hamm

Information about hamm

Published on October 23, 2007

Author: Pravez

Source: authorstream.com

Content

Religious Conversion in Prison:  Religious Conversion in Prison Mark S. Hamm, Ph.D. Indiana State University Sponsored by National Institute of Justice Background:  Background Non-Judeo-Christian Faith Groups Hinduism Islam Hare-Krishna Buddhist Sikh Dharma Native-American Faith Groups cont.:  Faith Groups cont. Rastafarian Hispanic (Santeria, Curanderism, Espiritismo) Christian Scientist Wicca Faith Groups cont.:  Faith Groups cont. Prison Islam Nation of Islam Moorish-Science Temple White Supremacy Odin/Asatru Christian Identity Conversion Figures:  Conversion Figures Fastest growing religion in prison is Islam 80% of all prison conversions are to Islam Converts include African-Americans, Hispanics and Whites Annual prisoner conversions to Islam: 35,000 Percent Muslims in major prison systems: 18% Prison conversions to Islam since 9/11: 175,000 Michigan DOC: Pop. 48,217:  Michigan DOC: Pop. 48,217 Catholic 5,547 Protestant 24,970 Jewish 661 Al-Islam 1,791 Nation of Islam 2,241 Moorish-Science 3,028 Melanic Islamic 4 No-Preference 5,209 Other 4,766 Percent Islamic 15% Moorish-Science Temple:  Moorish-Science Temple Founded 1913 in Newark NJ by Nobel Drew Ali African-Americans are Islamic “Moors” Negro/Black slave terms “El” or “Bay” correction Nation of Islam:  Nation of Islam Evolved from Moorish-Science in Detroit,1930 Introduced to prison by Elijah Muhammad, 1942 Black superiority, racial separation, justice through Islam Reasons for Conversion:  Reasons for Conversion Personal crisis Security from gangs/peer pressure Influential free-world leaders Manipulative purposes Genuine religious experience Conflicting Views on Terrorism:  Conflicting Views on Terrorism Islam offers prisoners spiritual path to rehabilitation. Supported by research. Non-traditional prison faith groups (especially Islam) are targets for terrorist recruitment. As recruiting grounds, prisons are unnecessary. Melanic Palace of the Rising Sun:  Melanic Palace of the Rising Sun Mutating form of Prison Islam Established at the Southern Michigan State Prison, Jackson, in 1983 In-prison crimes: homicide, riot Free world crimes: none Jamiyyat Ul-Islam Is-Saheeh (JIS) Assembly of Authentic Islam:  Jamiyyat Ul-Islam Is-Saheeh (JIS) Assembly of Authentic Islam Mutating form of Prison Islam Established in 1997 by Peter Martinez and cellmate Kevin James at Folsom Followers include prisoners and former prisoners and their friends JIS:  JIS Recruit: Levar Washington, 25 Age at conversion: 19 (Folsom) Plot to attack military and Jewish targets Convert/terror lag time: 6 years JIS:  JIS Recruit: Gregory Patterson, 21 No record Employment: LAX Education: Cal State Northridge Plot to attack military/Jewish targets Christian Identity:  Christian Identity Recruit: John William King, 24 Age at conversion: 20 (Beto I Unit, Texas) Confederate Knights of America, AB Hate crime: Dragging death of James Byrd Convert/terror lag: 4 yrs. Christian Identity:  Christian Identity Recruit: Gary Lee Yarbrough, 27 Age at conversion: 23 (Arizona State Prison) The Order Terrorism: Counterfeiting, Murder, Bank Robbery Lag: 2 years Christian Identity:  Christian Identity Peter Langan, 38 Age at conversion: 19 (Raiford Prison, Florida) Aryan Republican Army Terrorism: Bank Robbery, Explosives Lag: 14 years Islam:  Islam Recruit: Jose Padilla, 32 Age at conversion: 22 (Broward County Jail, Florida) Al-Qaeda Terrorism: “Dirty bomb” plot on US Lag: 1 year Islam:  Islam Recruit:Youseff Fikri Age at conversion: (Moroccan prison) Jihad of Righteous Ancestors (SA) Terrorism: 2003 Casablanca bombings Lag: Islam :  Islam Recruit: Jamal Ahmidan, 33 Age at conversion: 19 (Moroccan prison) Takfir wal Hijra 2004 Madrid bombings Lag: 14 years Islam :  Islam Recruit: Muktar Ibrahim, 27 Age at conversion: 19 (British Youth Detention) London bombers, July 21 cell (2005) Lag: 8 years Islam:  Islam Recruit: Richard Reid, 29 Age at conversion: 20 (British prison) Al-Qaeda Terrorism: 2003 “Shoe-bombing” plot Lag: 7 years Islam:  Islam Abu Musab al-Zarqawi (1966-2006) Age at conversion: 26 (Jordan prison) Al-Qaeda in Iraq Terrorism: multiple Lag: None Islam :  Islam Recruit: Carlos the Jackal Age at conversion: 26 Free-lance Terrorism: Multiple. Most famous, OPEC raid, came after conversion Lag: None The Jackal Today:  The Jackal Today Le Sante Prison, France. Life sentence Al-Qaeda sympathizer Claims 9/11 victims were “enemy soldiers”

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