Address: Dept. of Life Sciences, Hem. North Gujarat University, Patan. E-mail: [email protected] : PREY BASE IDENTIFICATION OFGREATER CATS OF GIR PAUSING THEIR SCAT HAIR SAMPLESNishith Dharaiya and Soni V.C.Department of Biosciences, Saurashtra University, Rajkot.Present Address: Dept. of Life Sciences, Hem. North Gujarat University, Patan. E-mail: [email protected] Introduction : Introduction The Gir Protected Area is well known for coexistence of two top carnivore species i.e. Asiatic Lion (Panthera leo persica) and Leopard (P. pardus). It is very important to know the food habits and niche separation of these two sympatric cat species for their monitoring and better wildlife management. For carnivores, one of the best methods is Scat Analysis in which the undigested matter of the prey serve as the best source for prey identification. Slide 3: Method of hair identification in the scat study have been used by many researchers to study the carnivore feeding ecology and prey predator relationship. The practical application of hair identification in biological and forensic sciences have been enumerated by several investigators. Hair identification is also useful to identify a mammal inhabiting a den or a tree. Hair remains also serve as evidence in convicting a game law violator or determination of the authenticity of a fur coat Slide 4: The present investigation provide a set of illustrations of the structure of mammalian hair that can be used to make visual comparison with unknown hair samples found in the carnivore scats. Here the hair of each species are identified by using both macroscopic and microscopic characters. Methodology : Methodology The known hair specimens of the prey species were collected from the Sakkarbaug Zoological garden, Junagadh and from the Municipal Corporation Zoo, Rajkot. The specimens were carefully washed and air-dried. Identification characters of the hair were recorded as macroscopic character and microscopic characters as follows: Macroscopic characters: Colour, length and diameter of the hair. Microscopic characters: Medullary structure and scale pattern. Slide 6: The microscopic structure like medullary pattern have studied by the cross sections where as the scale pattern were confirmed by looking at hair imprints prepared as described by Soni, et al. (2003). The permanent mountings were observed under light binocular microscope at the magnification of 10X as well as 45X and microphotographs were taken at 45X magnification. All the measurements of hair length and width were taken by using micrometer. General Structure of Hair : General Structure of Hair Cuticle Cortex Medulla Cuticular Scales (After Brunner and Comman, 1974) Cuticular Scale structure : Cuticular Scale structure The scale structure could be studied by looking at Scale margin, Scale pattern and the distance between the scales. The scale margin is the edge of individual scale it may be of Smooth, Rippled, Crenate, Scalloped or Dentate type. The scale pattern is the overall arrangement of the scales it may be of Regular waved, Irregular waved or Diamond petal type. The distance between the two successive scale can be Closed, Near or Distant type. (After Brunner and Comman, 1974) Slide 9: Macroscopic Characters Colour: White to Grayish Length: 1.7 ± 1.5 cm Diameter: 78 μ Microscopic Characters Medullary Pattern: Large oval Scale Structure: Margin: Smooth Pattern: Regular waved Distance: Closed Chital (Axis axis) Macroscopic Characters Colour: White to Grayish Length: 1.7 ± 1.5 cm Diameter: 78 μ Microscopic Characters Medullary Pattern: Large oval Scale Structure: Margin: Smooth Pattern: Regular waved Distance: Closed Slide 10: Sambar (Cervus unicolor) Macroscopic Characters Colour: White to Yellowish Length: 4 ± 1.5 cm Diameter: 180 μ Microscopic Characters Medullary Pattern: Large oval Scale Structure: Margin: Smooth Pattern: Regular waved Distance: Near Slide 11: Blue bull(Boselaphus tragocamalus) Macroscopic Characters Colour: Brown to Yellow Length: 2.9 ± 1.9 cm Diameter: 137 μ Microscopic Characters Medullary Pattern: Large rounded Scale Structure: Margin: Crenate Pattern: Irregular waved Distance: Near Slide 12: Indian Gazelle(Gazella gazella) Macroscopic Characters Colour: Black/White Length: 16.5 ± 1 cm Diameter: 52 μ Microscopic Characters Medullary Pattern: Elliptical Scale Structure: Margin: Crenate Pattern: Irregular waved Distance: Near Slide 13: Small Indian Civet (Viverricula indica) Macroscopic Characters Colour: Light gray to Dark gray Length: 3 ± 1.5 cm Diameter: 62 μ Microscopic Characters Medullary Pattern: Large oval Scale Structure: Margin: Crenate Pattern: Regular waved Distance: Closed Slide 14: Ratel(Mellivora capensis) Macroscopic Characters Colour: Brown to White Length: 4 ± 0.5 cm Diameter: 55 μ Microscopic Characters Medullary Pattern: Large oval Scale Structure: Margin: Rippled Pattern: Irregular waved Distance: Near Slide 15: Jackal (Canis aureus) Macroscopic Characters Colour: Brown to Black/Gray Length: 5 ± 1 cm Diameter: 90 μ Microscopic Characters Medullary Pattern: Cigar shaped Scale Structure: Margin: Scalloped Pattern: Regular waved Distance: Distant Slide 16: Domestic Buffalo Macroscopic Characters Colour: Black Length: 2.5 ± 1 cm Diameter: 80 μ Microscopic Characters Medullary Pattern: Large rounded Scale Structure: Margin: Crenate Pattern: Regular waved Distance: Closed Slide 17: Domestic Cow Macroscopic Characters Colour: Dark red to various Length: 1.2 ± 0.3 cm Diameter: 35 μ Microscopic Characters Medullary Pattern: Oval Scale Structure: Margin: Rippled Pattern: Regular waved Distance: Closed Slide 18: Domestic Sheep Macroscopic Characters Colour: White Length: 4 ± 2 cm Diameter: 20 μ Microscopic Characters Medullary Pattern: Irregular oval Scale Structure: Margin: Smooth Pattern: Irregular waved Distance: Closed Slide 19: Domestic Goat Macroscopic Characters Colour: Black to various Length: 4 ± 1.5 cm Diameter: 61 μ Microscopic Characters Medullary Pattern: Cigar shaped Scale Structure: Margin: Dentate Pattern: Diamond patel Distance: Distant Slide 20: Stripped hyaena(Hyaena hyaena) Macroscopic Characters Colour: White to Brown Length: 3.7 ± 1.5 cm Diameter: 45 μ Microscopic Characters Medullary Pattern: Large rounded Scale Structure: Margin: Scalloped Pattern: Regular waved Distance: Near Slide 21: Asiatic Lion(Panthera leo persica) Macroscopic Characters Colour: White to Yellow Length: 3.1 ± 0.1 cm Diameter: 40 μ Microscopic Characters Medullary Pattern: Small rounded Scale Structure: Margin: Rippled Pattern: Regular waved Distance: Near Slide 22: Leopard(Panthera pardus) Macroscopic Characters Colour: Yellow to White Length: 4 ± 1 cm Diameter: 45 μ Microscopic Characters Medullary Pattern: Oval Scale Structure: Margin: Crenate Pattern: Regular waved Distance: Near Other Wild animals : Other Wild animals

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