harder2006wasteelvs

Information about harder2006wasteelvs

Published on February 12, 2008

Author: Regina1

Source: authorstream.com

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DEVELOPMENTS IN THE PYROLYSIS OF AUTOMOTIVE SHREDDER RESIDUE M K Harder & O T Forton Waste & Energy Research Group University of Brighton, UK.:  DEVELOPMENTS IN THE PYROLYSIS OF AUTOMOTIVE SHREDDER RESIDUE M K Harder & O T Forton Waste & Energy Research Group University of Brighton, UK. Waste 2006 Slide2:  THIS IS automotive shredder residue Slide3:  The (Big) Problem The Solutions The Problems of the Solutions What we know What we don’t know Possible Futures Outline of talk Slide4:  25% of the car is left as waste: Automotive Shredder Residue ASR has been categorized as ‘hazardous’ in some countries ASR has been banned from landfill in some countries More cars worldwide => More ASR worldwide A big enough problem to earn its own EU Directive: The ELV Directive (End of Life Vehicle). - “More of the ELV must be recycled’ - “Manufacturers must take responsibility’ End of Life Vehicles (ELV): a growing problem the (Big) Problem Slide5:  Initial Recycling rates: 68-74% by weight [iron & steel towards new cars] ELV Directive proposals: 85% by 2006 [ <5% for energy recovery ] 95% by 2015 [ <10% for energy recovery ] Where is the extra 21% coming from?? (and metal content is decreasing with time..) End of Life Vehicles (ELV): a growing problem! the (Big) Problem Slide6:  ACCORD 2000 Material Composition of a Typical Car: the (Big) Problem Slide7:  air classifier Feedstock in ~25% waste SR: Shredder Residue (or ‘fluff’) LANDFILLED! ~5% non-ferrous + ferrous products <15 mm metals separator 15 -130 mm ~62% ferrous product magnetic separator shredder trommel the (Big) Problem Slide8:  MIDDLE (15–130mm) (~50%) OVERSIZE (>130mm) (~10%) FINES (<15mm) (~40%) the (Big) Problem Slide9:  air classifier Feedstock in ~5% non-ferrous + ferrous products <15 mm ‘fines’ metals separator 15 -130 mm ‘middles’ ~62% ferrous product magnetic separator shredder trommel ~25% waste SR: Shredder Residue (or ‘fluff’) to landfill =‘light’ ASR dense media plant ~5% non-ferrous product + waste = ‘heavy’ ASR >130 mm ‘oversize’ the (Big) Problem Slide10:  Fines (50%±5%) Middle Fraction (50%±5%) ‘Light’ SR Composition Harder et al 2004 Too small sized to separate easily the (Big) Problem Slide11:  As of 2001, several pyrolysis processes appeared to offer near-solutions [Malkow 2002]: Of these, only a few are still contenders. What are the solutions? Processes developed: ●the Solutions? Slide12:  Current status: not actively pursued Shredded MSW +/- ASR ~500 C Rotary kiln Pulver. Coal Fired boiler Screen / sort Coal Mills (fuel) gases solids Steam Fe & non-Fe metals Contherm Process by RWE the Solutions? Slide13:  PKA Process the Solutions? Shredded MSW, ASR, Tyres, Plastics soils ~500 C Rotary kiln 1 hour 1000 C cracking Screen / sort gases solids fuel gas Fe & non-Fe metals Grind <2mm Fuel, Sorbent, or Raw material For bricks OR… vitrify char at 1400 C, granulate <1mm and use for cement Current status: fully commercial (but not with ASR) Slide14:  Pyrolmelt Process (Lurgi Entsorgung) Current status: semi-commercial Shredded <15cm MSW, ASR, Plastics 8-18 MJ/kg ~1200 C Pyrolysis Screen / sort +air For Combust. gases solids Steam +Oxygen 1350 C Steam Vitrified ash liquids Fe & non-Fe metals the Solutions? Slide15:  TWR Process (Takuma) (Siemens; Schwel-Brenn  TWR / Mitsui Processes) Current status: semi - commercial ? ~450 C ~1 hour 1300 C Screen >5mm / sort gases solids Fe & non-Fe metals Grind <1mm Steam Air Granulated slag the Solutions? Slide16:  Schwarze Pumpe  SVZ  Global Energy Current status: demonstrator (not specifically ASR) Gas’n 800-1300 C 363psi oxygen steam pelletized ASR, Tyres, Biomass, RDF Steam slag methanol the Solutions? Slide17:  Other (gasification) processes: WGT Process (demonstrator) Precon (Krupp Uhde); Penflo Process (fully commercial) Ebara/ Alstrom/ Twinrec; TIFG Process (fully commercial) ________________ Of these, only Ebara Twinrec is fully commercial and clearly treats ASR. Of these, only Takuma TWR is semi-commercial and clearly treats ASR. the Solutions? Slide18:  Ebara Twinrec Plant Fully commercial ASR + Sewerage Sludge: 70/30 ~100,000 t/pa Figure taken from Ando et al, 2002 Slide19:  Issues with these ‘solutions’ – especially inhibiting smaller sized plant: They all have problems with: Chlorine levels in the ASR (from PVC); high AND variable Heavy metals in the char / ash, esp. Pb, Zn, Cu Sudden variations in the composition of the feed Some have problems with: Pre-shredding and mixing; energy and financial costs Granulation of slags; energy and financial costs Handling costs – ASR to facility, or facility to ASR?? the problem with solutions? Slide20:  What types of facilities will the small operators want? Short residence time Very robust plant that will not break down Large throughput – minimum 20 tonnes / day Safe – no steam production or high pressures No stack if possible! Plant not too big – especially combustion chamber Make useful fuel e.g. diesel… No hassle with the regulatory environment agencies the problem with solutions? Slide21:  What do we know already that can help design facilities? Material composition of the raw ASR Elemental composition of the chars / ash Levels of heavy metal contamination Levels of chlorine Calorific values Whether char production volumes are sensitive to process parameters what we know? Slide22:  And more info in… ASR composition (by material type) ●what we know? Slide23:  ASR Energy Values ●what we know? Slide24:  And more info in… Metal Contamination in ASR char ●what we know? Slide25:  How to mechanically sort off the useful large pieces Where the high level of lead is coming from How to reduce the levels of heavy metal contamination How to reduce the levels of chlorine How to OPTMIZE THE RECOVERED PRODUCTS OVERALL – not just for metals, just for energy Whether the commercially proven Japanese plant will work with feed from other countries What don’t we know? Slide26:  Taken from Schwager & Whiting, 2003 Possible futures: adaptations of the large plant like these: Slide27:  Possible futures Taken from Schwager & Whiting, 2003 Ebara ASR plant; ~100,000 t/pa Slide28:  Designed for specific feed – from a specific site Designed for mixed local feeds e.g. sewerage + ASR Need to reduce risk of being wiped out by alternative competing processes e.g. mechanical separation Hybrid schemes; send middles ASR for sorting; fines ASR for prolysis Produce diesel for company’s trucks only Minimize gas production unless taken off site Send ASR to central processing sites – or collect ELVs at central sites – so that Auto companies can take control! Possible futures Possible futures: small scale niche plant ●Possible futures Slide29:  Taken from Schwager & Whiting, 2003 Possible futures Slide30:  Taken from Schwager & Whiting, 2003 Possible futures Slide31:  Taken from Schwager & Whiting, 2003 Possible futures Slide32:  The first commercial ASR recycling plant have arrived! They will need to be proven in the EU before ‘bankable’. Small-scale, specialized processes will still develop. More R&D remains to be done for this – but work with specific partners or you could be developing an unsuitable process. Conclusions Slide33:  Shredder Residue (SR) IS NOT THE SAME AS Automotive Shredder Residue (ASR) Oops! Just one more thing….. ●Ooops!! Slide34:  20% Domestic Goods (washing machines, ovens) Waste = “shredder residue” = ‘SR’ Shredder Plant 40% Light Iron (bicycles, fences) 40% End of Life Vehicles (Cars, usually without tyres) Feedstock is not normally just cars Slide35:  Waste = “Automotive Shredder Residue” = ‘ASR’ Shredder Plant 100% End of Life Vehicles (Cars, usually without tyres) (the responsibility of the automotive industry…)

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